Preview: High School Advanced Biology Curriculum Essentials Document

Attention! This is a preview.
Please click here if you would like to read this in our document viewer!


Source: http://www.doksi.net

High School Advanced
Biology
Curriculum Essentials
Document

Boulder Valley School District
Department of Curriculum and Instruction
May 2012

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Introduction
Science Curriculum Essentials in BVSD
In 2009, the Colorado Department of Education published the most recent version of the Colorado Academic
Standards.
This revision of the Boulder Valley School District Science Curriculum had three main goals:
 align with the revised Colorado Academic Standards
 maintain unique elements of our BVSD curriculum that reach beyond the standards
 maintain a viable list of concepts and skills that students should master in each grade level or
course
Inquiry
A new organizational feature of the Colorado Academic Standards is the integration of science inquiry skills
with specific scientific concepts. Instead of having a separate standard for inquiry, the skills associated with
the process of scientific inquiry are embedded in the Evidence Outcomes for each Grade Level Expectation.
In addition, the nature and history of science has been integrated into the Grade Level Expectations under
“Nature of the Discipline”. This approach is echoed by the Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices,
Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas which states that the skills or practices of inquiry and the core ideas
“must be woven together in standards, curricula, instruction, and assessments.”
Scientific inquiry remains a central focus of the revised BVSD Science Curriculum Essentials Documents. The
following definition from the National Science Education Standards serves as the basis for our common
understanding of how scientific inquiry is defined.
Scientific inquiry refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose
explanations based on the evidence derived from their work. Inquiry also refers to the activities of students
in which they develop knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, as well as an understanding of how
scientists study the natural world.
The following points serve to clarify the vision of what inquiry means in BVSD.
Inquiry involves five essential features, which are heavily integrated into the wording of Evidence Outcomes
in the Colorado Academic Standards. Students engaged in scientific inquiry should:
 ask or respond to scientifically oriented questions
 give priority to evidence
 formulate explanations based on evidence
 connect explanations to scientific knowledge
 communicate and justify explanations
(Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards)
Inquiry based science instruction involves a continuum of learning experiences from teacher-led to learner
self-directed activities, including but not limited to hand-on labs. Hence, both a structured assignment
involving reading and written reflection and an open-ended, hands-on investigation could be considered
inquiry as long as they involve the five essential features identified above.
The ultimate goals of inquiry-based instruction are to engage learners, develop their conceptual
understanding of the natural world around them, and to overcome misconceptions in science.
Inquiry-based activities should balance students’ application of content knowledge, creativity and critical
thinking in order to analyze data, solve a problem or address a unique question.

5/7/2012

BVSD Curriculum

2

Source: http://www.doksi.net

High School Advanced Biology Overview
Course Description
In this college preparatory class students will
explore relationships between structure and
function in organisms and the interaction of
cells and organisms with each other and their
environments. Units of study include: use of
microscope, cell structure and function,
biochemistry, microbiology, classification,
human physiology, genetics, evolution, botany
and ecology. Laboratory activities reinforce
concepts and principles presented.
As an advanced course, this course goes
beyond the curriculum expectations of a
standard course offering by increasing the
depth and complexity. Students are engaged in
dynamic, high‐level learning. The pace of an
advanced course may be faster than that of a
“standard” course.

Standard
2. Life Science











Topics at a Glance
Matter and energy in ecosystems
Basic biochemistry
Cell membranes and transport process
Genetics
Evolution
Population and community ecology
Photosynthesis and respiration
Homeostasis and physiology
Cell differentiation and gene expression

Assessments
 10th grade TCAP
 Science ACT
Big Ideas In Advanced Biology (Grade Level Expectations)
1. Matter tends to be cycled within an ecosystem, while energy

is transformed and eventually exits an ecosystem.
2. The size and persistence of populations depend on the interactions
with each other and on the abiotic factors in an ecosystem.
3. Cellular metabolic activities are carried out by biomolecules

produced by organisms.
4. The energy for life primarily derives from the interrelated
processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Photosynthesis transforms the Sun’s light energy into the
chemical energy of molecular bonds. Cellular respiration
allows cells to utilize chemical energy when these bonds are
broken.
5. Cells use the passive and active transport of substances
across membranes to maintain relatively stable intracellular
environments.
6. Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems maintain relatively
stable internal environments, even in the face of changing
external environments.
7. Physical and behavioral characteristics of an organism are
influenced to varying degrees by heritable genes, many of
which encode instructions for the production of proteins.
8. Multicellularity makes possible a division of labor at the
cellular level through the expression of select genes, but not
the entire genome.
9. Evolution occurs as the heritable characteristics of
populations change across generations and can lead
populations to become better adapted to their environment.

5/7/2012

BVSD Curriculum

3

Source: http://www.doksi.net

2. Life Science
Attention! This is a preview.
Please click here if you would like to read this in our document viewer!


Students know and understand the characteristics and structure of living things, the processes of life and how
living things interact with each other and their environment.
Prepared Graduates
The preschool through twelfth-grade concepts and skills that all students who complete the Colorado
education system must master to ensure their success in a postsecondary and workforce setting.
Prepared Graduate Competencies in the Life Science standard:


Analyze the relationship between structure and function in living systems at a variety of
organizational levels, and recognize living systems’ dependence on natural selection



Explain and illustrate with examples how living systems interact with the biotic and
abiotic environment



Analyze how various organisms grow, develop, and differentiate during their lifetimes
based on an interplay between genetics and their environment

 Explain how biological evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of living organisms

5/7/2012

BVSD Curriculum

4

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Content Area: Science - High School Advanced Biology
Standard: 2. Life Science
Prepared Graduates:
Explain and illustrate with examples how living systems interact with the biotic and abiotic environment
GRADE LEVEL EXPECTATION
Concepts and skills students master:
1. Matter tends to be cycled within an ecosystem, while energy is transformed and eventually exits an ecosystem
Evidence Outcomes

21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Students can:
a. Analyze how energy flows through trophic levels
b. Evaluate the potential ecological impacts of a plantbased or meat-based diet
c. Analyze and interpret data from experiments on
ecosystems where matter such as fertilizer has been
added or withdrawn such as through drought
d. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based
scientific explanation showing how ecosystems follow
the laws of conservation of matter and energy
e. Define and distinguish between matter and energy, and
how they are cycled or converted through life processes
f. Describe how carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water
cycles work
g. Use computer simulations to analyze how energy flows
through trophic level
h. Describe how human activity has affected the
biogeochemical cycles and propose possible solutions to
those changes which have had negative impacts

Inquiry Questions:
1. How does a change in abiotic factors influence the stability or
progression of an ecosystem?
2. What happens when the cycling of matter in ecosystems is
disrupted?
3. What energy transformations occur in ecosystems?
4. How does the process of burning carbon-rich fossil fuels
compare to the oxidation of carbon biomolecules in cells?
5. How does a specific change within an ecosystem impact the
ecosystem as a whole?
Relevance and Application:
1. When the matter or energy flow in an ecosystem is disturbed,
there are measurable effects such as the eutrophication of
water.
2. Matter and energy are cycled in natural systems such as
wetlands in both similar and different ways than in humanmanaged systems such as waste water treatment plants.
Nature of Discipline:
1. Address differences between experiments where variables can
be controlled and those where extensive observations on a
highly variable natural system are necessary to determine
what is happening – such as dead zones in the Gulf of Mexico.
2. Share experimental data, and respectfully discuss conflicting
results emulating the practice of scientists.
3. Design ecological experiments in a closed system.

5/7/2012

BVSD Curriculum

5

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Content Area: Science - High School Advanced Biology
Standard: 2. Life Science
Prepared Graduates:
Explain and illustrate with examples how living systems interact with the biotic and abiotic environment
GRADE LEVEL EXPECTATION
Concepts and skills students master:
2. The size and persistence of populations depend on their interactions with each other and on the abiotic factors in an ecosystem
Evidence Outcomes
21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:
a. Analyze and interpret data about the impact of
removing keystone species from an ecosystem or
introducing non-native species into an ecosystem
b. Describe or evaluate communities in terms of primary
and secondary succession as they progress over time
c. Evaluate data and assumptions regarding different
scenarios for future human population growth and
their projected consequences
d. Examine, evaluate, question, and ethically use
information from a variety of sources and media to
investigate ecosystem interactions
e. Discuss the environmental impacts of human
population growth
f. Understand exponential and logistic growth rates and
be able to mathematically determine rate of growth in
a population

Inquiry Questions:
1. How do keystone species maintain balance in ecosystems?
2. How does the introduction of a non-native species influence
the balance of an ecosystem?
3. How is the succession of local organisms altered in an area
that is disturbed or destroyed?
4. What are the interspecific relationships within a community?
5. How does modern agriculture affect biodiversity?
6. To what degree is disturbance a “natural” component of
ecosystem level processes?
7. How does the growth rate within a population change over
time?
Relevance and Application:
1. Earth’s carrying capacity is limited.
2. Exponential human population growth has directly impacted
the biosphere.
3. Exploration of possible alternative resources is vital.
4. Using resources in a sustainable manner allows for continued
use of the resource.
5. The extraction of resources by humans impacts ecosystems.
6. Factors such as climate change, la Niña, and el Niño impact
ecosystems.
Nature of Discipline:
1. Critically evaluate scientific explanations in popular media to
determine if the research methodology and evidence
presented are appropriate and sufficient to support the claims.

5/7/2012

BVSD Curriculum

6

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Content Area: Science - High School Advanced Biology
Standard: 2. Life Science
Prepared Graduates:
Analyze the relationship between structure and function in living systems at a variety of organizational levels, and recognize living
Attention! This is a preview.
Please click here if you would like to read this in our document viewer!


systems’ dependence on natural selection
GRADE LEVEL EXPECTATION
Concepts and skills students master:
3. Cellular metabolic activities are carried out by biomolecules produced by organisms
Evidence Outcomes

21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Students can:
a. Understand life is dependent upon water and its
unique chemical and physical properties
b. Identify biomolecules and their precursors/building
blocks
c. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based
explanation that biomolecules follow the rules of
chemistry
d. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based
explanation for optimum enzyme activity
e. Infer the consequences of suboptimal enzyme function
to organisms – such as altered blood pH or fever using direct or indirect evidence
f. Analyze and interpret data on the body’s utilization of
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins
g. Describe the structure and function of hydrogen bonds
and the importance of these bonds to life

Inquiry Questions:
1. How are rates of enzyme activity in cells affected by various
factors such as pH or temperature?
2. How does one know that enzymes speed up chemical
reactions?
3. What role does water play within living organisms?
4. Why is a diet diverse in macromolecules, minerals, and
vitamins essential to life?
5. How do enzymatic failures result in disease?
6. How are hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis interrelated?

5/7/2012

BVSD Curriculum

Relevance and Application:
1. Apply knowledge of biomolecular structure and activity to make
consumer decisions, especially about diet with respect to
saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, essential and
nonessential amino acids, and simple and complex
carbohydrates.
2. Explain how high temperatures such as a fever may alter
cellular enzyme activity.
3. Recognize that many biomolecules can be made in the lab and
have the exact same structure and function as ones made by
living organisms.
Nature of Discipline:
1. Critically evaluate scientific explanations in popular media to
determine if the research methodology and evidence presented
are appropriate and sufficient to support the claims.

7

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Content Area: Science - High School Advanced Biology
Standard: 2. Life Science
Prepared Graduates:
Analyze the relationship between structure and function in living systems at a variety of organizational levels, and recognize living
systems’ dependence on natural selection
GRADE LEVEL EXPECTATION
Concepts and skills students master:
4. The energy for life primarily derives from the interrelated processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Photosynthesis
transforms the sun’s light energy into the chemical energy of molecular bonds. Cellular respiration allows cells to utilize
chemical energy when these bonds are broken
Evidence Outcomes
21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:
a. Understand the structure and function of chloroplasts
and mitochondria
b. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based
scientific explanation about the optimal environment
for photosynthetic activity
c. Discuss the interdependence of autotrophic and
heterotrophic life forms such as depicting the flow of a
carbon atom from the atmosphere, to a leaf, through
the food chain, and back to the atmosphere
d. Explain how the bonds of carbon compounds are
gradually oxidized to provide energy in the form of
adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which drives many
chemical reactions in the cell
e. Explain the movement of electrons and the role of
electron carriers and enzymes in photosynthesis and
cellular respiration
f. Describe the primary processes of photosynthesis and
cellular respiration

5/7/2012

Inquiry Questions:
1. What variables can be manipulated to change the rate of
photosynthesis?
2. What variables affect the rate of cellular respiration?
3. How does body heat relate to cellular respiration?
4. How do various chemicals prevent ATP formation in the
Electron Transport Chain?
Relevance and Application:
1. Agriculture is important to humans. Most food comes from
agriculture.
2. Various foods such as cheeses, yogurts, alcohol, and breads
are produced by fermentation – anaerobic respiration – that
is carried out by various organisms.
3. The experience of muscle fatigue after intense exercise is
related to anaerobic respiration in muscle cells.
4. Primary producers such as marine phytoplankton and
rainforest flora play an integral role in sustaining all life on
Earth.
5. Biomimicry can potentially be used to meet human energy
demands.
Nature of Discipline:
1. Recognize that the current understanding of photosynthesis
and cellular respiration has developed over time.
2. Critically evaluate models for photosynthesis and cellular
respiration.

BVSD Curriculum

8

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Content Area: Science - High School Advanced Biology
Standard: 2. Life Science
Prepared Graduates:
Analyze the relationship between structure and function in living systems at a variety of organizational levels, and recognize living
systems’ dependence on natural selection
GRADE LEVEL EXPECTATION
Concepts and skills students master:
5. Cells use passive and active transport of substances across membranes to maintain relatively stable intracellular environments
Evidence Outcomes

21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Students can:
a. Diagram the cell membrane schematically,
demonstrating understanding of all structures and
their functions (especially receptor proteins as targets
of hormones, neurotransmitters, or drugs that serve
as active links between intra and extracellular
environments)
b. Analyze various methods for substance transport
across cell membranes with regard to rate of
transport and energy requirements
c. Compare organisms that live in freshwater and
marine environments, and identify the challenges of
osmotic regulation for these organisms
d. Use tools to gather, view, analyze, and interpret data
produced during scientific investigations that involve
passive and active transport
e. Use computer simulations and models to analyze cell
transport mechanisms
f. Describe the role of cell transport in maintaining
Attention! This is a preview.
Please click here if you would like to read this in our document viewer!


turgor pressure in plants

Inquiry Questions:
1. What variables affect the rate of transport across a membrane?
2. Why is it important that cell membranes are selectively
permeable?
3. How does cell transport maintain turgor pressure?
4. How does the ratio of surface area to cellular volume limit cell
size?
Relevance and Application:
1. Osmotically balanced solutions such as intravenous and
ophthalmic solutions are critical in medical settings.
2. Drugs target receptor proteins such as hormones and
neurotransmitters in membranes and mimic the action of
natural signals there.
3. Technology, such as dialysis, can replace transport processes
normally associated with the kidneys.
4. Membrane potentials are maintained via sodium potassium
pumps allowing for action potentials in activities such as:
muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and
cotransport.
Nature of Discipline:
1. Ask testable questions and make a falsifiable hypothesis about
how cells transport materials into and out of the cell and use an
inquiry approach to find the answer.
2. Emphasize the use of ethical practices in science such as: peer
review; factual reporting of methods and outcomes; publicizing
work; and sharing a lens of professional skepticism.

5/7/2012

BVSD Curriculum

9

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Content Area: Science - High School Advanced Biology
Standard: 2. Life Science
Prepared Graduates:
Analyze the relationship between structure and function in living systems at a variety of organizational levels, and recognize living
systems’ dependence on natural selection
GRADE LEVEL EXPECTATION
Concepts and skills students master:
6. Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems maintain relatively stable internal environments, even in the face of changing
external environments
Evidence Outcomes
21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:
a. Discuss the hierarchal organization of life
b. Discuss how two or more body systems interact to
promote health for the whole organism
c. Analyze and interpret data related to the
effectiveness of feedback loops in maintaining
homeostasis
d. Distinguish between causation and correlation in
epidemiological data regarding disrupted homeostasis
in particular diseases (such as diabetes and cancer)
e. Use computer simulations and models of homeostatic
mechanisms
f. Describe the use of mitotic cell cycle in growth,
development, and repair within organisms
g. Give examples of negative and positive feedback
loops
h. Compare and contrast how viruses and bacteria result
in disease

Inquiry Questions:
1. How can an experiment be designed and conducted to test for
homeostasis during exercise and other body activities?
2. Where and when are negative versus positive feedback loops
necessary for maintaining homeostasis?

5/7/2012

BVSD Curriculum

Relevance and Application:
1. The disruption of homeostatic mechanisms may lead to disease,
and if severe enough, death.
2. Body systems are impacted by health and disease. For example,
atherosclerotic plaque inside a blood vessel can result in a heart
attack.
3. The regulatory responses of autoimmune diseases such as Type
I diabetes, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis are
different than those of healthy immune systems.
Nature of Discipline:
1. Research and present findings about the results of dietary
deficiencies or excesses.
2. Research and present findings about how medical problems that
impact life span have changed throughout history due to altered
lifestyles and advances in medicine.
3. Differentiate between scientific evidence evaluated by the Food
and Drug Administration (FDA) for drug approval and anecdotal
evidence shared among individuals or in magazines/newspapers
that a food or supplement is effective for a given problem.

10

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Content Area: Science - High School Advanced Biology
Standard: 2. Life Science
Prepared Graduates:
Analyze how various organisms grow, develop, and differentiate during their lifetimes based on an interplay between genetics and
their environment
GRADE LEVEL EXPECTATION
Concepts and skills students master:
7. Physical and behavioral characteristics of an organism are influenced to varying degrees by heritable genes, many of which
encode instructions for the production of proteins
Evidence Outcomes
21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:
a. Analyze and interpret evidence that genes are
functional portions of DNA
b. Analyze and interpret data on the processes of DNA
replication, transcription, translation, and gene
regulation, and show how these processes are
common to all organisms
c. Recognize that proteins carry out most cell activities
and mediate the effect of genes on physical and
behavioral traits in an organism
d. Recognize that variation is a result of sexual
reproduction due to the meiotic processes of
independent assortment of chromosomes, crossing
over, and mutations
e. Use examples to explain how genetic mutations can
benefit, harm, or have neutral effects on an organism
f. Describe and predict patterns of inheritance

Inquiry Questions:
1. Why is it possible for a cell from one species to express genes
from another species as in genetically modified organisms?
2. Why are human offspring not genetic clones of their parents or
siblings?
3. How is it possible to distinguish nature and nurture?
4. Why do some genetic conditions skip generations?
Relevance and Application:
1. Recombinant DNA technology has many uses in society such as
the development of new medical therapies and increased
production of drugs.
2. Selective breeding differs from genetic modification, yet shares
a common goal.
3. There are benefits and risks to having genetically modified
organisms in the food supply.
4. DNA replication errors may affect phenotype.
Nature of Discipline:
1. Recognize that private and public laboratories perform research
on genetically modified organisms. Discuss the ethical
implications and the funding of such research.
2. Understand that scientists work from the assumption that basic
principles for genetics apply to all organisms.

5/7/2012

BVSD Curriculum

11

Source: http://www.doksi.net
Attention! This is a preview.
Please click here if you would like to read this in our document viewer!



Content Area: Science - High School Advanced Biology
Standard: 2. Life Science
Prepared Graduates:
Analyze how various organisms grow, develop, and differentiate during their lifetimes based on an interplay between genetics and
their environment
GRADE LEVEL EXPECTATION
Concepts and skills students master:
8. Multicellularity makes possible a division of labor at the cellular level through the expression of select genes, but not the entire
genome
Evidence Outcomes
21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies
Students can:
a. Develop, communicate, and justify a scientific
explanation of how cells differentiate to form
specialized tissues due to the expression of some
genes and not others
b. Understand that the role of the majority of eukaryotic
DNA is under investigation, but be able to analyze and
interpret data showing that most eukaryotic DNA does
not actively code for proteins within cells
c. Be able to explain, using evidence, that the principles
of cloning are based upon the majority of an
organism’s cells maintaining a full complement of the
genome
d. Analyze and utilize data on medical conditions
supporting claims that genetic mutations and cancer
are brought about by exposure to environmental
agents (such as toxins, radiation, or smoking)
e. Understand that an organism’s environment can
determine when a gene is expressed, and this occurs
through multiple mechanisms

Inquiry Questions:
1. Why is it possible to clone a whole organism from an
undifferentiated cell?
2. Why do researchers seek stem cells for the development of
potential treatments for medical conditions?
Relevance and Application:
1. Stem cells may be used to treat medical conditions such as
diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, torn cartilage, and damaged
hearts.
2. Recent research and insights into DNA and genes have
changed aspects of society such as: the criminal justice
system, food supply, and medical treatments.
Nature of Discipline:
1. Debate the advantages and disadvantages of bioengineering
(cloning and genetically modifying organisms) in the food
supply.
2. Debate the ethical and political issues associated with stem cell
research and how these affect research.

5/7/2012

BVSD Curriculum

12

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Content Area: Science - High School Advanced Biology
Standard: 2. Life Science
Prepared Graduates:
Explain how biological evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of living organisms
GRADE LEVEL EXPECTATION
Concepts and skills students master:
9. Evolution occurs as the heritable characteristics of populations change across generations and can lead populations to become
better adapted to their environment
Evidence Outcomes

21st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies

Students can:
a. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based
scientific explanation for how Earth’s diverse life forms
evolved from a common ancestor
b. Analyze and interpret multiple lines of evidence such as
molecular studies, comparative anatomy,
biogeography, the fossil record and embryology
supporting the idea that all species are related by
common ancestry
c. Analyze and interpret data suggesting speciation can
occur as a result of gradual or discrete bursts of rapid
changes over geologic time
d. Analyze and interpret data on how evolution can be
driven by three key components of natural selection:
heritability, genetic variation, and differential survival
and reproduction
e. Generate a model, such as an evolutionary tree,
showing how a group of organisms most likely diverged
from a common ancestor
f. Describe the events resulting in the structure of
modern cells through the endosymbiotic process

Inquiry Questions:
1. How do subtle differences among closely related fossil species
provide evidence of environmental change and speciation?
2. How does studying extinct species contribute to our current
understanding of evolution?
3. How can patterns of characteristics shared among organisms
be used to categorize lifes diversity according to relatedness?
4. How can you use a Hardy-Weinberg equation to determine
direction and speed of evolution in a population?
Relevance and Application:
1. Resistance can occur when antibiotics and pesticides are
overused or abused.
2. Human activities can generate selective pressures on
organisms, such as breeding new kinds of dogs and improving
livestock.
3. Species undergo natural selection due to environmental
pressures.
Nature of Discipline:
1. Understand that all scientific knowledge is subject to new
findings and that reproducible, corroborated, and converging
lines of data yield a scientific theory.
2. Differentiate among the use of the terms “hypothesis,”
“theory,” and “law” as they are defined and used in science
compared to the usage of these terms in other disciplines or
everyday use.

5/7/2012

BVSD Curriculum

13

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Prepared Graduate Competencies in Science
The preschool through twelfth-grade concepts and skills that all students who complete the Colorado
education system must master to ensure their success in a postsecondary and workforce setting.
Prepared Graduates:


Observe, explain, and predict natural phenomena governed by Newtons laws of motion,
acknowledging the limitations of their application to very small or very fast objects



Apply an understanding of atomic and molecular structure to explain the properties of matter, and
predict outcomes of chemical and nuclear reactions



Apply an understanding that energy exists in various forms, and its transformation and conservation
occur in processes that are predictable and measurable



Analyze the relationship between structure and function in living systems at a variety of
organizational levels, and recognize living systems’ dependence on natural selection



Explain and illustrate with examples how living systems interact with the biotic and abiotic
environment



Analyze how various organisms grow, develop, and differentiate during their lifetimes based on an
interplay between genetics and their environment



Explain how biological evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of living organisms
Attention! This is a preview.
Please click here if you would like to read this in our document viewer!





Describe and interpret how Earths geologic history and place in space are relevant to our
understanding of the processes that have shaped our planet



Evaluate evidence that Earth’s geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere interact as a
complex system



Describe how humans are dependent on the diversity of resources provided by Earth and Sun



Engage in scientific inquiry by asking or responding to scientifically oriented questions, collecting and
analyzing data, giving priority to evidence, formulating explanations based on evidence, connecting
explanations to scientific knowledge, and communicating and justifying explanations.

5/7/2012

BVSD Curriculum

14

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Standard
High School
1. Physical
Science

Grade Level Expectation
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

2. Life Science

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

7.

8.
9.

5/7/2012

Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation describe the relationships
among forces acting on and between objects, their masses, and
changes in their motion – but have limitations
Matter has definite structure that determines characteristic physical
and chemical properties
Matter can change form through chemical or nuclear reactions abiding
by the laws of conservation of mass and energy
Atoms bond in different ways to form molecules and compounds that
have definite properties
Energy exists in many forms such as mechanical, chemical, electrical,
radiant, thermal, and nuclear, that can be quantified and
experimentally determined
When energy changes form, it is neither created not destroyed;
however, because some is necessarily lost as heat, the amount of
energy available to do work decreases
Matter tends to be cycled within an ecosystem, while energy is
transformed and eventually exits an ecosystem
The size and persistence of populations depend on their interactions
with each other and on the abiotic factors in an ecosystem
Cellular metabolic activities are carried out by biomolecules produced
by organisms
The energy for life primarily derives from the interrelated processes of
photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Photosynthesis transforms the
sun’s light energy into the chemical energy of molecular bonds.
Cellular respiration allows cells to utilize chemical energy when these
bonds are broken.
Cells use the passive and active transport of substances across
membranes to maintain relatively stable intracellular environments
Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems maintain relatively stable
internal environments, even in the face of changing external
environments
Physical and behavioral characteristics of an organism are influenced
to varying degrees by heritable genes, many of which encode
instructions for the production of proteins
Multicellularity makes possible a division of labor at the cellular level
through the expression of select genes, but not the entire genome
Evolution occurs as the heritable characteristics of populations change
across generations and can lead populations to become better adapted
to their environment

BVSD Curriculum

15

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Standard
Grade Level Expectation
High School (continued)
3. Earth Systems
1. The history of the universe, solar system and Earth can be inferred
Science
from evidence left from past events
2. As part of the solar system, Earth interacts with various
extraterrestrial forces and energies such as gravity, solar phenomena,
electromagnetic radiation, and impact events that influence the
planet’s geosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere in a variety of ways
3. The theory of plate tectonics helps to explain geological, physical, and
geographical features of Earth
4. Climate is the result of energy transfer among interactions of the
atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere
5. There are costs, benefits, and consequences of exploration,
development, and consumption of renewable and nonrenewable
resources
6. The interaction of Earths surface with water, air, gravity, and
biological activity causes physical and chemical changes
7. Natural hazards have local, national and global impacts such as
volcanoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, and thunderstorms
Eighth Grade
3. Earth Systems
1. Weather is a result of complex interactions of Earths atmosphere, land
Science
and water, that are driven by energy from the sun, and can be
predicted and described through complex models
2. Earth has a variety of climates defined by average temperature,
precipitation, humidity, air pressure, and wind that have changed over
time in a particular location
3. The solar system is comprised of various objects that orbit the Sun
and are classified based on their characteristics
4. The relative positions and motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun can be
used to explain observable effects such as seasons, eclipses, and Moon
phases
5. Major geologic events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, midocean ridges, and mountain formation are associated with plate
boundaries and attributed to plate motions
6. Geologic time, history, and changing life forms are indicated by fossils
and successive sedimentation, folding, faulting, and uplifting of layers
of sedimentary rock
7. Complex interrelationships exist between Earth’s structure and natural
processes that over time are both constructive and destructive
8. Water on Earth is distributed and circulated through oceans, glaciers,
rivers, ground water, and the atmosphere
9. Earth’s natural resources provide the foundation for human society’s
physical needs. Many natural resources are nonrenewable on human
timescales, while others can be renewed or recycled

5/7/2012

BVSD Curriculum

16

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Standard
Seventh Grade
2. Life Science

Grade Level Expectation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Sixth Grade
1. Physical
Science

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.

5/7/2012

Individual organisms with certain traits are more likely than others to
survive and have offspring in a specific environment
The human body is composed of atoms, molecules, cells, tissues,
organs, and organ systems that have specific functions and
interactions
Cells are the smallest unit of life that can function independently and
perform all the necessary functions of life
Attention! This is a preview.
Please click here if you would like to read this in our document viewer!


Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are important processes by
which energy is acquired and utilized by organisms
Multiple lines of evidence show the evolution of organisms over
geologic time
Human activities can deliberately or inadvertently alter ecosystems
and their resiliency
Organisms reproduce and transmit genetic information (genes) to
offspring, which influences individuals’ traits in the next generation
Changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of
individual organisms, populations, and entire species
Organisms interact with each other and their environment in various
ways that create a flow of energy and cycling of matter in an
ecosystem
Identify and calculate the direction and magnitude of forces that act on
an object, and explain the results in the object’s change of motion
There are different forms of energy, and those forms of energy can be
changed from one form to another – but total energy is conserved
Distinguish between physical and chemical changes, noting that mass
is conserved during any change
Recognize that waves such as electromagnetic, sound, seismic, and
water have common characteristics and unique properties
Mixtures of substances can be separated based on their properties
such as solubility, boiling points, magnetic properties, and densities
All matter is made of atoms, which are far too small to see directly
through a light microscope. Elements have unique atoms and thus,
unique properties. Atoms themselves are made of even smaller
particles
Atoms may stick together in well-defined molecules or be packed
together in large arrangements. Different arrangements of atoms into
groups compose all substances.
The physical characteristics and changes of solid, liquid, and gas states
can be explained using the particulate model
Distinguish among, explain, and apply the relationships among mass,
weight, volume, and density

BVSD Curriculum

17

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Standard
Fifth Grade
1. Physical
Science
2. Life Science
3. Earth Systems
Science

Grade Level Expectation
1.

1.
2.
1.
2.
3.

Fourth Grade
1. Physical
Science
2. Life Science

1.
1.
2.

3.
3. Earth Systems
Science
Third Grade
1. Physical
Science
2. Life Science
3. Earth Systems
Science
Second Grade
1. Physical
Science
2. Life Science

1.

1.
1.
1.

1.
1.
2.

3. Earth Systems
Science

5/7/2012

1.

Mixtures of matter can be separated regardless of how they were
created; all weight and mass of the mixture are the same as the sum
of weight and mass of its parts
All organisms have structures and systems with separate functions
Human body systems have basic structures, functions, and needs
Earth and sun provide a diversity of renewable and nonrenewable
resources
Earth’s surface changes constantly through a variety of processes and
forces
Weather conditions change because of the uneven heating of Earth’s
surface by the Sun’s energy. Weather changes are measured by
differences in temperature, air pressure, wind and water in the
atmosphere and type of precipitation
Energy comes in many forms such as light, heat, sound, magnetic,
chemical, and electrical
All living things share similar characteristics, but they also have
differences that can be described and classified
Comparing fossils to each other or to living organisms reveals features
of prehistoric environments and provides information about organisms
today
There is interaction and interdependence between and among living
and nonliving components of systems
Earth is part of the solar system, which includes the Sun, Moon, and
other bodies that orbit the Sun in predictable patterns that lead to
observable paths of objects in the sky as seen from Earth
Matter exists in different states such as solids, liquids, and gases and
can change from one state to another by heating and cooling
The duration and timing of life cycle events such as reproduction and
longevity vary across organisms and species
Earth’s materials can be broken down and/or combined into different
materials such as rocks, minerals, rock cycle, formation of soil, and
sand – some of which are usable resources for human activity
Changes in speed or direction of motion are caused by forces such as
pushes and pulls.
Organisms depend on their habitat’s nonliving parts to satisfy their
needs
Each plant or animal has different structures or behaviors that serve
different functions
Weather and the changing seasons impact the environment and
organisms such as humans, plants, and other animals

BVSD Curriculum

18

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Standard
First Grade
1. Physical
Science
2. Life Science

Grade Level Expectation
1.

Solids and liquids have unique properties that distinguish them

1.

Offspring have characteristics that are similar to but not exactly like
their parents’ characteristics
An organism is a living thing that has physical characteristics to help it
survive
Earth’s materials can be compared and classified based on their
properties

2.
3. Earth Systems
Science
Kindergarten
1. Physical
Science

1.

1.
2.

2. Life Science

1.

3. Earth Systems
Science
Preschool
1. Physical
Science
2. Life Science

1.

3. Earth Systems
Science

1.
2.
1.
2.
1.
2.

5/7/2012

Objects can move in a variety of ways that can be described by speed
and direction
Objects can be sorted by physical properties, which can be observed
and measured
Organisms can be described and sorted by their physical
characteristics
The sun provides heat and light to Earth

Objects have properties and characteristics
There are cause-and-effect relationships in everyday experiences
Living things have characteristics and basic needs
Living things develop in predictable patterns
Earth’s materials have properties and characteristics that affect how
we use those materials
Events such as night, day, the movement of objects in the sky,
weather, and seasons have patterns

BVSD Curriculum

19

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Academic Vocabulary
Standard 2: abiotic, action potential, active transport, adaptation, aerobic respiration, amino acid,
anaerobic respiration, anatomy, anecdotal evidence, asexual reproduction, ATP (adenosine triphosphate),
autoimmune disease, autotroph, bias, binary fission, biodiversity, bioengineering, biogeography, biology,
Attention! This is a preview.
Please click here if you would like to read this in our document viewer!


biomimicry, biomolecule, biosphere, body system, brain, carbohydrate, carcinogen, carrying capacity,
causation, cell, cell division, cell membrane, cellular respiration, characteristic, chloroplast, chromosome,
classification, circulatory system, common ancestor, communicable disease, community, comparative
anatomy, complex carbohydrate, conservation of energy, conservation of matter, constant, consumer,
controlled experiment, correlation, cotransport, crossing over, cycle, data, decomposer, decomposition,
dependent variable, development, dialysis, differentiate, digestive system, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid),
DNA replication, DNA transcription, DNA translation, dominant, ecosystem, el Niño, embryo, embryology,
encode, endosymbiosis, energy transformation, environment, enzyme, epidemiological, error, eukaryote,
eutrophication, evidence, evolution, experiment, explanation, exponential growth, falsifiable,
fermentation, food chain, food web, fossil, fruit, function, gene, gene expression, genetically modified
organism, genetics, genome, genotype, germination, habitat, heart, heredity, heritable, heterotroph,
hierarchical, homeostasis, hormone, hypothesis, independent assortment, independent variable,
inheritance, internal balance, interspecific, intestines, intracellular, intravenous, invertebrate,
investigation, keystone species, kidneys, law, life cycle, lipid, liver, lungs, macromolecule, macroscopic,
marine, mediate, meiosis, membrane, metabolic, methodology, microscopic, mitochondria, mitosis,
molecule, multicellular, muscular system, mutation, natural selection, negative feedback,
neurotransmitter, niche, non-native, nucleic acid, nutrient, ophthalmic, optimum, organism, organ, organ
system, osmosis, osmotic regulation, osmotically balanced, parasite, passive transport, permeable,
persistence, pH, phenotype, photosynthesis, phytoplankton, pollination, population, positive feedback,
primary producer, primary succession, prokaryote, protein, qualitative, quantitative, receptor, recessive,
recombinant DNA, reproduction, research-based evidence, RNA (ribonucleic acid), saturated fatty acid,
selective breeding, selectively permeable, sexual reproduction, secondary succession, skepticism, simple
carbohydrate, speciation, species, stem cell, structure, symbiotic, system, testable question, theory,
tissue, trophic level, turgor pressure, unicellular, unsaturated fatty acid, wetlands,
Word
Abiotic
Action potential
Active transport
Adaptation
Aerobic respiration
Amino Acid
Anaerobic
respiration
Anatomy
Anecdotal evidence
Asexual
reproduction

5/7/2012

Definition
not associated with or derived from living organisms; abiotic factors in an
environment include such items as sunlight, temperature, wind patterns, and
precipitation
a short-lasting event in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell
rapidly rises and falls, following a consistent trajectory
the movement of a substance against its concentration gradient (from low to
high concentration), which requires energy
a change by which an organism becomes better suited to its environment
the metabolic process that uses oxygen to break down food and release energy
of a class of about twenty organic compounds which form the basic
constituents of proteins and contain both acid and amine groups
the metabolic processes by which organisms degrade organic compounds in the
absence of O2 to yield energy
the science of the shape and structure of organisms and their parts
short account of a particular incident or event that is not scientific or is hearsay
and therefore considered unreliable
reproduction without the fusion of gametes

BVSD Curriculum

20

Source: http://www.doksi.net

ATP (adenosine
triphosphate)
Autoimmune disease
Autotroph
Bias
Binary fission
Biodiversity
Bioengineering
Biogeochemical
Biogeography
Biology
Biomimicry
Biomolecule
Biosphere
Body system
Brain

Carbohydrate

Carcinogen
Carrying capacity
Causation
Cell
Cell division
Cell membrane
Cellular respiration
Characteristic

5/7/2012

An adenosine-derived nucleotide, C10H16N5O13P3, that contains high-energy
phosphate bonds and is used to transport energy to cells for biochemical
processes, including muscle contraction and enzymatic metabolism, through its
hydrolysis to ADP
an immune system response to antigens in a person’s own tissue
an organism that is able to make its own food
statistical sampling or testing error caused by systematically favoring some
outcomes over others
a method of asexual reproduction, involves the splitting of a parent cell into
two approximately equal parts
the variability among living organisms on the earth, including the variability
within and between species and within and between ecosystems
the use of biological processes and organisms in service to humans such as to
produce drugs and foodstuffs or to recycle waste
Relating to the relationship between the geochemistry of a region and the
animal and plant life in that region
the relationship between organisms and the geography of the region where the
organisms occur
the scientific study of living organisms
the examination of nature, its models, systems, processes, and elements to
emulate or take inspiration from in order to solve human problems sustainably
any organic molecule that is produced by a living organism: proteins,
carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids
the part of the earth and its atmosphere in which living organisms exist or that
is capable of supporting life
a group of organs or structures within the body that work together to perform
one or more specific functions
the portion of the vertebrate central nervous system that is enclosed within the
cranium, continuous with the spinal cord, and composed of gray matter and
white matter. It is the primary center for the regulation and control of bodily
activities, receiving and interpreting sensory impulses, and transmitting
information to the muscles and body organs. It is also the seat of
consciousness, thought, memory, and emotion
any of a group of organic compounds that includes sugars, starches, celluloses,
and gums and serves as a major energy source in the diet of animals. These
Attention! This is a preview.
Please click here if you would like to read this in our document viewer!


compounds are produced by photosynthetic plants and contain only carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen, usually in the ratio 1:2:1
a cancer‐causing substance or agent
the maximum population size that can be supported by the available resources
of a given area
the act that produces an effect, where the effect is understood to be a
consequence of the act
the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism
the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form
daughter cells
the semipermeable, lipid bi-layer membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a
cell
the series of metabolic processes by which living cells produce energy through
the oxidation of organic substances
a feature that helps to identify, tell apart, or describe recognizably; a
distinguishing trait

BVSD Curriculum

21

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Chloroplast
Chromosome
Classification
Circulatory system
Common ancestor
Communicable disease
Community
Comparative anatomy
Complex carbohydrate
Conservation of
energy
Conservation of
matter
Constant
Consumer
Controlled experiment
Correlation
Cotransport
Crossing over
Cycle
Data
Decomposer
Decomposition
Dehydration synthesis
Dependent variable
Development
Dialysis

Differentiate
Digestive system
DNA
(Deoxyribonucleic
Acid)

5/7/2012

a structure in algal and green plant cells which contains chlorophyll and in
which photosynthesis takes place
a thread‐like structure found in the nuclei of most living cells, carrying genetic
information in the form of genes
the systematic grouping of organisms into categories on the basis of
evolutionary or structural relationships between them; taxonomy
the body system that circulates blood through the body, consisting of the heart
and blood vessels
an organism (usually extinct) that is an ancestor of two different organisms
(extinct or modern) which are not ancestors of each other
a disease that can be communicated from one person to another
a group of interdependent plants or animals growing or living together or
occupying a specified habitat
the study of anatomical features of animals of different species
molecules formed of repeating units of either mono saccharides (single sugars)
or disaccharides (double sugars) joined together by glycosidic bonds
a principle stating that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant
regardless of changes within the system
a principle in classical physics stating that the total mass of an isolated system
is unchanged by interaction of its parts
an experimental or theoretical condition, factor, or quantity that does not vary
or that is regarded as invariant in specified circumstances
an organism that cannot make its own food and must eat in order to survive
an experiment that isolates the effect of one variable on a system by holding
constant all variables but the one under observation
a measurable and predictable relationship
the simultaneous or sequential passive transfer of molecules or ions across
biological membranes in a fixed ratio
a process occurring during meiosis wherein two chromosomes pair up and
exchange segments of their genetic material
a series of events that are regularly repeated in the same order
factual information (as measurements or statistics) used as a basis for
reasoning, discussion, or calculation
an organism that breaks down organic materials in the environment
breakdown or decay of organic materials
a type of condensation reaction in which monomers join together into polymers
while losing water molecules
the observed or measured variable in an experiment or study whose changes
are determined by the presence of one or more independent variables
the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological
unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple
to a more complex level
the separation of smaller molecules from larger molecules or of dissolved
substances from colloidal particles in a solution by selective diffusion through a
semipermeable membrane
to change during development from a generalized form to more specialized
forms
body system consisting of the alimentary canal and digestive glands and
responsible for the ingestion, digestion, and absorption of food
a substance which is present in the cell nuclei of nearly all living organisms and
is the carrier of genetic information

BVSD Curriculum

22

Source: http://www.doksi.net

DNA replication
DNA transcription
DNA translation
Dominant
Ecosystem
El Niño

Electron transport
chain
Embryo
Embryology
Encode
Endosymbiosis
Energy transformation
Environment
Enzyme
Epidemiological
Error
Eukaryote
Eutrophication
Evidence
Evolution
Experiment
Explanation
Exponential growth

Falsifiable

5/7/2012

the process of copying DNA that starts with one double-stranded DNA molecule
and produces two identical copies of the molecule
the process of creating an equivalent RNA copy of a sequence of DNA
the first stage of protein biosynthesis, during which messenger RNA (mRNA)
produced in transcription is decoded to produce a specific amino acid chain
an allele that produces the same phenotypic effect whether inherited with a
homozygous or heterozygous allele
a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment
an irregularly occurring and complex series of climatic changes affecting the
equatorial Pacific region and beyond every few years, characterized by the
appearance of unusually warm, nutrient-poor water off northern Peru and
Ecuador, typically in late December
in respiration, a series of carriers through which electrons of initial high energy
are converted to a lower energy state with the capture of the released energy
as ATP; occurs in the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells
an organism in its early stages of development, especially before it has reached
a distinctively recognizable form
the branch of biology and medicine concerned with the study of embryos and
their development
action of a gene that provides the instructions for making a protein
relationship in which an organism lives within the body or cells of another
organism
to convert energy from one form to another
the complex of physical, chemical, and biotic factors (as climate, soil, and living
Attention! This is a preview.
Please click here if you would like to read this in our document viewer!


things) that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately
determine its form
a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring
about a specific biochemical reaction
Relating to epidemiology -- the branch of science that deals with the study of
the causes, distribution, and control of disease in populations
difference between a computed or measured value and a true or theoretically
correct value
an organism, either unicellular or multicellular, in which the nucleus of the cell
is bound by a membrane
excessive richness of nutrients in a lake or other body of water, frequently due
to runoff from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life
information acquired through objective experience
a gradual process in which something changes into a different form
a test under controlled conditions that is made to examine the validity of a
hypothesis or determine the efficacy of something previously untried
a statement based on scientific evidence and logical argument about causes
and effects or relationships between variables
growth of an organism, a part of an organism, or a population of organisms
which, when graphed, produces an exponential or logarithmic curve. Such a
rate occurs, for example: during the exponential growth phase, when a
population of bacterial (or other) cells divide at a constant rate so that the total
number of cells doubles with each division
the possibility that an assertion could be shown untrue

BVSD Curriculum

23

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Fermentation
Food chain
Food pyramid

Food web
Fossil
Fruit
Function
Gene
Gene expression

Genetically modified
organism
Genetics
Genome
Genotype

Germination
Habitat
Hardy-Weinberg
Equation

Heart

Heredity
Heritable
Heterotroph
Hierarchical
Homeostasis
Hormone

5/7/2012

an anaerobic (without oxygen) cellular process in which organic foods are
converted into simpler compounds, and chemical energy (ATP) is produced
a succession of organisms in an ecological community that constitutes a
continuation of food energy from one organism to another as each usually
consumes a lower member and in turn is preyed upon by a higher member
a graphic representation of the structure of a food chain, depicted as a pyramid
having a broad base formed by producers and tapering to a point formed by end
consumers. Between successive levels, total biomass decreases as energy is lost
from the system.
a complex of interrelated food chains in an ecological community
a remnant or trace of an organism of a past geologic age such as a skeleton or leaf
the ripened ovary or ovaries of a seed‐bearing plant
the role or purpose of a structure
hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies a specific location on
a chromosome and determines a particular characteristic in an organism
The conversion of the information from the gene into mRNA via transcription and
then to protein via translation resulting in the phenotypic manifestation of the
gene. Gene expression of the nonprotein coding genes such as the rRNA and tRNA
genes, involves only transcription and not translation.
an organism whose genome has been altered by the technique of genetic
modification
the branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of
hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar
or related organisms
the complete set of genes in an organism
a set of alleles that determines the expression of a particular characteristic or trait
; if a gene for a particular character or trait exists in two allelic forms(e.g. A and
a), there could be three possible genotypes for a particular character: AA, Aa, and
aa.
the beginning of development of a seed after a period of dormancy or rest
the area or environment where an organism or ecological community normally
lives or occurs
equation describing the frequency of alleles is a population in which the frequency
of alleles is at equilibrium: In the simplest case of a single locus with two alleles:
the dominant allele is denoted A and the recessive a and their frequencies are
denoted by p and q; freq(A) = p; freq(a) = q; p + q = 1. If the population is in
equilibrium, then we will have freq(AA) = p2 for the AA homozygotes in the
population, freq(aa) = q2 for the aa homozygotes, and freq(Aa) = 2pq for the
heterozygotes.
the chambered muscular organ in vertebrates that pumps blood received from the
veins into the arteries, thereby maintaining the flow of blood through the entire
circulatory
system
genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring
able to be inherited
an organism that consumes other organisms or the products of other organisms as
food
classified or arranged according to various criteria into successive ranks or grades
the ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by
adjusting its physiological processes
a regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids
such as blood or sap to stimulate specific cells or tissues into action

BVSD Curriculum

24

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Hydrolysis

Hypothesis
Independent
assortment
Independent
variable
Inheritance
Internal balance
Interspecific
Intestines

Intracellular
Intravenous
Invertebrate
Investigation
Keystone species
Kidneys

La Niña

Law
Life cycle
Lipid
Liver

Logistic growth

Lungs

Macromolecule
Macroscopic
Marine
Mediate

5/7/2012

a chemical process in which a certain molecule is split into two parts by the
addition of a molecule of water. One fragment of the parent molecule gains a
hydrogen ion (H+) from the additional water molecule. The other group collects the
remaining hydroxyl group (OH−).
a tentative explanation for an observation
the random arrangement and separation of chromosomes during meiosis, giving all
possible combinations in equal frequency. This process explains the random
distribution in the gametes of genes or homologous chromosomes.
a manipulated variable in an experiment or study whose presence or degree
determines the change in the dependent variable
genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring
balance within an organism of its internal environment
Attention! This is a preview.
Please click here if you would like to read this in our document viewer!


referring to interactions between individuals or populations of two or more different
species
the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in
humans and other mammals, consisting of two segments, the small intestine and
the large intestine
occurring or existing within the cell
the administration of substances, such as medication, directly into the veins
an animal such as an insect or mollusk
a detailed inquiry or systematic examination
a species that has a disproportionate effect on its environment relative to its
biomass. Such species affect many other organisms in an ecosystem and help to
determine the types and numbers of various other species in a community
pair of organs in the dorsal region of the vertebrate abdominal cavity functioning to
maintain proper water and electrolyte balance, regulate acid‐base concentration,
and filter the blood of metabolic wastes, which are then excreted as urine
a cooling of the water in the equatorial Pacific, which occurs at irregular intervals
and is associated with widespread changes in weather patterns complementary to
those of El Niño, but less extensive and damaging in their effects
a phenomenon of nature that has been shown to invariably occur whenever certain
conditions exist or are met
the course of developmental changes in an organism from fertilized zygote to
maturity when another zygote can be produced
any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and
are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents
a large, reddish‐brown, glandular vertebrate organ located in the upper right
portion of the abdominal cavity that secretes bile and is active in the formation of
certain blood
Growth rates regulated by internal and external factors that establish an
equilibrium with environmental resources. When graphed these growth rates
appear as an S curve.
the two spongy, saclike respiratory organs in most vertebrates, occupying the
chest cavity together with the heart and functioning to remove carbon dioxide from
the blood and provide it with oxygen
a very large molecule, such as a polymer or protein, consisting of many smaller
structural units linked together
large enough to be perceived or examined by the unaided eye
of or pertaining to the oceans
to cause or effect through an indirect medium or agent

BVSD Curriculum

25

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Meiosis

Membrane
Membrane potential
Metabolic
Methodology
Microscopic
Mitochondria

Mitosis
Molecule
Multicellular
Muscular system
Mutation
Natural selection

Negative feedback

Neurotransmitter
Nervous system
Niche
Non-native
Nucleic acid

Nutrient
Ophthalmic
Organ
Organ system

5/7/2012

the process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the
number of chromosomes in reproductive cells from diploid to haploid, leading
to the production of
a thin layer of tissue covering a surface or lining a cavity, space or organ
the voltage difference (or electrical potential difference) between the interior
and exterior of a cell
of, relating to, or resulting from metabolism -- the chemical processes
occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the
maintenance of life
means, technique, or procedure; method
too small to be seen by the unaided eye but large enough to be studied under
a microscope
spherical or elongated organelles (bound by a double membrane) in the
cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic cells, containing genetic material and many
enzymes important for cell metabolism, including those responsible for the
conversion of food to usable energy
a type of cell division in which daughter cells have the same number and kind
of chromosomes as the parent nucleus
the simplest unit of a chemical compound that can exist, consisting of two or
more atoms held together by chemical bonds
describes organisms consisting of more than one cell
the body system that is composed of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle
tissue and functions in movement of the body or of materials through the body,
maintenance of posture, and heat production
a change in genetic structure which results in a variant form and may be
transmitted to subsequent generations
the process by which organisms adapted to their environment tend to survive
and transmit their genetic characteristics in increasing numbers to succeeding
generations while those less adapted tend to have fewer offspring
feedback that reduces the output of a system, such as the action of heat on a
thermostat to limit the output of a furnace or the action of the human body’s
homeostatic mechanisms to increase perspiration and blood flow to the surface
of the skin when the temperature begins to rise
a chemical substance, such as acetylcholine or dopamine, that transmits nerve
impulses across a synapse
the system of cells, tissues, and organs that regulates the bodys responses to
internal and external stimuli. In vertebrates it consists of the brain, spinal cord
and nerves
the function or position of an organism or population within an ecological
community
organisms that originated in a different region than the ecosystem they
currently inhabit
any of a group of complex compounds found in all living cells and viruses,
composed of purines, pyrimidines, carbohydrates, and phosphoric acid. Nucleic
acids in the form of DNA and RNA control cellular function and heredity
any substance that can be metabolized by an organism to give energy and
build tissue
of or relating to the eye
structure of the body that performs a particular function
a system of organs that work together to perform a specific function or set of
related functions (ex: circulatory system)

BVSD Curriculum

26

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Organism
Osmosis
Osmotic regulation
Osmotically
balanced
Parasite
Passive transport
Permeable
Persistence
pH
Phenotype
Photosynthesis
Phytoplankton

Pollination
Population
Positive feedback
Potassium pump
Primary producer
Primary succession
Prokaryote
Protein

Qualitative
Quantitative

5/7/2012

a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function
independently
the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area
Attention! This is a preview.
Please click here if you would like to read this in our document viewer!


of high water potential (low solute concentration) to an area of low water
potential (high solute concentration)
the process of regulating water potential in order to keep fluid and electrolyte
balance within a cell or organism relative to the surrounding
a solution whose ion concentration is the same as another solution so osmosis
will not take place between the two solutions
an organism that grows, feeds, and is sheltered on or in a different organism
while contributing nothing to the survival of its host
a kind of transport by which ions or molecules move along a concentration
gradient, which means movement from an area of higher concentration to an
area of lower concentration, which does require chemical energy
capable of being permeated or passed through
the ability of living systems to resist external fluctuations
p(otential of) H(ydrogen); a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution,
numerically equal to 7 for neutral solutions, increasing with increasing alkalinity
and decreasing with
the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as
determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences
biochemical process of transforming light energy into stored chemical energy in
the form of glucose; chemical formula 6CO2 + 6H20 + light energy → 6O2 +
C6H12O6
the collection of small or microscopic photosynthetic organisms, including algae
and protozoans, that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water,
especially at or near the surface, and serve as primary producers in aquatic
ecosystems
transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a plant
all the organisms that constitute a specific group or occur in a specified habitat
feedback that results in amplification or growth of the output signal
a mechanism that involves energy-dependent pumping of potassium or the
active transport of the potassium ion (K+) across a biologic membrane using
the energy of K+-activated adenosine triphosphatase
an organism that produces organic compounds from atmospheric or aquatic
carbon dioxide, principally through the process of photosynthesis, with
chemosynthesis being much less important
one of two types of biological and ecological succession of plant life, occurring
in an environment in which new substrate devoid of vegetation and usually
lacking soil, such as a lava flow or area left from retreated glacier, is deposited
microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a
membrane nor other specialized organelles
any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large
molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an
essential part of all living organisms
involving distinctions, descriptions, or comparisons based on qualities that can
be observed without measurement (e.g. color, shape, appearance)
involving distinctions, descriptions, or comparisons that can be quantified or
measured

BVSD Curriculum

27

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Receptor

Recessive
Recombinant DNA
Reproduction
Research-based
evidence
RNA (ribonucleic
acid)
Saturated fatty acid
Secondary
succession
Selective breeding
Selectively
permeable
Sexual reproduction
Skepticism
Simple
carbohydrate
Speciation
Species
Stem cell
Structure
Symbiotic
System
Testable question
Theory
Tissue

5/7/2012

Physiology: a specialized cell or group of nerve endings that responds to
sensory stimuli.
Biochemistry: a molecular structure or site on the surface or interior of a cell
that binds with substances such as hormones, antigens, drugs, or
neurotransmitters.
an allele that does not produce a characteristic effect when present with a
dominant allele; a trait that is expressed only when the determining allele is
present in the homozygous condition
genetically engineered DNA prepared by transplanting or splicing genes from
one species into the cells of a host organism of a different species. Such DNA
becomes part of the hosts genetic makeup and is replicated
the sexual or asexual process by which organisms generate new individuals of
the same kind; procreation
data derived from sound scientific research methods. It is noted as researchbased to differentiate from anecdotal or circumstantial evidence
(Ribonucleic Acid) – a substance in living cells which carries instructions from
DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins and in some viruses carries
genetic information
a fatty acid whose carbon chain cannot absorb any more hydrogen atoms;
found chiefly in animal fats
one of two types of biological and ecological succession of plant life, occurring
on substrate that previously supported vegetation before an ecological
disturbance such as forest fire, tsunami, flood, destroyed the plant life
the process of breeding plants and animals for particular genetic traits
describes a membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through
it by diffusion and occasionally specialized "facilitated diffusion"
reproduction by the union or fusion of two differing gametes
a doctrine that suspends judgment until there is sufficient scientific evidence to
believe a claim
monosaccharides (single sugars) and disaccharides (double sugars)
the origination of new species
a fundamental category of taxonomic classification, ranking below a genus or
subgenus and consisting of related organisms capable of interbreeding
an undifferentiated cell of a multicellular organism that is capable of giving rise
to indefinitely more cells of the same type, and from which certain other kinds
of cell arise by differentiation
any identifiable part of an organism
a close prolonged association between two organisms in which both benefit
a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements forming a
complex whole
a question that can tested in a scientific investigation
a set of statements or principles devised to explain a large set of data and has
been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted
aggregation of morphologically similar cells and associated intercellular matter
acting together to perform one or more specific functions in the body

BVSD Curriculum

28

Source: http://www.doksi.net
Attention! This is a preview.
Please click here if you would like to read this in our document viewer!



Trophic level

Turgor pressure
Unicellular
Unsaturated fatty
acid
Wetlands

5/7/2012

each of several hierarchical levels in an ecosystem, consisting of organisms
sharing the same function in the food chain and the same nutritional
relationship to the primary sources of energy
turgor pressure or turgidity is the main pressure of the cell contents against
the cell wall in plant cells and bacteria cells, determined by the water content
of the vacuole, resulting from osmotic pressure
consisting of a single cell
a fatty acid whose carbon chain can absorb additional hydrogen atoms
those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a
frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal
circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life
in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs
and similar areas

BVSD Curriculum

29