Preview: Ager-Ellingsen - Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles

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Life cycle assessment
of electric vehicles
Linda Ager-Wick Ellingsen
Anders Hammer Strømman

linda.e.llingsen@ntnu.no

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Life cycle assessment (LCA)

Energy
Materials
Transport

Manufacture
& assembly
Extraction &
processing

Emissions
Use

Waste products
Recycling

2

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The ReCiPe characterization method

3

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Life cycle assessment of vehicles
Complete life cycle
Vehicle life cycle
Vehicle production
• Extraction and processing
• Component manufacture
and assembly

Energy value chain
Energy
extraction

Vehicle operation
Energy
distribution

Energy
conversion

• Energy use
• Maintenance

End-of-life vehicle
• Recycling/recovery
• Waste management
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We have good knowledge of the environmental
impacts of conventional vehicles

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Impact potentials

Stressors

Example of typical LCA results:
Mercedes A class

6
DaimlerChrysler AG, Mercedes Car Group

Source: http://www.doksi.net

GHGs over the whole life cycle
- high end of the range as of 2010

References: Daimler AG (2009, 2009, 2012), Volkswagen AG (2010, 2012)

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GHGs over the whole life cycle
- low end of the range as of 2010

References: Daimler AG (2009, 2010, 2012,2013,2014), Volkswagen AG (2010, 2012,2013,2014)

8

Source: http://www.doksi.net

GHGs over the whole life cycle
- low end of the range as of 2014

References: Daimler AG (2009, 2010, 2012,2013,2014), Volkswagen AG (2010, 2012,2013,2014)

9

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Car size, fuel type, model year, and
horsepower matter

3x

References: Daimler AG (2009, 2010, 2012,2013,2014), Volkswagen AG (2010, 2012,2013,2014)

10

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Can electric vehicles get us below the
fossil envelope?

References: Daimler AG (2009, 2009, 2012,2013,2014), Volkswagen AG (2010, 2012,2013,2014)

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Zero emission vehicle?

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BEVs have indirect operational emissions
associated with the energy value chain

13

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NTNU’s latest LCA study on battery
electric vehicles published in 2016

14
Ellingsen et al. (2016)

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Size selection based on commercially
available BEVs
250

A - segment

B - segment

C - segment

D - segment

E - segment

F - segment

NEDC energy requirement (Wh/km)

200

150

100

mini car

50

medium car

large car

luxury car

0
800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400 1500 1600 1700
Vehicle curb weight (kg)

1800

1900

2000

2100

2200

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Source: http://www.doksi.net

Electric vehicle parameters
Segment

Curb weight
(kg)

Battery size
(kWh)

Driving range
(km)

EV energy consumption
(Wh/km)

A - mini car

1100

17.7

133

146

C - medium car
D - large car
F - luxury car

1500
1750
2100

26.6
42.1
59.9

171
249
317

170
185
207

16

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Production inventories

17

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Use phase assumptions
• Average European electricity mix (521 g CO2/kWh at plug,
462 g CO2/kWh at plant)
• 12 years and a yearly mileage of 15,000 km, resulting
in a total mileage of 180,000 km

18

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End-of-life treatment

19

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Conventional vehicles
 Production and use phase
from LCA reports
 End-of-life inventory from
Hawkins et al. 2012

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Results

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50
F
45
40

Fossil envelope
-average new ICEVs as
of 2015

D

35
Emission (ton CO2-eq)

C
30
A

25
20
15
10
5

0
Driving distance (km)
22
Ellingsen et al. 2016

Source: http://www.doksi.net

50
F
45
40

Fossil envelope
-average ICEVs

D

35
Emission (ton CO2-eq)

C
30
A

25
20
15
10
5

0
Driving distance (km)
A - mini car
Ellingsen et al. 2016

C - medium car

D - large car

F - luxury car

23

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Sensitivity analysis

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Sensitivity analysis - coal
World average coal
(1029 g CO2-eq/kWh)

25
Ellingsen et al. 2016

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Sensitivity analysis – natural gas
World average natural gas
(595 g CO2-eq/kWh)

26
Ellingsen et al. 2016

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Sensitivity analysis – wind
Wind
(21 g CO2-eq/kWh)

27
Ellingsen et al. 2016

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Sensitivity analysis – all wind
Wind in all value chains
(17 g CO2-eq/kWh)

28
Ellingsen et al. 2016

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Differences in emissions due to size
decrease with lower carbon intensity

29
Ellingsen et al. 2016

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Questions?

linda.e.llingsen@ntnu.no
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NTNU Publications on e-mobility
October 2012

November 2013

May 2016
December 2016

Ellingsen. L. A-W., Hung, R. H., & Strømman, A. H. Identifying key assumptions and differences in life cycle assessment studies of lithium-ion
traction batteries (In review 2017). Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment.
Ellingsen. L. A-W., Majeau-Bettez, M., & Strømman, A. H. (2015). Comment on “The significance of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicle life-cycle
energy and emissions and recycling's role in its reduction” in Energy & Environmental Science. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment.
Singh, B., Ellingsen. L. A-W., & Strømman, A. H. (2015). Pathways for GHG emission reduction in Norwegian road transport sector: Perspective on
consumption of passenger car transport and electricity mix. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment.

Singh, B., Guest, G., Bright, R. M., & Strømman, A. H. (2014) Life Cycle Assessment of Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicle Transport Based on Forest
Biomass. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment.
Singh, B., & Strømman, A. H. (2013). Environmental assessment of electrification of road transport in Norway: Scenarios and impacts.
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment.
Hawkins, T. R., Gausen, O. M., & Strømman, A. H. (2012). Environmental impacts of hybrid and electric vehicles—a review. The International
Journal of Life Cycle Assessment.

Majeau-Bettez, M., Hawkings, T., & Strømman, A. H. (2011) Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of Lithium-ion and Nickel Metal Hydride 31
Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles