Preview: Martin Eberhard - Tesla Motors, California ARB ZEV Symposium

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California ARB ZEV Symposium
26 September 2006

Martin Eberhard

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© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Agenda






2

Tesla Motors Introduction
Tesla Motors Status
Charging Standard
Technology Comparison

© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Tesla Motors Introduction

3

© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

Source: http://www.doksi.net

A Brief History of EVs
"There
"Theresimply
simplywerent
werentenough
enough[EV-1
[EV-1customers]
customers] at
atany
any
given
giventime
timeto
tomake
makeaaviable
viablebusiness
businessproposition
propositionfor
forGM
GM
to
topursue
pursuelong-term."
long-term."
-GM
-GMspokesman
spokesmanDave
DaveBarthmuss,
Barthmuss,Washington
WashingtonPost,
Post,3/10/05
3/10/05

“The
“Thecar
car never
never had
hadappeal
appeal
beyond
beyondaacore
coregroup
groupof
of
technology
technology enthusiasts
enthusiastsand
and
environmentalists.”
environmentalists.”

4

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Performance Electric Cars

Tesla’s Customers
People
Peoplewho
whowant
want performance
performance and
and
also
alsocare
careabout
about oil
oilconsumption
consumption
 Performance
 Cool technology

5

And

 The environment
 National security

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Tesla’s Performance Electric Cars
0 MPG: 10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

Dark Star
Porsche Carrera GT

Performance
Electric Cars

2

Lamborghini Murcielago

4

Saleen S7

High
performance
sportscars

6

Porsche 911 Turbo Coupe
Ferrari Maranello
Chevrolet Corvette Z06
Lotus Esprit V8

8

High Performance

Acceleration from 0 to 60 mph ( Sec.)

Dodge Viper SRT-10

10

12

Panoz Esperante
Nissan 350Z
High Mileage
cars

Toyota Celica
Nissan Maxima
Ford Taurus
Toyota Camry

14

Subaru Legacy
Honda Civic VX

16

VW Jetta Diesel

High Mileage

Honda CNG (nat. gas)

18
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Well-to-Wheel Energy Efficiency (km/MJ)
6

1.0

1.2

Honda FCX (fuel cell)
Toyota Prius (hybrid)

© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

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The Tesla Roadster
The definition of a Performance Electric Car
Tesla
TeslaMotors
Motorsdesigned:
designed:
 50
50kWh
kWhlithium
lithium ion
ionbattery
batterypack
pack
185
185kW
kWAC
ACinduction
inductionmotor
motor
 Power
Power Electronics
ElectronicsModule
Module
 Carbon
Carbonfiber
fiber body
body
 Bonded,
Bonded, extruded
extrudedaluminum
aluminum chassis
chassis
0-60
0-60mph
mphacceleration:
acceleration:<4
<4seconds
seconds
EPA
EPAhighway
highwaydriving
drivingrange:
range: >250
>250mi.
mi.
Well-to-wheel
Well-to-wheelefficiency:
efficiency:>135
>135mpg
mpgequivalent
equivalent
Driving
Drivingcost:
cost: About
About 11penny
pennyper
per mile
mile
Charging
Charginginfrastructure:
infrastructure: existing
existingelectric
electricservice
service
7

© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

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Project White Star
Tesla’s Sport Sedan
Target
Performance
Comfortable
for 4 or 5 adults
Target
Performance

Low mass

 0-60
0-60mph
mphacceleration:
acceleration: <6
<6seconds
seconds
 Well-wheel
Well-wheelefficiency:
efficiency: >110
>110mpg
mpgequivalent
equivalent
 EPA
EPAhighway
highwaydriving
driving range:
range: >250
>250mi.
mi.
Low
Base
model
Base
model<< $50,000
$50,000
aerodynamic
drag
Car
0-60
Car
0-60Time
Time
Mercedes
4.5
MercedesE55
E55AMG
AMG
4.5Sec
Sec☺

BMW
5.7
BMW545i
545i
5.7Sec
Sec☺

Lexus
GS
5.9
Lexus
GS430
430 architecture
5.9Sec
Sec☺

EV-optimized
Toyota
10.4
ToyotaPrius
Prius
10.4Sec
Sec

White
5.7
WhiteStar
Star
5.7Sec
Sec☺

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Gas
GasMileage
Mileage
17
17mpg
mpg

20
20mpg
mpg

20
20mpg
mpg

55
55mpg
mpg☺

Performance
~110
~110mpg
mpg ☺
☺ from

Dark Star drivetrain
© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Tesla Motors Status

9

© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

Source: http://www.doksi.net

Tesla Motors Status
• Founded July, 2003

• Raised $60M through individuals and Venture Capital firms
• 120 employees worldwide (and hiring!)
Tesla Motors Inc.
1050 Bing St.
San Carlos, California

Rendering

Tesla Motors Customer Center
Santa Monica Blvd
Los Angeles, California
(3 more coming soon)

Tesla Motors Ltd.
Hethel
Norfolk, UK

Tesla Motors Taiwan Ltd.
San Chung City
Taiwan
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© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

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Roadster Status
Currently in engineering prototype phase
• FMVSS Collision testing
• Durability testing
• Performance testing
• Supplier qualification
Validation phase scheduled for early ’07

11

© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

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Roadster Status
Production scheduled for Q2 ’07
• Motor assembly by Tesla in Taiwan
• Battery assembly by Tesla in Thailand (!)
• Component suppliers from around the world
• Final assembly by Lotus Cars in the UK

12

© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

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Roadster Status
Pre-sales started: 19 July 2006
• $100K for fully-optioned cars
• 100% deposit for most; 75% deposit for later cars
• Approximately 170 cars sold already
• Model Year 2007 almost sold out

13

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White Star Status
• Vehicle technical specification complete
• Feasibility study complete
• Preliminary vehicle architecture complete
• Chassis and body technologies chosen
• USA factory site location study underway
• Production anticipated for first half of 2009

14

© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

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Tesla Motors Status
Wide press coverage
• Wired Magazine
• The Economist
• The Robb Report (cover)
• Popular Mechanics
• Forbes
• CNET
• The New York Times (news and editorials)
• The San Francisco Chronicle (front page)
• The San Jose Mercury News (several)
• Los Angeles Times
• LA Weekly
• The Detroit News
•The Washington Post
• USA Today
• Newsweek
• Red Herring
• Motortrend Magazine
• Road and Track Magazine
• Car and Driver Magazine
• NPR Marketplace
• CBS Evening News
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• msm Autos
• CNBC
• BBC Radio 4
• The Guardian
• Jalopnik

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© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

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Charging Standard

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© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

Source: http://www.doksi.net

ACE Charging System
• License-free, open standard
• Designed for safety, durability, and ease of use
• NRTL approval through CSA; listed product
• Based on SAE 1772 AC charging protocol
• Conductive charging: efficient, low-cost equipment
• 70-amp 110 – 240 volt charging for quick (17 kW) charges
• Connector based on sturdy Amphenol military connector
• Hard-wired EVSE and mobile charging modes
• Connector cost: about $40 per side
Contact Tesla Motors for information

17

© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

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Technology Comparison

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Right Questions

Q: What is the net resource consumption per mile?
Q: What are the carbon emissions per mile?
Q: What is the net reduction of petroleum usage?

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© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

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What about Fuel Cells?
Q: How many miles will one unit of electricity power a car?

Coal
Photovoltaic
Electric Energy Storage

Natural
Gas
Wind
Turbine
Electricity
Diesel
Hydroelectric

Storage efficiency =

Electricity in
Electricity out

Electricity

Electric
Drive
Motor

X miles

Nuclear
Geothermal

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© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

Source: http://www.doksi.net

What about Fuel Cells?
Q: How many miles will one unit of electricity power a car?
H2 Production

H2 Fuel Cell Car
Electric Energy Storage

Storage efficiency =25%
1 MWh Electricity

Electrolysis

Compression

H2 Fuel Cell

70% efficient

90% efficient

40% efficient

Electricity

Electric
Drive
Motor

1440 miles

Battery Electric Car
Electric Energy Storage
Storage efficiency =85%
1 MWh Electricity

Charger

Li Ion Battery

92% efficient

93% efficient

4900 miles
Electricity

Electric
Drive
Motor

A: An electric car will go more than 3 times as far as a fuel cell car
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© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

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What about Ethanol?
Q: How many miles will one unit of biomass power a car?
Energy Conversion

biomass

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Car

Energy Conversion
Biomass efficiency =
miles driven
Ton of biomass

X miles

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What about Ethanol?
Q: How many miles will one unit of biomass power a car?
Ethanol Production

Ethanol ICE Car

Energy Conversion
Biomass efficiency = 2900 miles / ton

1 ton of biomass

Enzymatic Ethanol
Production

IC Engine
50 miles per gallon

2900 miles

58 GGE / ton1

Electricity Production

Electric Car

Energy Conversion
Biomass efficiency = 4900 miles / ton
1 ton of biomass

Gasification
Combined Cycle
Electric Generation

Electric car
4.9 miles / kWh

4900 miles

1000 kWh / ton2

A: An electric car will go almost twice as far as an ethanol car
1. Iogen enzymatic process, gallons of gasoline equivalent
2. Southern Company Services
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What about Ethanol?
Q: How many miles will one unit of land power a car per year?
Fuel Production

land

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Car

Energy Conversion
land efficiency = miles driven
acre of land

X miles

© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

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What about Ethanol?
Q: How many miles will one unit of land power a car per year?
Cellulosic Ethanol Production

Ethanol ICE Car

Energy Conversion
land efficiency = 58,000 miles per acre

1 acre of
farmland

Miscanthus
Farming
20 tons / acre
per year1

Enzymatic
Ethanol
Production
58 GGE / ton2

Electricity Production

IC Engine
50 miles per
gallon

58K miles

Electric Car

Energy Conversion
Land efficiency = 4900 miles / ton
1 acre of
desert land

Concentrating PV
Installation
380 MW / acre3
per year

Electric car
4900 miles / MWh

1862K miles

A: An electric car will go 32 times as far as an ethanol car
1. Vinod Khosla
2. Iogen enzymatic process, gallons of gasoline equivalent
3. Pinnicle West Capital Corporation
25

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Best-Case Cellulosic Ethanol
The Ideal Solution?
Today’s Corn-based Ethanol

Photovoltaic

What area is required to offset 50% of
miles driven in US (2001)?
26

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What about Biodiesel?
Q: How many miles will one gallon of biodiesel power a car?

Biodiesel

27

Energy Conversion
efficiency =
miles driven
Gallon of biodiesel

X miles

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What about Biodiesel?
Q: How many miles will one gallon of biodiesel power a car?
Diesel Car
Energy Conversion
efficiency = 38 miles per gallon
Diesel Engine1

1 gallon
biodiesel

38 miles per gallon

Electricity Production

38 miles

Electric Car

Energy Conversion
efficiency = 89 miles per gallon
1 gallon
biodiesel

Diesel generator
18.21 kWh per gal2

Electric car
4.9 miles per kWh

89 miles

A: An electric car will go more than twice as far as a diesel ICE car
1. 2006 Diesel Beetle
2. e.g. Anguilla Electric Company, 2001 average

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Conclusion

Whatever the resource, we must use it as efficiently as possible
 Fossil fuel
 Green electricity
 Biomass
 Land

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© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential

Source: http://www.doksi.net

"The best way to predict the future is to invent it."
- Alan Kay

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© 2006 Tesla Motors Inc. Proprietary And Confidential