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http://www.doksihu Budapest Business School FACULTY OF INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ECONOMICS COURSE International Business Enterprises specialisation AVANS HOGESCHOOL INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS SCHOOL BREDA BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION COURSE Turkish culture, protocol and the EU - Long engagement with(out) marriage? Prepared by: Ágnes Fanni Károlyi Budapest, 2010 http://www.doksihu Table of contents I. II. Introduction3 General introduction of Turkey 2.1 History4 2.2 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk12 2.3 International Organizations16 2.4 Economy and Society18 2.5 Language23 III. Culture of Turkey 3.1 Islam25 3.11 History of the religion.26 3.12 Pillars of Islam27 3.13 Holidays.29 3.14 Prays and its ceremony.31 3.15 Mosque32 3.16 Sunnis and Sheets33 3.17 Islam mysticism.35 3.2 Architecture35 3.3 Customs and traditions39 3.4 Islamic arts52 3.41 Calligraphies and tuğras.52 3.42 Miniatures.53 3.43 Tiles.54 3.44 Ebru.54 3.5 Anatolian

arts55 3.51 Tapestry.55 3.52 Iconography56 3.53 Painting.57 3.54 Sculpture.57 -1- http://www.doksihu 3.55 Mosaics.58 3.56 Handicraft59 3.57 Music and dance.59 3.58 Literature.61 3.6 The bath culture62 3.7 Cuisines64 3.8 Activation and passivation of protocol70 IV. Cultural differences in protocol (Graduation Assignment).77 4.1 Problem definition77 4.2 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary78 4.3 Course of organizing an official visit83 4.4 Cultural differences in protocol93 4.5 Conclusion an Recommendation98 V. The possible cultural problems of the Turkish EU accession.99 VI. Appendix.107 Economic tables.107 Collection of pictures.109 List of sources115 -2- http://www.doksihu INTRODUCTION/ JUSTIFICATION OF TOPIC CHOOSING “The key to tolerance and acceptance of cultures is getting to know them in order to understand them. “ Anonymous I chose the topic of Turkish culture and the possible cultural problems of their EU accession for my

topic, because it has been of major interest for me for years. I have been trying to expand my knowledge in this field and this thesis paper gave me the opportunity to continue this learning process through my individual research. This topic is particularly important nowadays, because the EU began the accession negotiations with Turkey, but there is no insurance for heir accession, let alone for its date. At first I would like to introduce Turkey in general, their history, their great Atatürk and the economy. Then I would like to give an insight into the culture of an ancient nation, I would like to give a comprehensive picture of their culture through Islam, arts, cuisines and customs. After this, I would sum up the most important protocol rules, customs which have to be followed in case of business life. In my dissertation I would like to introduce and explore this culture and its norms, which is far from the Arabic and also far from the European one in that depth to be able to

answer some of those questions, which would not be asked if more people knew the background of this culture. I would also like to understand the things that are behind their culture and rules, which make Turkey’s differences unacceptable for the EU. I would like to write about how protocol works and is used every day in case of official visits. I explore how these can be organized and what things have to be taken care of For this part I plan to make a flowchart to represent the flow of the work. And finally I would like to explore the possible cultural problems of the Turkish EU accession and I would like to consider weather there are real problems according to the previous part of my assignment or would there be real obstacles of the Turkish accession? -3- http://www.doksihu “Those heroes that shed their blood and lost their lives (at Gallipoli battles). You are now lying in the soil of a friendly country. Therefore rest in peace There is no difference between the Johnnies and

the Mehmets to us where they lie side by side here in this country of ours. You the mothers who sent their sons from far away countries wipe away your tears. Your sons are now living in our bosom and are in peace Having lost their lives on this land they have become our sons as well.” M. Kemal Atatürk HISTORY The history of Turkey is as old as the history of mankind. Anatolia was always important throughout history and is the birthplace of many great civilizations. The inheritance of unique artistic and architectural pieces wears the signs of the stormy past. The early communities were dispersed by continuous waves of migrations, which brought rise and fall of the new cultures. All of them leave its glorious marks behind and it contributed to the variety and multicolour culture what characterized the modern republic today. Arms of the Ottoman Empire ANCIENT AGES The area of Turkey was inhabited since 20000 BC. The first inhabitants were nomad hunters. Primitive tools, animal

bones and stone implements were found from the Palaeolithic age. THE FERTILE CRESCENT Remains of Neolithic villages from the 8000 BC prove that in 7000 BC lots of prosperous settlements have existed. Metal-work was discovered around this time and it became possible to prepare useful tools like arms. The first pieces were made from copper around 5000 BC. Çatalhöyük was probably the first town of the world. It was inhabited by around 5000 inhabitants. They were agricultural workers and the volcanic glass trade was vivid The houses were built from brick and beam. The separate spaces for sleeping and cooking were characteristic. The cattle played an important role in the ancient Anatolian culture It is thought so because cattles are depicted on the wall-paintings of excavated houses. The inhabitants believed in animism. The wall-paintings and heads of bulls were tools -4- http://www.doksihu of ritual or cultic activity and religious ceremonies, as the small terracotta sculptures of

female Goddesses also. COPPER AGE It was around 5500-3000 BC. The agriculture became the lifestyle, plants were cultivated and livestock was breeding. The growing agricultural activity created need for more tools. Copper tools were widespread The most important places of this age were in Hacılar and Canhasan, where pottery products were made by the most developed technologies. These were made to be very colourful BRONZE AGE Around 3000 and 1200 BC in Anatolia the agricultural workers started to make experiments with new techniques. In the workshops surpluses were produced, trade became vivid. These products were gold jewelleries, fancy goods and drinking vessels ASSYRIANS The Assyrian Empire came to existence at the Northern part of Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium BC. Until 1900 BC Assyrian trade networks came to existence between North-Mesopotamia and Anatolia. Demand for goods increased and traders had to supply a rapidly growing market. Assyrians realized how important it is to

follow the transactions and developed the cuneiform writing, where words are symbolized with signs. They printed their trade agreements and invoices onto earthen boards,a lot of which survived. These are the earliest examples of writing in Anatolia to be found Due to the vivid trade the need for transportation increased and in some areas a simple taxation system was introduced. For the first time in history money became the primary source of the economy. HITTITES Hittites arrived in the second millenium BC and settled when the Assyrian trade centres were developed. They had the first huge empire in Anatolia; its capital city was Hattuşaş (Boğazkale today).The Hittites used both cuneiform writing and hieroglyphics It is said to be the oldest Indo-European language. Lots of them were found in Hattuşaş in different topics (e.g religious and diplomatic letters) Like most advanced civilizations, Hittites knew the art of iron forging and with this advantage could get a huge military

power. King Anitta conquered the bigger part of Middle-Anatolia, by -5- http://www.doksihu which he could increase the power of the empire but it caused decentralization. King Huzziya started to re-unite the dependant cities. One of his successors I Labarna Hattushilit is said to be the founder of the Hittites Empire. One of his grandchildren was able to conquer Babylon around 1530 BC. The Hittites Empire reached its golden age around 1260 BC, when III. Hattusilis and Ramses II., the ruler of Egypt signed a peace and friendship agreement As a consequence the Hittites culture flourished. Hattuşaş became a huge city, being surrounded by wall, with a huge church and complex of palace. Elegant ceramic pots, metal figures, animal shaped pots and seals decorated with the symbol of the kings were fabricated. The Hittites Empire fell around 1205 BC because of the improper tactics in war, when pirates looted the boarders of the Empire, while famines stroke the Empire. A lot of people died

or fled from the Empire. Towards to the Hellenistic Age Around the 7th century BC, Anatolia came under the rule of Lydians. The Lydian civilization flourished at that time. Their graved rock can be found today between Fethiye and Antalya. They were well-known for their silversmith and also the invention of coinage is attributed to them. City-states flourished through the Mediterranean and Black Sea at that time. THE HELLENISTIC AGE The expansion of Greeks started between 330 and 132 BC under the leadership of Alexander the Great. He occupied Anatolia around the 5th century BC and he reached Egypt and India. In Anatolia the new settlers became the members of the ruling class and with their laws they helped the expansion of Hellenism. Around the 2nd century BC Italian armies started to expand eastwards. At first they defeated the Greeks and then they marched into North-Anatolia. In battles the Romans were more successful, but their way of living was characterised by the Greek art and

culture. It brought the advantages of the Roman lordship, system of law, better hygienic standards and architectural sciences. Quality military roads were also used for trade From the Empire of Alexander the Great became a number of thriving successor states, one of them being the Seljuk Empire. It had its power over the bigger part of Anatolia -6- http://www.doksihu until the 2nd century BC. In the two Macedonian wars the Roman Empire acquired the leadership over the most important city-states at the coasts of the Mediterranean and in the inner side of Anatolia. Most people yielded without resistance Romans held many Gods in reverence, the greatest being Jupiter, but they let conquered people to continue with their regional customs, so Anatolians practiced fertility rituals. Peace and order characterised the Provinces of Rome in the 2nd century AD. It was a time of upsurge. Plumbing were built, and sewage was by-passed in another system Theatres were built, and sport events were

organized in stadiums and gymnasiums. Saint Paul grounded the first congregation in Asia Minor in the 1st century AD. The early Christian communities had conflicts with Roman authorities, when they refused to offer a sacrifice to the emperor. The prosecution of Christians came to an end when Constantine converted to Christianity in the 4th century. Constantine founded Constantinople (the modern Istanbul of today) in 324, and in the next 6 years it became the capital of the Empire and the centre of Christianity. Its’ seven hills were surrounded by a wall and the emperor established arenas, forums and hamams (public baths). Cities by the coasts were plundered because of its artistic treasures were needed to decorate the new capital. Access for work and the lifestyle supplied by the land attracted new inhabitants. Theodosius followed Constantine on the throne At that time the empire was divided into 2 parts, and it was the beginning of the decline of the Roman Empire. THE BYZANTINE

EMPIRE The Byzantine Empire was in its prime under the reign of Justinianus (527-565 AD). He reconquered great parts of North-Africa, Italy and Southern Spain and initiated significant buildings like the Hagia Sophia. The Turkish Turkmens are the descendants of nomadic tribes. Some of the tribes migrated in the direction of Russia, China and India and others to Anatolia, which was ruled by Byzantine. At the end of the century these intrusions increased and one group called Seljuks, seceded from them. Around the 11th century Seljuk Turks conquered Persia. Bagdad fell in 1055 and Tuğrul bey acquired the caliphate and thereby became the ruler of the Islamic world. He established the Sultanate of Seljuks, which expanded to a significant part of the Islamic world between 1055 and 1156. Tuğrul bey was followed by Alp Arslan on the throne. He conquered Syria, and lead more attacks against Anatolia in 1063. The army of Byzantine tried to defeat the -7- http://www.doksihu Seljuks, but they

lost a decisive battle on 26th August 1071 at Manzikert (Malazgirt). The victorious Seljuks did not want to rule Anatolia, so a plenty of Islam-Turkish state were grounded. The most famous of them was the Seljuk Sultanate (1077-1308), and the capital was Nikaia (İznik today). Chaos emerged in Anatolia beginning with the end of the 11th century till the end of the 12th century. Crusaders arrived, occupying Nikaia and Antiochia (Antakya today) in 1097. Their influence was high in South-Anatolia The capital of the Seljuks was relocated to Konya. Byzantine tried to repel the Seljuks, but they lost in the war at Myriocephalon in 1176. The Rumi Sultanate became the strongest state of Anatolia The occupation of Antalya in 1207 offered an exit to Mediterranean Sea. The Seljuk Anatolia thus developed. Later on the occupation of Sinop (1214) and Alanya (1221) increased maritime trade. In order to increase their power, Seljuks signed trade contracts with Byzantine, Cyprus, Province, Pisa,

Venice, Firenze and Geneva between 1207 and 1253. They built bridges, hans and caravanserais to develop the land trade. The Seljuk Empire reached its peak under the ruling of Şah sultan, who supported arts and sciences. The characteristic of Seljuk civilization was its architecture. Its golden age was in the 13th century e.g characterized by the hospital in Divriği, or the fortress at the port of Alanya In the Rumi Sultanate science, literature, painting and sculpture flourished. Mongols defeated Seljuks in 1243 at Kösedağ, and until 1308 Seljuks were the vassals of Mongols. A lot of people converted to Islam in the 13th and 14th century, because Mongols collected less tax from Muslims. Mongols ruled Anatolia till 1335, when the rebel Turks grounded the first beylik states. One of these emirates in Eskişehir won with the leadership of Ertuğrul. His son Osman founded the Ottoman dynasty, which was one of the biggest empires on the world. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE Areas occupied by

Ottomans were growing in the 13 century. Mehmed II occupied Constantinople in 1453, Syria and Egypt fell in 1516-1517, so the sacred cities of Mecca and Medina were ruled by Ottomans. Till the mid-1500s the Ottoman emperors were in the centre of the Sunnis Islam members. The Ottoman Empire was characterized by effective administration, tolerance (against different religious) and military power. -8- http://www.doksihu The Ottoman Empire reached its peak under the ruling of Great Suleiman (1520-1566). Boarders were expanded from the southern part of Hungary to Yemen and from Crimea to Morocco. The most important element was the devşirme, which meant that every Christian ploughman dependant had to give one boy to go into service to the sultan. Boys were converted to Islam and were trained as civil servants or Janissaries. The life of Janissaries was strict, celibacy was obligatory, but they could reach such privileges that earlier could only be reached by civil servants. Lots of

strategists came from this devşirme system. To the 18th century the former elite became corrupt and threatened the Sultanate. If Janissaries felt their privileges to be threatened, they made violent riots. After the death of Suleiman the upcoming rulers took care not about their empire, but to enjoy their wealth. As a consequence the empire became prey of janissaries and the expansion of other states. In the peace-treaty of Karloca, they lost half of the European territory of the empire. The devolution of the empire started and opened the way to the Russian expansion at the Black-Sea. The next years were spent in wars Those families which could afford it bought state lands came by huge amount of wealth and built palaces on the coast of the Bosporus. The empire had short wars with Russia, Venice, Austria and Persia, but their territory decreased. A short economical upsurge and artistically renaissance came in the period between 1739 and 1768. In 1755 was the first Sultanate mosque

complex completed in Istanbul But, when Tsarina Chatelaine mobilized its army to conquer the Ottoman Empire. Russians reached the exit of the Black-Sea and acquired the Crimea half island between 1768-1774 and 1788-1791. This was the first Muslim territory which was lost by Ottomans and indemnity had to be paid. II Mahmud wanted to modernize the empire that is why he reorganized the bureaucracy. Meanwhile Russia encouraged the vassals’ states of Greeks, Serbs, Moldavians and Wallachia to claim their rights to govern. II Mahmud hoped that by the modernization of Turkey by preparing the Edict of Tanzimat in 1839 can reach a good govern, equality and can provide a stronger state. Edict of Tanzimat had immediate effect, such as European style of clothing and uniforms, weapons, agricultural and industrial innovations, architecture, education, legislation, institutional organization and land reform. The regulation in 1856 was signed because -9- http://www.doksihu of the pressure of the

European powers after the war at Crimea (1853-1856), so the state became westernized and secular, which generated disapprovals. 1 The aim of the reform movement of Youth Turks was to reach the constitutional monarchy in the 1870’s. II Abdülhamid introduced some liberal programme and disbanded the parliament in 1878. The empire weakened in the next years, provinces at Balkan gained their independence. The rebellious officers established the Committee of Unity and Progress in 1908; they were named to Youth Turks. When the II Abdülhamid did not accept the Constitution he was changed to the weak V. Mehmed The CUP took over the leadership. The empire lost its European territories in the war at Balkan in 1912 and 1913. One year later it joined to the I World War on the side of Germany, Austria- Hungary. Till 1918 only the middle of Anatolia remained the Ottoman Empire. Foreign armies occupied Istanbul, İzmir, Antakya and Antalya. Turkish nationalists called an assembly in Ankara. But

the begun war for independence leaved its mark on its own fulfilling destiny of Turkey. In 1923, in the Treaty of Lausanne, the territory boarders of the new state were stated and in the same year the Turkish Republic was declared in 29 October with the capital of Ankara. The first President became Atatürk He set up a modern, secular and Westoriented state, with the help of drastic reforms Turkey remained neutral during of World War II, It entered only on 23 February 1945 on the side of the Allies, but it was only a symbolic step. In 1945 Turkey was a founding member of the United Nations In the Korean conflict he participated with the forces of the UN. In 1952 Turkey joined to the NATO and set the aim to access to the European Union. Between 1960 and 1980 there was a political instability in Turkey which resulted in several military coups détats. The economic liberalization began in the 80’s Since the 80’s the situation stabilised. Factors, which influence the international

connections and the outcome of the accession negotiations to the EU of Turkey, are the Turkish attendance in Cyprus, the Kurdish rebellion at East and the increasing political presence of Islam.2 1 2 SWAN, SUZANNA: Törökország, Budapest, Panemex Kft., 2007 FLESCH, ISTVÁN: Török Köztársaság története, Budapest, Corvina Kiadó, 2007. - 10 - http://www.doksihu GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS3 Turkey is a parliamentary democracy. The legal framework of the country is governed by its constitution. It ensures Turkey to be a unitary centralized state and the main principled of government. The executive branch in Turkey has a dual structure It is composed of the President of the Republic and the Council of Ministers. President cannot be elected for a second term in office. The President of the Republic is the Head of the State. He/she represents the Republic of Turkey and the unity of the Turkish nation. The President is elected for a seven year term by a two thirds majority of the

full membership of the TGNA. A President cannot be elected for a second term in office In Turkey the President has a rather ceremonial role. The current President is Abdullah Gül, he was elected on 28 August 2007. The parliament is elected directly by the nation for 4 years. The Prime Minister becomes most often the head of the party, that has the most seats in the Parliament. The Prime Minister is elected through a vote of confidence in his/her government. The current Prime Minister is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan He won with an absolute majority in 2002. In 2007, his party received 466% of the votes at the general elections. To avoid a huge parliament every party and independent candidates have to win at least 10% of the votes. 3 Political structure of Turkey: http://www.byegmgovtr/db/dosyalar/webicerik33pdf 06 November 2009 - 11 - http://www.doksihu MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATÜRK “It was when I entered the military preparatory school and put on its uniform, that a feeling of strength

came to me, as if I had become master of my own destiny.” M Kemal Atatürk Atatürk was borne in 1881 at Salonika. His father was Ali Rıza Efendi and his mother Zübeyde Hanım. His father worked as a military officer and married with Zübeyde Hanım in 1871. Four of Atatürks five siblings died at an early age, only his sister Makbule Atadan survived and lived until 1956, others died at early ages. Atatürk lost his father in 1888 where upon he stayed at the farm of his maternal uncle for a while and returned to Salonika to complete his studies. He started his secondary school in Salonika but soon he transferred to the military Rüştiye. Later he attended the Military School in Istanbul from which he graduated in 1902 with the rank of lieutenant. Later he entered the Military Academy and graduated on January 11, 1905 with the rank of major. Between 1905 and 1907 he was stationed in Damascus with the 5th army. It was followed by several promotions (senior manager, Staff Officer,

lieutenant colonel) and was sent to station to different places (Manastır, Paris, Tobruk). In October 1912, when the Balkan War started, Mustafa Kemal joined the battle with units from Gallipoli and Bolayır then in 1913 he was assigned to Sofia as a military attaché till 1915. By that time the First World War had started and the Ottoman Empire was inevitably involved. Mustafa Kemal put his signature under a legend of heroism at Çanakkale during the First World War. On March 18, 1915 when the English and French navies in an attempt to force their way up the Çanakkale Strait gave heavy loses, they decided to put units on land at Gallipoli Peninsula. The enemy forces, which landed at Arıburnu on 25 April 1915 were stopped by 19th Davison under Mustafa Kemals command at Conkbayırı. Mustafa Kemal was promoted to the rank of colonel after this victory Mustafa Kemal, as the Commander of the Anafartalar Forces won the Anafartalar Victory on 6-7 August 1915. This victory was followed by

the victories of Kireçtepe on August 17, and the Second Anafartalar Victory on August 21. Mustafa Kemal was stationed at Edirne and Diyarbakır after the Çanakkale wars and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general on 1 April 1916. After these and further success he went to - 12 - http://www.doksihu Istanbul on November 13, 1918 and started to work at the Ministry of Defence. He published on 22 June 1919 at Amasya, he declared that „The freedom of the nation shall be restored with the resolve and determination of the nation itself" and called the meeting of the Sivas Congress. He convened Erzurum Congress during 23 July - 7 August 1919 and Sivas Congress during 4 - 11 September 1919, thus defining the path to be followed towards the freedom of the motherland. He was met with great enthusiasm in Ankara on 27 December 1919.24 Mustafa Kemal convened the National Assembly and called upon the delegates to accept a basic law, within which they laid down the basis of the

Turkish State, which is the popular sovereignty. For the first time in history, the principle of the democracy was set against with the sultan-caliph.2 With the initiation of the Turkish Grand National Assembly on 23 April 1920, a significant step was taken on the way to establishing the Turkish Republic. Mustafa Kemal was elected as head of national assembly as well as head of government.5 The delegates of the Sultan signed the Sévres Peace Dictate at 10 August, 1920. According to which only a highly mutilated state would have remained with the centre of Istanbul.2 The National Assembly, which first convened on 23 April 1920 in Ankara, was the first step towards to the Turkish Republic. The successful management of the War of Independence by this assembly accelerated the foundation of the new Turkish State. On 1 November 1922, the offices of the Sultan and caliph were separated from one another and the former was abolished. There was no longer any administrative tie with the Ottoman

Empire.2 The success of the Kemalists was unique, because they were the only ones, who could eliminate one of the most unfair dictates of the Treaty of Versailles. The new agreement was signed on 24 July 1923 The new and sovereign Turkey came into existence.5 On 29 October 1923, the Turkish Republic was formally proclaimed and Atatürk was unanimously elected as its first President. On 30 October 1923, the first government of the Republic was formed by İsmet İnönü. The government pronounced Ankara to be the capital city. Atatürk undertook a series of reforms to "raise Turkey to the level of modern civilizations", which can be grouped under five titles: 4 Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey: http://www.kulturgovtr/EN/Genel/BelgeGosteraspx?17A16AE30572D3130239EEA0FCDF038B3183B 17125FC74AB 04 November 2009 5 FLESCH, ISTVÁN: Török Köztársaság története, Budapest, Corvina Kiadó, 2007. - 13 - http://www.doksihu 1. Political Reforms •

Abolishment of the office of the Sultan (November 1922) • Proclamation of the Republic (29 October 1923) • Abolishment of the caliph (3 March 1924) 2. Social Reforms • Recognition of equal rights to men and women (1926 - 1934) • Reform of Headgear and Dress (25 November 1925) • Closure of mausoleums and dervish lodges (30 November 1925) • Law on family names (21 June 1934) • Abolishment of titles and by-names (26 November 1934) • Adoption of international calendar, hours and measurements (1925 - 1931) 3. Legal Reforms • Abolishment of the Canon Law (1924 - 1937) • Transfer to a secular law structure by adoption of Turkish Civil Code and other laws (1924 - 1937) 4. Reforms in the fields of education and culture • Unification of education (3 March 1924) • Adoption of new Turkish alphabet (1 November 1928) • Establishment of Turkish Language and History Institutions (1931 - 1932) • Regulation of the university education (31 May 1933) • Innovations in fine

arts 5. Economic Reforms • Abolition of tithe • Encouragement of the farmers • Establishment of model farms • Establishment of industrial facilities, and putting into effect a law for Incentives for the Industry • Putting into effect I st and IInd Development Plans (1933-1937), to develop transportation networks - 14 - http://www.doksihu According to the Law on Family Names, the Turkish Grand Assembly gave "Atatürk" (Father of Turks) as last name to Mustafa Kemal on 24 November 1934. Atatürk took frequent trips around the country and inspected locally the works undertaken by the state; giving directives were problems were faced. As president he was host to visiting foreign presidents, prime ministers and ministers. He read his Great Speech, which covered the war of Independence and the founding of the Republic on 15 - 20 October 1927, and his 10th Year Speech on 29 October 1933. Atatürk led a very simple private life. He married Latife Hanım on 29

January 1923 They took many trips to different parts of the country together. This marriage lasted until 5 August 1925. A great lover of children, he adopted girls named Afet (İnan), Sabiha (Gökçen), Fikriye, Ülkü, Nebile, Rukiye and Zehra and a shepherd boy named Mustafa. He also took two boys called Abdurrahim and İhsan under his protection He provided for the future of these children who survived. He donated his farms to the Treasury in 1937 and some of his real estates to municipalities of Ankara and Bursa. He divided his inheritance among his sister, his adopted children and to the Turkish History and Language Institutions. He enjoyed books and music as well as dancing, horse riding and swimming. He was extremely interested in Zeybek dances, wrestling and the Rumelia folk songs. Games of billiards and black gammon gave him great pleasure. He valued his horse Sakarya and his dog Fox. He had a rich library He used to invite statesman, scholars and artists to dinners where the

problems of the country were discussed. He was particular about his appearance and enjoyed dressing well. He was also a lover of nature He used to frequent the Atatürk Forest Farm and join in the work. Atatürk spoke fluent French and German. On 10 November 1938 at 905 in the morning, in Istanbul, Dolmabahce Palace, he died of liver ailment. He was buried with a ceremonial funeral in a temporary place of rest at the Ethnographical Museum in Ankara on 21 November 1938. After the building of Anitkabir (Atatürk Mausoleum) he was taken to his permanent place of rest with a grand ceremony on 10 November 1953. 4 - 15 - http://www.doksihu TURKEYS MEMBERSHIP OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS “Peace at Home, Peace it the World” M. Kemal Atatürk UNITED NATIONS 6 Turkey was one of the founding members of the United Nations on 24.101945 Now the representative of Turkey to the United Nations is Büyükelçi Baki İLKİN (2004-2009). ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

7 Turkey was also a founding member of the OECD with further 19 countries on 2nd August in 1961, in Paris. ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND CO-OPERATION IN EUROPE8 Turkey’s admission to the OSCE was on 25th June in 1973 as a founding member and signed the Helsinki Final Act on 1st August in 1975 and the Charter of Paris on 21st November in 1990. COUNCIL OF EUROPE9 Turkey accessed on 9th August in 1949 as a founding member. Turkey is represented in the Parliamentary Assembly by delegation of 12 representatives and 12 substitutes. NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION10 Turkeys Accession to the NATO took place in 1952. NATO headquarters are located in Izmir. Turkey has the 2nd largest army in the NATO after the United States with 1 054 750 soldiers. The United States maintains air forces at a Turkish base called Incirlik that is located near the Mediterranean city of Adana. 6 United Nations: http://www.unorg/en/ 03 September 2009 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development:

http://www.oecdorg/home/0,2987,en 2649 201185 1 1 1 1 1,00html 03 September 2009 8 The Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe: http://www.osceorg/ 03 September 2009 9 Council of Europe: http://www.coeint/ 03 September 2009 10 North Atlantic Treaty Organization: http://www.natoint/cps/en/natolive/indexhtm 03 September 2009 7 - 16 - http://www.doksihu EUROPEAN UNION11 Turkey has been an associate member since 1963. In 2005 three more countries applied for EU membership: Croatia, Turkey and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The accession negotiations begun with Turkey. G20 12 This union brings together the 20 largest economies of the world (members’ of the European Union counts to 1 of 20). These 20 countries give the 90% of the world’s GDP and 80% of the whole world trade. WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION13 Turkey was not the member of the GATT. It accessed on 26th March in 1995 - not much after the foundation of the WTO. Turkey has free trade agreements with EFTA,

Israel, and many other countries. Turkey became an observer state in the Association of Caribbean States in December in 2000. 11 European Union: enhtm 03 September 2009 G20: http://www.g20org/ 03 September 2009 13 World Trade Organization: http://www.wtoorg/ 03 September 2009 12 - 17 - http://www.doksihu ECONOMY AND SOCIETY GENERAL INFORMATION Capital: Ankara (with around 4,5 million people) Surface area: 783,562 km2 (from this 24.888 km2 in Europe) 14 Official language: Turkish Population: 71.517100 (on 31 December 2008)15 Exchange rate: €1 = 2.2051 TRY16 new Turkish liras (23 October 2009) Political system: Parliamentary democracy Head of State: President HE Mr Abdullah Gül17 (28 August 2007- present) Head of Government: Prime Minister HE Mr Recep Tayyip Erdoğan18 (14 March 2003- present) BRIEF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS Turkey started its reforms in 1983 initiated by the then Prime Minister Turgut Özal. His reforms initiated rapid economic growth, but this

growth was followed by a sharp recession and financial crisis firstly in 1994 and then around 2000. Around the millennium inflation rate was a 2-digit number. Reforms were initiated by Kemal Derviş, the finance minister of then, the inflation has fallen, and the confidence for investing has increased, while unemployment has fallen. In general, Turkeys dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that still accounts for about 30% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state remains a major actor in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts for one-third of industrial employment. Textile is one of the most important export products19 Further export commodities are apparel, foodstuffs, metal manufactures and transport equipment. In 14 United Nations Statistical Division:

http://unstats.unorg/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2007/Table03pdf 26 October 2009 15 Turkish Statistical Institute: www.turkstatgovtr August 21, 2009 1000 European Central Bank: http://www.ecbint/stats/exchange/eurofxref/html/indexenhtml 26 October 2009 17 President of the Republic of Turkey: http://www.tccbgovtr/pages/president/ 26 October 2009 18 Office of the Prime Minister: http://www.byegmgovtr/icerikdetayaspx?Id=50 26 October 2009 19 CIA: The World Factbook: Turkey https://www.ciagov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/geos/tuhtml 21 August 2009 16 - 18 - http://www.doksihu 2007 the main export partners were: Germany 11.2%, UK 81%, Italy 7%, France 56%, Russia 4.4%, and Spain 43% The total export was $1418 billion* in 2008.16 In June 2009 exports decreased by 29,2% and fell to 8 332 Million Dollars and imports decreased by 35,9% and fell to 12 483 Million Dollars compared with June 2008. In June 2009, the main partner country 2008-2009 June External Trade for exports

was Germany with 793 25 000 Million Dollar 15 000 Million Dollars and decreased by 19 477 20 000 30,2%. For exports, Germany was 12 483 11 771 10 000 8 332 followed by France (537 Million Dollars), Italy (529 Million Dollars) and the United Kingdom (517 Million 5 000 Dollars). 2008 2009 Exports 2008 2009 Im ports Source: Turkish Statistical Institute For June 2009, the top country for Turkey’s imports was Russia (1 636 Million Dollars), records for imports range from Germany (1 204 Million Dollars), China (1 096 Million Dollars) and the U.SA (806 Million Dollars)20 The main import partners were Russia 138%, Germany 10.3%, China 78%, Italy 59%, US 48% and France 46% in 20078 The main import commodities were machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels and transport equipment. The total imports were in 2008 $2048 billion*.21 The main agricultural products are tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulse, citrus; livestocks. The main industries

are textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, and boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber and paper. On 1 January 2005 the old Turkish lira (TRL) was converted to new Turkish lira (TRY) at a rate of 1,000,000 old to 1 new Turkish lira; on 1 January 2009 the Turkish government dropped the word "new" and the currency is now called simply the Turkish lira. 22 20 Turkish Statistical Institute: www.turkstatgovtr 21 August 2009 1509 *estimation Global Finance Magazine: http://www.gfmagcom/gdp-data-country-reports/157-turkey-gdp-countryreporthtml 21 Augustus 2009 22 SWAN, SUZANNA: Törökország, Budapest, Panemex Kft., 2007 21 - 19 - http://www.doksihu DEMOGRAPHY Religion and ethnics Turkey secular is a country, which means there is no state religion. 98 % of Turkish people are Muslim, the other 2% are mostly Christian and Jewish. 85-90% are Sunni 10-15% of the Muslims are Shiites; they live in the Eastern part of

Turkey. 23 2 % of people are irreligious or atheist. Turkey is the 8th country on list of the largest number of Muslims by countries on the world with 4,7%. The 2 largest minorities are Alevi (10-15%) numbering 7-10 million, and Kurdish (18%) numbering 14 million.24 Further minorities are Armenians (around 55,000), Jews (around 26,000) and Rums (Greeks, around 25,000).25 The only official language is Turkish, but there are local TVs, dialects like Arabic and Kurdish. The first Kurdish TV channel started its operation in early 2009 23 Az MTA Filozófiai Kutatóintézetének Akadémiai- Filozófiai Nyitott Egyeteme: http://nyitottegyetem.phil-insthu/horvath2htm 28 October 2009 24 The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life: 28 October 2009 25 Turkish Odyssey: http://www.turkishodysseycom/turkey/pop/pophtm 11 November 2009 - 20 - http://www.doksihu Population26 The population of Turkey was 71.517100 on

December 31, 2008 The male population is 35.901154 and the female population is 35615946 Annual population growth rate was realized as 13,1‰ in 2008. This indicator shows nearly the same rate in the last 10 years Population Rate Growth 2002 13,2% 2003 12,9% 2004 12,6% 2005 12,3% 2006 12,1% According to the forecasts of UNDP World Population Prospects the population of Turkey is going to be 77,7 million in 2010 and 82,1 million in 2015. Proportion of population living in province and district centres is 75% of the total population. The largest city is Istanbul, 17,8% of the total population lives there The half of the population is below age 28,5. The median age of the population is 28,5. While the median age is 28 for males, it is 29 for females. The median age for population living province in and district centres is 28,4 that of the village population is 28,6. 98 064 foreigners were registrated in 2007 The most populous cities (population of the order of million) are:

Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Bursa and Adana.21 Expectation of live at birth can show how developed the country is For example in Germany as a developed country men can expect 77 years while women 83 years. In Hungary these data are 70 and 78 26 Turkish Statistical Institute: www.turkstatgovtr 21August 2009 - 21 - http://www.doksihu As the table shows there is an increase in the years. According to the expectations females can expect a longer life with 5 years in average in Turkey. This tendency can be seen in European Union also. Employment - Unemployment Working age population increased by 875 thousand in the period of May 2009 compared to the same period of the previous year. Unemployment rate was 13,6 % while non-agricultural unemployment rate was 17 %. Table 1. Labour force status (May) TURKEY 2008 (*) 2009 69 617 70 435 URBAN 2008 (*) 2009 48 296 48 695 RURAL 2008 (*) 2009 21 321 21 741 Non-institutional population (000) Population 15 years old and over 50 700 51 575 35 656

36 163 15 044 15 412 (000) 24 045 24 837 16 033 16 578 8 012 8 259 Labour force (000) 21 842 21 455 14 258 13 840 7 584 7 615 Employed (000) 2 203 3 382 1 775 2 738 428 644 Unemployed (000) 47,4 48,2 45,0 45,8 53,3 53,6 Labour force participation rate (%) 43,1 41,6 40,0 38,3 50,4 49,4 Employment rate (%) 9,2 13,6 11,1 16,5 5,3 7,8 Unemployment rate (%) Non-agricultural unemployment rate (%) 11,5 17,0 11,4 17,0 12,1 17,1 Youth unemployment rate (1) (%) 16,6 24,9 19,3 28,7 10,5 16,6 26 655 26 738 7 032 7 153 19 623 19 586 Not in the labour force (000) (1) Population within 15-24 age group Note: Total numbers may not be correct due to rounding of the numbers (*) The results of May 2008 period were revised according to new population projection. Source: Turkish Statistical Institute Of those who were employed in May 2009; 25,3 % was employed in agriculture, 18,6 % was employed in industry, 6 % was employed in construction and 50,1 % was employed in services. Employment in agriculture

increased by 0,8 percentage point and services increased by 1,2 percentage point while that of industry decreased by 1,8 and construction decreased by 0,2. Number of unemployed persons increased by 1 million 179 thousand persons compared to the same period of the previous year and has reached to 3 million 382 thousand persons in Turkey. Unemployment rate is realized as 13,6 % with 4,4 points increase Unemployment rate increased to 16,5 % with a 5,4 percentage points increase in urban areas and reached to 7,8 % with 2,5 percentage points increase in rural areas.27 27 Turkish Statistical Institute: http://reports.aiidataprocom/TBE/Household Labour Force Survey June 2009pdf 29 October 2009 - 22 - http://www.doksihu TURKISH LANGUAGE “The cornerstone of education is an easy system of reading and writing. The key to this is the new Turkish alphabet based on the Latin script.” MKAtatürk The Turkish language originated from Central Asia, it is a member of the Altaic language

family. Nowadays it is spoken by over 71 million people worldwide as a first language. It is official language also in Northern Cyprus, Cyprus (official, but not main language); in Kosovo and in Macedonia it is a regional language. According to the number of native speakers it is the 21. in the rank (this rank counts with 60 million of native speakers and 15 million whose it is their 2nd language).28 The vowel harmony makes the language melodious and soft. As a consequence of the migration of the Hungarians and the 150 years of Turkish occupation we have more hundreds of common words and there are also similarities in the structure of the Hungarian and Turkish languages. Ármin Vámbéry deals with these similarities of the 2 languages in his book: At the cradle of Hungarians. He bases the similarities to the phonetic change for example: a-e: hun. alma ‘apple’- tur elma ‘apple’; a-o: hun. agy ‘brain’- tur oy ‘thought, brain’; e-i: hun ész ‘mind’-tur is ‘mind’;

h-k: hun. hajó ‘ship’- tur kayuk ‘ship’; cs-č-s-š-t: hun sok ‘many’-tur čok ‘many’; t-dj: hun tud ‘know’-tur tuy-, tut-‘feel’29 Atatürk had a great influence on the language also with his language reform. Under Atatürk’s Leadership, Turkey undertook the modern worlds swiftest and most extensive language reform. In 1928, when he decided that the Arabic script, which had been used by the Turks for a thousand years, should be replaced with the Latin alphabet. He asked the experts: „How long would it take?" Most of them replied: „At least five years." 28 Vistawide: World Languages and Cultures: http://www.vistawidecom/languages/top 30 languageshtm 21 August 2009 29 VÁMBÉRY, ÁRMIN: A magyarság bölcsőjénél, Dunaszerdahely, Lilium Aurum, 2008. - 23 - http://www.doksihu „We shall do it," Atatürk said, "within five months". The language reform enabled children and adults to read and write within a few months, and to

study Western languages with greater effectiveness. Thousands of words, and some grammatical devices, from the Arabic and Persian, held a tight grip over Ottoman Turkish. In the early 1930s, Atatürk spearheaded the movement to eliminate these borrowings. The transformation met with unparalleled success: In the 1920s, the written language consisted of more than 80 percent Arabic, Persian, and French words; by the early 1980s the ratio had declined to a mere 10 percent.30 30 Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK: http://www.ataturkcom/content/view/19/38/ 21 August 2009 - 24 - http://www.doksihu ISLAM “It is claimed that religious unity is also a factor in the formation of nations. Whereas, we see the contrary in the Turkish nation. Turks were a great nation even before they adopted Islam. This religion did not help the Arabs, Iranians, Egyptians and others to unite with Turks to form a nation. Conversely, it weakened the Turks’ national relations; it numbed Turkish national feelings and

enthusiasm. This was natural, because Mohammedanism was based on Arab nationalism above all nationalities.” M. Kemal Atatürk The Islam religion is a system, which controls the whole society. It affects every believer, and since it is the religion in Turkey I think it necessary to become acquainted with it. but that also have to be mentioned that on some fields of live they do not keep it as in the Arab countries, that can be attributed to the “Kemalism”. 98% of the Turkish society is Muslim and represents either the Sunnis or Shiites. Approximately 15% of them are ‘alevi’ (considered as one of the many sects of Islam). There is a great influence of Sufism classes (‘mevlevi’,’ naksbandi’). After the Atatürk’s secularism, religion became more of a cultural inheritance, than a dogma. Some people are Muslims merely by birth, but of course many of them practice their religion. There are only few Christians and Jews. From the main religions of the world, Islam is the

youngest. It came into being only in 610 A.D At the centre of the Islam there are monotheism and the belief in the last judgement. Allah claims an absolute obedience from believers The word Islam means ‘submission’. The book of the Islam is the Quran which means ‘preach’, ‘recitation’. For Muslims the Koran is the word of Allah They regard it as the scale of truth and the most perfect model of conduct. Believers think Prophet Mohammed as the tool and executor of mediation, analysis and spreading of dogmas. The only God is Allah, his Prophet is Mohammed and he gets the manifestations with Gabriel archangel’s intervention. That is why a few believers do not like the denomination Mohammedan, because it refers to Mohammed, when the only God is Allah. The religion has 2 branches: Sunnis (followers of Abu, today there are around - 25 - http://www.doksihu 800 million) and Shiites (followers of Ali, today their number is around 100 million). It is forbidden to portray

Allah’s image. Since Turkey is an Islamic country, all Moslem boys are circumcised between the ages of 2-14 by licensed circumcising surgeons. The dsihad has to be mentioned, too - when talking about Islam. Basically its aim was not to convert non-Muslims to the Islam through fights, but to spread the political domination. They required to be converted to the Islam only from the “idolatrous” From Jews, Christians and Persians only the acknowledgement of the power of Islam was required. When a name is selected, it is given by an imam or an elder person in the family by holding the child in the direction of Mecca (Kible) and reading from the Koran into his left ear and repeating his name three times into his right ear.31 HISTORY OF THE RELIGION The dogmas of the Islam are written in the Koran and partly in phases and short stories ‘hadith’, which were written by the Prophet. Islam, in that form which was written by the Prophet, provided only few new doctrines for the people

whom he turned to with his dogmas. The originality was not in his dogmas, but in the effects it induced (in theory it made an end to those standings which could be called after it ‘dsáhilijja’ vandalism). The moral dogmas and institutes were borrowed from outside with few exceptions from those religions which were called ‘ahl-al-kitáb’ owners of religious books. These were the Jewish and Christian religions with their 3 books: the Torah, the Books of Psalms and the Gospel. He acknowledges these books of divine origin, but he thinks that the Jews and Christians misinterpreted them. Beside these influences, Persian effects can also be recognized. Persian words are frequent in the Koran, for example the name of clothes, textiles and the goblet from which they drink the wine, the name of which was borrowed from the Turkish language by Hungarians, it is called ‘ibrik’ (=mug, pot). 31 Turkish Odyssey: September 2009 http://www.turkishodysseycom/turkey/culture/peoplehtm#Naming

child - 26 - 26 http://www.doksihu One example for the influences (when a Christian dogma was taken over, it was modified according to the Persian convictions): the institution of Saturdays – Muslim taught for its followers that “Allah has created the skies and the ground for 6 days” and added that “without exhaustion” (Surah [50], aja 37). The holiday on the week for the Muslims is the Friday; but it is the meeting-day ‘dsumua’, and not a rest day. It means that the work is not prohibited but in the hour of the service the follower of the true faith is obliged to restrain from work. The Persian religion divides the creation of the world to 6 parts and does not have a rest-day, especially not for having rest. Mohammed grounded the basis of the Islam at his residence in Medina, but it only became a system after his death. The institutions were developed continuously The branching-out practices came to a certain arrangement only later, but there is no uniform in

details still nowadays.32 PILLARS OF THE ISLAM The ancient Islam has considered the following 5 obligations as the pillars of the religion. These are still in existence in the dogmas of Islam 1. Testimony ‘sahádat’: There is no other God apart from Allah and Mohammed is his delegate. 2. Service of God, it is a 5-time pray-ceremony ‘szalát’, in exact points of time every day in the direction of Mecca. The points of time are: midday, afternoon, sunset, night and dawn. The 5 prays per day is the result of the Persian influence. At the beginning there were only 2 prays (at morning and night), later as an influence of the Jewish religion it became 3, and just thereafter it was completed to 5. Prayers were regulated by formalities quite early I am going to write about it in detail later. Mohammed instead of the Jewish Saturdays and the Christian Sundays designated Friday not as a rest day but as a meeting-day ‘al-dsumua’. The liturgy has to be held where the congregation can

be found, in every Friday around the midday pray. The szalát is joined with a ceremonial speech ‘khutba’, formerly it was held by the caliph in the capital.32 32 GOLDZIHER, IGNÁCZ: Az Iszlám, Budapest, Franklin Társulat és Révai Testvérek, é.n - 27 - http://www.doksihu The exact times of prayers are determined according to the movement of the sun. It means prayers are always at different times on every day So for example the exact praying times on the 22nd August, 2009 were33: Dawn Midday Afternoon Sunset Night prayer time prayer time prayer time prayer time prayer time ‘fadzsr’ ‘dzuhr’ ‘aszr’ ‘maghrib’ ‘isha’ 12:47 4:38 7:44 9:18 4:16 Sunrise 5:48 The praying times on the 23 August, 2009 were: Dawn Midday Afternoon Sunset Night prayer time prayer time prayer time prayer time prayer time ‘fadzsr’ ‘dzuhr’ ‘aszr’ ‘maghrib’ ‘isha’ 12:47 4:37 7:42 9:16 4:18 Sunrise 5:50 The muezzin is a

chosen person at the mosque who leads the call to Friday service and the five daily prayers from one of the mosques minarets (in most modern mosques, electronic amplification aids the muezzins) and the time of prayers can be read at the entrance of the mosques. 3. Public tax ‘zakát’: every Muslim has to contribute to the public The sum is used to help the public aims of the congregation, for example to help the poor. 4. Fasting ‘szijám’ Mohammed copied the Jewish Lent, originally was ordered to the 10th day of the 1st month ‘ásúrá’, but later on he cancelled it, and ordered a month- long fasting to the 9th month ‘ramadhán’. In this month the Muslim believers must refrain from every wordly pleasure from sunrise till sunset every day, e.g they must not eat, drink, or have a bath before sunset31 The shops are open at night and after the sunset they can eat as much as they want and can. In 2009 it would have begun on 21st August, but in Saudi Arabia and Jordan (and

also in Hungary) the moon was not observable, so they begin it only on 22 August. (The beginning of the Ramadan depends on the change of Moon) 33 Iszlám közösségi oldal: 22 August 2009 - 28 - http://www.doksihu The reason why some holidays begin on different days according to the Gregorian calendar every year, is because the Islam time began with the ‘hiddsa’ on 16th July in 622, when Prophet Mohammed went from Mecca to Medina and they counted in lunar years, which are exactly 354-day long every year, because they are based on the movement of the moon and one year contains 12 lunar month. According to this 2009 is 1430 (In case of non-religious holidays, Turkish people also use the Gregorian calendar.) 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca ‘hadds’: Muslim people have to do it at least once in their life, if there is no serious obstacle thrown in one’s way. For this ritual the first 10 days of the 12th month, month of pilgrimage ‘dzu-l-hiddsa’, are

ordered. The centre of this is Kaba (black stone) and there they have to perform all the ceremonies.32 HOLIDAYS AND RELIGIOUS HOLIDAYS NATIONAL HOLIDAYS1 1 January New Years Eve 23 April the Day of the National Sovereignty ‘Ulusal ‘Yılbaşı’ and children’s day 1 May Egemenlik ve Çocuk’ ‘Bayramı’ Labour and Solidarity Day (recently added in 2009) 19 May Atatürk Commemoration and Youth ‘Atatürkü Anma, Gençlik ve Spor & Sports Day Bayramı’ 29 May Capture of Istanbul 1 July Day of the Navy ‘Denizcilik Günü’ 30 August Day of Victory ‘Zafer Bayramı’ 29 October Day of Republic ‘Cumhuriyet Bayramı’ 10 November Atatürk-Memorial Day - 29 - http://www.doksihu RELIGIOUS HOLIDAYS 1. ‘Sacred-holiday’ – ‘Kurban Bayramı’ or ‘Büyük Bairam’ – It is “the Great Holiday” It is held on the 10th day of the 12th ‘dzu-l-hiddsa’ month, 70 days after Ramadan. It is the day when the pilgrims to Mecca made a

sacrifice in the nearby valley Miná. It is a 4-day long holiday The sacrifice is recommended for every Muslim, but only obligatory for those who took a vow to fulfil it. According to the Gregorian calendar it is changing in time.28 Kurban Bayrami (Feast of the Sacrifice) was on 27-30 November in 2009, while in 2010 it is going to be on 16-19 November. 2. ‘Sugar-holiday’ – ‘Ramazan Bayramı or Şeker Bayramı’ – It is “the Small Holiday”. It is the holiday to celebrate the end of the Ramadan It starts on 1th day of ‘Sawwal’ (10th) month and it is 3-day long. It also changes in time It is a joyful time of the year. The Musulman families visit each other these days, give presents to each other and visit the grave of their be loved.28 Ramazan Bayrami in 2009 it was on 19-22 September (19th is half-day). In 2010 it is going to be on 9-12 September (9th is half-day). In Turkey, people celebrate the ‘Ásúrá’, it is the 10th day of the ‘Muharram’ (1st) month. In

the Gregorian calendar in 2008 it was on 19 January. ‘Ásúrá’ means ‘the 10th day’ According to Muslim customs when the Flood started to withdraw, Prophet Noah collected all foods, remained on the Ark and cooked pudding of it. It was named „ásúrá” or „Noah’s pudding”. To remember Prophet Noah and thanks giving to God, peoples of Anatolia and other Muslims made a habit to make and share this pudding among neighbours and friends. Sharing the pudding is a god way of strengthening the connection among people and unity independently from religion, belief and background. - 30 - http://www.doksihu PRAYERS AND ITS CEREMONIES / PRAYER AS A CEREMONY At every service the ritual washing ‘wudú’ has to be done. It can be done by clear water or sand. After the washing of the hands, mouth, nose and face, the arms have to be washed till the elbow. The head has to be smoothed with watery hands, than the ears, back of the neck and toes have to be washed. Before stepping

into the mosque shoes have to be taken off. (Men are obliged to wear long trousers; women have to wear a shawl. Hair, shoulders, and knees have to be covered up, in case of non-Muslims as well.) The service has to be done faced to Mecca ‘qibla’ (Saudi Arabia) The predetermined texts are followed by definite and characteristic moves. The believer has to be in a straight posture, his arms have to be at rest near by the body. Heels have to be 4-finger’s wide from each other, in front, at the big toe it can be wider. He glances at the floor at the place where he is going to throw himself to the ground again ‘szudzsúd’. Meanwhile he concentrates on the intention ‘níja’, that he holds a service, after than he says Allhu akbar! (God is the Greatest!). Then he puts his right hand on his left hand under his chest and tells a pray before he recites the al-Fátiha (the first and shortest verse of the Koran): “In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Praise be to

Allah, Lord of the Worlds, The Beneficent, the Merciful. Master of the Day of Judgment, Thee (alone) we worship; Thee (alone) we ask for help. Show us the straight path, The path of those whom Thou hast favoured; Not the (path) of those who earn Thine anger nor of those who go astray.34” He puts his arms on his thigh, bows his head and looks in front of him. Then he throws himself to the ground again. After this he quotes from the Koran, says ‘Alláhu akbar’ and bows again. The believer with straight legs bows ca in right angle, with his straight arms and opened fingers he leans against his knees, he turns his head to the floor, his head follows his back in a straight way and looks his toes. In this position he says at least 3 times: ‘My great God is exalted’. Then he straightens up 34 University of Southern California: PICKTHAL, http://www.uscedu/schools/college/crcc/engagement/resources/texts/muslim/quran/001qmthtml#00100 119 September 2009 - 31 - http://www.doksihu

Than comes the most characteristic movement of the service: he throws himself to the ground. With closed legs, he leans against his knees and toe fingers, he smoothes the ground with his forehead, meanwhile he leans his arms nearby his head against the ground with closed palms. He keeps his elbow far from his body After he sits down on his left toe, he’s right toe is bended nearby him and says ‘Alláhu akbar!’ and repeats 3 times: ‘Praise for my greatest God!. It is followed by bows while he quotes from the Koran. As the last movement of the service the believer in sedentary position he turns his head over his right and left shoulder and he says: ‘Peace and mercy of God for you’. The service ends with this. After the service some of them repeat laudatory formulas with the help of the rosary ‘miszbaha’: ‘Alláhu akbar!’ (God is the greatest), ‘Al-hamdu lilláh’ (Honour to God!), ‘Szubhán Alláh’ (God be praised highly!). All of them are repeated 33 times

according to the 3x11 arrangement of the rosary. The weekly congregational service is held on Fridays at midday in the great mosque.33 MOSQUES 1. This building was the han or caravanserais, served as accommodation for travellers. 2. It was the imaret, the kitchen It supplied the officials of the mosque, students, sick persons and poor men. 3. was served as hospital (darüşşifa) 4. Schools (medrese) which gave general and theological teaching. them Most today of serve other aims. Ground plan of Mosque Süleymaniye - 32 - http://www.doksihu 5. Court (avlu) in the middle there is the well for the ritual wash 6. Prayer area (cami) 7. Mausoleum (türbe) which was built in honour of the grounder of the mosque 8. Bath (hamam) Inside the mosque22 Islam prohibits the portrayal of animals and people that is why there are no sculptures and figurative delineations. Inside spaces are decorated by geometric and abstract architectural ornaments. Men pray separately from women Women

are often behind a curtained area or on a choir. Muezzin mahfili can be found the bigger mosques. It is a platform where the muezzin knees when the imam (leader of the mosque) chants in response to the imams prayers. Mihrab is a niche in the wall; it shows the direction of Mecca. The prayer hall is formed the way that most of people could see it. The origin of it is unknown but the first niche was built in the rebuilt mosque of Prophet in Medina at the time of al-Valid caliph around 705-715. Minbar is a high dais on the right side of mihrab. The imam says his sermons (khutba) on Fridays from here Hünkar mahfili is a curtained choir, the place of prayer of the sultan. Kürsü is that platform where the imam sits and reads from the Koran. Ritual wash before the pray has to be done at these court wells or at taps built in the walls of mosque. THE SUNNIS AND SHIITES ISLAM Since Islam is a religious ideology which influences the life of the whole society, the religious and political

spheres are in continuous interaction. It was not a coincidence that the first “schism” in the Islam was a political question: Who is going to be the inheritor on the top of the political power after the Prophet? Majority thought, that the - 33 - http://www.doksihu person whom the community finds most worthy. They are the Sunnis “the congregations of traditions and community”. They admit the historical system in succession of caliph dignity. Unlike the Shiites, who took Ali’s part. They thought only the closer relatives of Ali are able to practice the governing power instead of the Prophet. /The first 4 caliphs were Ibu Bakar, Amar (in Turkish Ömer), Aszmán (Oszman) and Ali. The Shiites acknowledge only Ali, because he was from the family of the Prophet. Ibu Bakar was “appointed” by the Prophet, Amar was appointed by Ibu Bakar. Ibu Bakar was later on the most beloved after Mohammed. After Ali the next dynasty on the political power was from his family. / /There are

also the Alevis, who are Shiites (or Shia) but the Shias of Anatolia are not the same as Shias of Iran. In Anatolia they are called Alevis, which comes from the word Ali. It is a mixture of Anatolian cultures together with a deep belief in the incarnation of God in Ali. Compared to the Sunnis of Anatolia, the Alevis are more flexible For example, they stopped going to mosques on grounds that Ali, the son-in-law of the Prophet Mohammed and the founder of Alevism, was murdered in a mosque. /35 The opposition between Sunnis and Shiites basically political, but ultimately it is deeply religious. While Sunnis were careful that opposing viewpoints should not carry effects in the Islam, Shiites could not resist the foreign influences and that is why fundamental principles mixed and increased with contradictionary principles and practices with the Islam. This is the reason why Sunnis do not consider Shiites Islam as real Islam; in better cases they consider it the serious distortion of the

real Islam.2 35 Turkish Odyssey: http://www.turkishodysseycom/turkey/culture/religionhtm#Alevis 01 November 2009 - 34 - http://www.doksihu MUSLIM MYSTERY The Muslim mystery is the Sufism. The members of the Mevlevi order are the whirling dervishes. Sufi influences are the most significant in Turkey among the Muslim countries. Sufis believed in that they are the beloved, chosen, friends, slaves of God and they take care of his signs. The order was grounded by Celaleddin Rumi a.ka Mevlâna He thought that the music and dance is a tool to get people in an ecstatic state, where people can get rid of the everyday problems and pains. The whirling ceremony contains more parts; each of them has its own meaning. Affection is the main topic. The whirling is the symbol of the distribution of affection among people. Their main aim is to reach the union with God Sufis are outsiders of the society. Sufis say that they do not get closer to God through 5 prays a day, but through whirling. While

whirling they say prays and they say that they can speak with God through this way. - 35 - http://www.doksihu ARCHITECTURE If the World was a single state, Istanbul would be its capital. Napoleon Bonaparte The principal Islamic architectural types include among others: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. An especially recognizable Islamic architectural style emerged soon after Prophet Muhammads time, developing from localized adaptations of Egyptian, Byzantine and Persian models. Distinguishing motifs of Islamic architecture have always been ordered repetition, radiating structures, and rhythmic, metric patterns. In this respect, fractal geometry has been a key utility, especially for mosques and palaces. Other significant features employed as motifs include columns, piers and arches, organized and interwoven with alternating sequences of niches and colonnette. The role of domes in Islamic architecture has been considerable.37 HANS AND CARAVANSERAIS 36 In Anatolia

several hans (warehouses) and caravanserais (inns) were built in the Seljuk and Ottoman area to protect the caravans (travelers) on their way. Seljuks were built more than 100 hans to promote the trade. (The camel caravans went from China to the main trade centres, like Bursa. The most important goods were silk, spice and slaves) Under the Ottoman area these hans and caravanserais became the part of the social system subsidized by the state. Today lots of them can be visited; some of them are converted into hotels or restaurants. The Sultanhanı caravanserai remained in the best condition. It was built between 1226 and 1229 in Central-Anatolia in Aksaray The building was surrounded by stable, mosque and hamam. Traders could store their goods in covered halls. 36 SWAN, SUZANNA: Törökország, Budapest, Panemex Kft. 2007 - 36 - http://www.doksihu The caravanserais were surrounded by thick walls. Entrance was only possible through the central door. A small mosque was in the middle

of the courtyard The mosque was built on arches. In the middle of the hall there was an octagonal lighthouse, through which the light could shine in. OTTOMAN ARCHITECTURE 37 The Architecture of most of the popular mosques in Turkey obtained influence from Byzantine, Persian and Syrian-Arab designs. Turkish architects implemented their own style of cupola domes. The most conspicuous buildings are in Istanbul those, which have been built in the Ottoman area. The architecture of the Turkish Ottoman Empire forms a distinctive whole, especially the great mosques by and in the style of Sinan, like the mid-16th century Suleiman Mosque. For almost 500 years Byzantine Architecture such as the church of Hagia-Sophia served as models for many of the Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, and the Rüstem Pasha Mosque. Mostly these are mosques of sultans, palaces and külliyes (Muslim charitable institutions). The Ottoman architecture is characterized by strict hierarchy

of scales and materials. For example only those mosques could have 2 or more minarets which were ordered by a member of the Ottoman family. Lots of architectures were imported from Greece or Armenia. Ottomans mastered the technique of building vast inner spaces confined by seemingly weightless yet massive domes, and achieving perfect harmony between inner and outer spaces, as well as light and shadow. Islamic religious architecture, which until then consisted of simple buildings with extensive decorations, was transformed by the 37 Islamic-Arch: 08 November 2009 - 37 - http://www.doksihu Ottomans through a dynamic architectural vocabulary of vaults, domes, semi domes and columns. The mosque was transformed from being a cramped and dark chamber with arabesque-covered walls into a sanctuary of esthetic and technical balance, refined elegance and a hint of heavenly transcendence. Early Ottoman mosques The early Ottoman mosques had only 1 huge prayer room,

which was covered by semicircular dome. Covered hall and minarets outside also belonged to the mosques Sometimes these were completed with arcaded courtyards. Usually the entrance hall is covered by 7 domes. Walls are filled with rubble stone Late Ottoman mosques After the occupation of Constantinople, the form of mosques went through lots of changes. Orthodox churches were often changed to mosques; the most famous of these is the Hagia Sophia. As an effect of these examples, higher mosques with one dome became widespread and the inner spaces were expanded also.1 An architecturally interesting thing is about Hagia Sophia is that - according to the experts - it could resist a 7,5 magnitude earthquake. The Northern-Anatolian fault line is close to Istanbul and earthquakes are frequent. It is because its flexibility is incredible, considering the time when it was built (AD 532). It is due to the special solutions and materials used. One of the special solutions is that the dome is

standing on columns and not on a cylinder; the other solution is that the 40 windows of the building hinder the building against disintegration. The special materials are the bricks, which are extremely easy and the mortar, which contains calcium and silicone. In case of quakes, these indigents react with each other and strengthen the mortar along the gap after 1500 years also.38 Wells 36 According to the Koran water is the source of Life, so it was a civil obligation to ensure public wells which are called çeşme, They are found in every city and ensure free water. Şadırvan is the well in the court of mosque for the ritual bath. 38 National Geography Magyarország:http://www.geographichu/indexphp?act=napi&id=13855 15 September 2009 - 38 - http://www.doksihu Konak36 Konak is that type of house where at the ground floor is a granary, stable or storage. The kitchen and the common rooms are on the first floor, while the private rooms are on the third floor. These houses are

typically 3-floor houses In some of them, there were separate entrances to the harem (females of the house) and to the selamlık (males of the house). These houses are wood-structured, built on stone and brick ground Nowadays, a few of these houses are reconstructed to hotels. Yali36 Yali is a villa on the coast along the Bosporus. Most of these were built in the 18th and 19th century as a summer residency of the rich citizens of the Ottoman Istanbul. These were built so as to get the most out of its sea coast aspect, that is why boathouses or landing stages can be found in these houses. These were built in different forms and architectural styles from the simplest wooden-structures to the lavish Russian style. This yali is located on the Anatolian side of the Bosporus and has the longest façade among the yalis of Bosporus with its 64 meters. It was the yali of Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha. Another yali is the Afif Ahmet Pasa Yali It is located on the European side of Bosporus. It

was built by a French architect and one of the most famous guests of this house was Agatha Christie.39 39 Istanbul Mansions: http://www.istanbulmansioncom/Waterfront Legacyhtm 24 September 2009 - 39 - http://www.doksihu CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS „Culture is the foundation of the Turkish Republic” M. Kemal Atatürk The culture of Turkey is very colourful and many sided because of the Ottoman past, the blending of cultures and the Islam tradition. It is said to be an interesting mixture of the “East” and “West”. Turkish customs are hereditary from generations to generations Lots of customs originate from the Islam and they hardly changed over time. Family life is very important in the Turkish culture; communities are strengthened by the social and economic ties of big families. BELIEFS In the Arab world high value is set on 3 symbols: the fish, evil eye and Fatima’s hand. These symbols are over the entrances of lots of houses in the Arab world. Fish is the symbol of

eternal renewal, rebirth and often represented as a life-saver. In the Islam it is also the symbol of fertility. In Tunisia fish is regarded as very effective as a protection for women and new-born infants.40 Cradles are often decorated with this symbol. Fatima’s hand or khamsa is the symbol of good luck. Fatima was Mohammed’s favourite daughter. The Legend of the Hamsa Hand: The daughter of Prophet Muhammad, Lady Fatima, was busy preparing supper, when her husband, Prophet Ali, returned home unexpectedly. To her amazement, Fatima saw that Ali was accompanied by a beautiful young concubine. Fatima was deeply hurt by this scene but managed to keep her calm and continued to prepare the meal. She was preparing Halva (a sweet Mediterranean dish made from sesame seeds) on a hot frying pan and absentmindedly, under the influence of the disturbing seen she previously saw, she put her hand inside the boiling dish, and stirred. She was so disturbed that she didnt even feel the pain. Her

husband saw what was happening and 40 http://books.googleca/books?id=vX6Uv0fYmtUC&pg=PA338&dq=khamsa+evil+eye&lr=#v=onepage &q=khamsa%20evil%20eye&f=false 25 October 2009 - 40 - http://www.doksihu cried over to her, to warn her. Only then Fatima realized that her hand was getting burned and she quickly took her hand out of the pan. As a result of this accident, Fatimas hand became an important symbol in the Middle East. During many hundreds of years this symbol was worn in different ways As a necklace made up of many little hands, as a single amulet on a chain or as an artistic decoration on a wall. It is believed that the Hamsa can bring good luck to its owners and recompense them for their loyalty and forbearance.41 In Turkey the third symbol plays the most important role it is called the evil eye or Allah’s eye, in Turkish is mavi/nazar buncuk/boncuğu. It protects from bad luck, envy, dislikes and injuries and brigs luck. Turks can put this symbol on

almost everything, on cell phone, doors, cars ect. Islam and time: It is characteristics for Turkish and Arab people, that they are often late, which can be annoying for Europeans. Muslims think that „ the human being is impatient” Koran, „Al-Iszrā”, Surah [17], aja 11 the Koran disposes of everything properly and because “the human being is impatient” („Al-Iszrā”, Surah [17], aja 11) is in the Koran they think they have enough time. There is an Arab proverb, which also says that “Patience is form Allāh, hurry comes from the Satan.” FAMILY The traditional extended family generally means that three generations live together: grandfather, adult sons and sons sons, their wives and their unmarried daughters a married daughter becomes a member of her husbands family and lives there. In Turkey lots of houses are never finished, it has got 2 causes. On the one hand it can be because as more and more people live together, more and more space needed and they built

an additional floor on the top of the house, which costs a lot and most of Turkish families 41 Terebess Ázsia Lexikon: http://www.terebesshu/keletkultinfo/lexikon/hamszahtml 25 October 2009 - 41 - http://www.doksihu can build it just slowly. On the other hand they not always want to finish it because in Turkey after every finished house tax has to be paid, which means an additional burden for those poor families.37 Today because of industrialization and urbanization unclean families replace the traditional family structure. Unclean family means that husband, wife and unmarried children live together. In traditional Turkish families, the father is the head of the family, but the mother has equal rights. The father is the person who earns the money for the family. The mother either helps to work and earn money or takes care of the home. Grandparents help to raise children, while children help with the housework4242 Nowadays we can see the effects of West that for Turkish people

also enough 2 or 3 children, in case of wealthy families that there is only 1 child.43 WOMEN Islam plays an important role in the lives of women. Islam influenced women’s life in Arabic countries, and women were exposed to all wishes of their husbands. 42 42 For the woman her fertility gives her value. For the modern Turkish families the idyllic picture is a family which grounds on powerful and steady basis.43 For the infertile women some fruits or herbs are hanged over her uterus. Nowadays more and more people turn to doctor for advice and medication. In Anatolia it was a habit to petition at greaves for fertility. 43 In Turkey in the declaration of the Republic in 1923, one of the most significant elements in the social revolution planned and advocated by Ataturk was the emancipation of Turkish women, based on the principle that the new Turkey was to be a secular state, since then women have right to work in the public sector. In 1926, a new code of Turkish civil law was adopted,

which suddenly changed the family structure. Polygamy was abolished along with religious marriages and divorce and child custody became the right of both women and men. A minimum age for marriage was fixed at 15 for girls and 17 for boys. 42 Turkish Odyssey: http://www.turkishodysseycom/turkey/culture/peoplehtm 20091025 1510 BARTHA, JÚLIA: Lâle: hagyományok a mai török társadalomban, az emberélet fordulóinak népszokása, Szolnok, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok Megyei Múzeumok Igazgatósága, 2006. 43 - 42 - http://www.doksihu With the secularization of the educational system, women gained equal rights with men in the field of education as well and no longer had to wear the veils and long garments, required by the old religious beliefs. The right to vote for women was granted at the municipal level in 1930 and nationwide in 19343, in this year they gained right to be electable.44 In 1935 18 women became elected as Members of Parliament, which meant 4.5%45 In 1993 Tansu Çiller

is the first woman elected Prime Minister of Turkey46 Theoretically, Turkish women were far ahead of many of their western sisters at that time, for instance in France, where women only gained the right to vote in 1944. The charter of the International Labour Organization adopted in 1951, declaring equal wages for both sexes for equal work was ratified by Turkey in 1966.42 Although all of these improvements, the actual status of women within the family institution did not provide for proper equality between men and women.42 TODAY’S SITUATION OF WOMEN Nowadays, more women have a chance to learn. It has been observed that as the education level of women increases, the fertility rate decreases. Nearly every female university graduate has only one child. 9 million of the 21 million working population of Turkey are women. In the rural areas, the rate of working women, especially in agriculture, is very high. In urban areas, women hold important posts both in public and private sectors,

the arts and sciences. Turkish women can be bank managers, doctors, lawyers, judges, journalists, pilots, diplomats, police officers, army officers or prime ministers also.42 The Parliament accepted the new civil legal code in 2001, which considers the married couple as an equal party and the notion of illegitimate children was eliminated. A few years ago 9 out of 10 people thought violence against women was acceptable, but now 9 out of 10 thought it was wrong. "This is a huge breakthrough in the publics mentality", 44 International Women’s Democracy Centre: http://www.iwdcorg/resources/suffragehtm 25 October 2009 45 Political Participation Patterns of Turkish Women: http://www.librarycornelledu/colldev/mideast/womtur~1htm 25 October 2009 46 International Women’s Democracy Centre: http://www.iwdcorg/resources/timelinehtm 25 October 2009 - 43 - http://www.doksihu Nebahat Akkoç founder of KAMER (an NGO working for womens rights in eastern and south-eastern Anatolia)

said.47 MARRIAGE In the traditional family, marriage is still a family rather than a personal affair. Traditionally, marriage had been, and frequently continues to be, a contract negotiated and executed by the families and blessed by a representative of the religious establishment. Representatives of the bride negotiated the contract with those of the groom, stipulating such terms as the size and nature of the bride-price paid by the grooms family to the brides, and certain conditions of conjugal life. After a series of meetings between the two families, the exchange of gifts, and the display of the trousseau, the marriage was formalized at a ceremony presided over by a religious official. The ritual left no doubt that the consenting units were families rather than individuals. Similarly, the relations of the young couple were a family matter48 Marriage was legalised only before the republic. Approximately 40% of marriages are only civil, 50% are both civil and religious, 10% are only

religious which means they are not legal.49 Despite increasing frequency of civil marriage, however, the realities of courtship and marriage in the traditional segments of society have not been completely reformed in the countryside. In the late 1980s, many couples, especially in the rural areas, engaged in two ceremonies, a religious one to satisfy their families and a civil one to entitle them and their children to government social benefits, as well as to confer legitimacy on their children before the law.48 Early marriages are more frequent in rural areas. For young men in big cities the problems of receiving an education, military service and acquiring a job are among the reasons that delay marriage.37 MARRIAGE TRADITIONS The wedding ceremony takes from four to seven days in Turkey. It starts with separate celebrations of the bride and grooms families. From this day on till the couple gets married, they cannot see each other until their wedding ceremony. 47 European Parliament:

http://www.europarleuropaeu/news/expert/infopress page/014-54483-117-0418-902-20090427IPR54482-27-04-2009-2009-false/default enhtm 25 October 2009 48 All about Turkey: http://www.allaboutturkeycom/ 05 November 2009 49 Enjoy Turkey: http://www.enjoyturkeycom/info/culture/Life Stylehtm 05 November 2009 - 44 - http://www.doksihu HENNA NIGHT (KINA GECESI)48 The ceremony held one day before the wedding in the home of bride and groom is called the henna night. It generally takes place at the girl’s home and among women, although either side can elect to host it. After preparing the bride, veil ornamented with red flake is placed over her head, and she is brought into the middle with hymn and folk songs about henna. Henna that has earlier kneaded with water is brought in on a tray surrounded by candles and placed in the middle of the room. In some places, the henna is first put on the hands of the bride and then distributed to the guests; in other areas the henna is first distributed to

the guests, and only after everybody has left is it placed on the bride’s hands. If the woman so wishes, henna can also be placed on her feet and hair. Before the henna is applied, coins or gold are also placed in her hands. After women who came together for dying henna leave, close friend of the bride remain with her and enjoy themselves till morning. Dying ceremonies of henna differ according to regions The henna itself has such names and types as “iplik kinasi” (henna for yarn), “sivama” (smearing), “kusgözü” (bird eye). MILITARY SERVICE Those men who are 20 years of age but still continue their higher education at universities or vocational training programs are allowed to postpone their draft until they have completed these programs. The duration of the basic military service varies: 15 months for privates (elementary or high school graduates), 12 months for reserve officers (University graduates), and 6 months for short-term privates (those who have earned a

university degree and have not been enlisted as reserve officers). For Turkish citizens who have lived or worked abroad for at least 3 years, a basic military training of 3 weeks is offered instead of the full-term military service if they pay a certain fee in foreign currency (was 10.000 old German Marks, equal to 5112 Euros of today). All Land, Naval and Air forces are connected to the Turkish General Staff, Gendarmerie forces are connected to the Land forces, and Coast Guard is connected to the Naval - 45 - http://www.doksihu forces. Land Forces are organized into; 4 Corps Command (1st Army in Marmara area, 2nd Army in the Southeast, 3rd Army in the Northeast, Aegean Army in the Aegean region).50 PREGNANCY43 There was a nuptial habit to scatter the bride with small seeds, from this richness in children was awaited. They tried to get to know and influence the sex of the baby It is said that if the pregnant woman whish for sweet and apple that she is expecting a boy, if she wishes

sour like lemon and plum that it is going to be girl. The pregnant women are defended by lots of prohibitions like if the mother looks to a rabbit than the baby is going to have a harelip. She has to avoid looking at ugly things like dog, cat and mouse, because the baby is going got being ugly. For keeping away the ghosts at birth the lamp was lightning. BIRTH For Turkish people family is very important, which is provided by children.42 They think that children are the best investigation. To have a great family in Turkey means a great honour.43 Upon hearing the good news of pregnancy, a golden bracelet comes immediately as a present from the mother-in-law. In rural areas a pregnant woman declares it with some symbols mostly on her clothing; her scarf, motifs on it and suchlike. For the births, in rural places midwives are present, whereas in big cities hospitals are common. The mother is not supposed to go out from her house for 40 days. If she works, she has a holiday of 40 days

automatically In the first three days only close relatives come to visit, but in the following days the others also come to visit with lots of presents.42 Baby boys have to get a bigger present than the baby girls43 In Anatolia there is a custom of planting trees in the names of newly born children. Chestnut, mulberry and apple trees are planted for girls, poplar or pine trees for boys.42 There are some further customs which related to the birth, some of these are the cradle must not roll when it is empty, because that is said to be meant the death of the baby. The mother should not open the swaddling-bands in front of foreigners, not to envy the baby. To stair the baby on the street should be avoid because that is said that it brings a curse on the baby, against this is the Allah’s eye used.43 50 All about Turkey: http://www.allaboutturkeycom/armyhtm 25 October 2009 - 46 - http://www.doksihu NAMING THE BABY Turkish people have family names only since 21 April 1934. They had to

chose their name and to written it into their birth certificate. The causes of these were the growing population and the reforms according to European norms. They chose as family name tribal, geographical, hoped features or professions. After the birth in 1 week has to be named the baby.43 Turkish names always have meanings. Some of the childrens names may derive from the time in which he was born; Bayram (Feast), Safak (Dawn), Bahar (Spring), Ramazan (the holy month, Ramadan), or the events during the birth; Yagmur (Rain), Tufan (Storm), or express the parents feeling about the child, if they want him to be the last one; Yeter (Enough), Songul (Last rose) and sometimes names of elder people in families are chosen as displays of respect. When a name is selected, it is given by an imam or an elder person in the family by holding the child in the direction of Mecca (Kible) and reading from the Koran into his left ear and repeating his name three times into his right ear. There is when

old historical names are given to the baby; these names are Atila or Atilla and Arpad which are common in Hungary also. SUNNET (CIRCUMCISION) 47 In Islam, the authority for circumcision did not come from the Koran but from the example of the Prophet Mohammed. As an Islamic country, in Turkey, all Moslem boys are circumcised between the ages 2-14 by licensed circumcising surgeons. From the social point of view, the most prominent feature of circumcision is the introduction of a child to his religious society as a new member. Circumcisions are generally made with big ceremonies in festive atmosphere. If a family has more than one boy, they wait for an appropriate time to perform it altogether. Charity organizations make collective ceremonies for poor boys and orphans.37 For this occasion boys wear a special dress, which models the page boy costume of the sultan’s army. The circumcision is an initiation, marking the time, when the boy can apprehend the religion. It is mostly performed

between the age of 7 and 12. Prior sunnet, boys are raised together with girls, after sunnet, they join the men.43 - 47 - http://www.doksihu CEREMON42 When a family determines a date for their feast, they invite relatives, friends and neighbours by sending invitation cards in advance. They prepare a highly decorated room for the boy with a nice bed and many colourful decorative things. Boys should also wear special costumes for this feast; a suit, a cape, a sceptre and a special hat with "Masallah", meaning "God preserve him", written on it. In the morning of the feast, the children of guests are all taken for a tour around in a big convoy with the boy either on horseback, horse carts, or automobiles. This convoy is also followed by musicians playing the drums and the clarinet. After they come back, the boy wears a loose long white dress and, is circumcised by the surgeon while somebody holds him. This person who holds is called kirve, and has to be somebody

close to the boy. In the Eastern parts of Anatolia, this is the first contact of a relationship, which will continue for lifetime. He will play an active role in the boys life and have nearly equal rights with the father in decisions. This is similar to a godfather in Christianity. Although there is no blood relation to his kirve, the boy will not even be allowed to marry his kirves daughter in order not to have incest because he is considered to have become somebody from the family. After the circumcision, the boy is in pain and has to be kept busy with music, lots of jokes or some other animation. Presents also are given at this time to help him forget his pains. In the meantime words from the Koran are recited and guests are taken to tables for the feast meal which is a special one laid with different food changing from region to region. After a few days the boy recovers and festivities end Today, there is a small group of people who prefer their children to be circumcised in

hospitals while they are in hospital after birth, whereby ignoring the traditional side. DIVORCE42 Divorce is not very common. Women continue their lives for their childrens sake or not to suffer from the social pressure it may evoke. The other reason is economic If a woman does not work, she does not have many alternatives when divorced. After a certain age, in a country where employment is a problem, it is really a risk to survive. A - 48 - http://www.doksihu new law proposal is waiting to be enacted in parliament. The change will allow the sharing of everything equally. DEATH AND BURIAL42 Throughout the ages in Anatolia, many different rituals regarding death and burial have been applied. Types of graves have differed When somebody dies, the corpse is laid on a bed in a separate room; the head facing the direction of Mecca, eyelids closed, the big toes are tied to each other and the two arms rest on both sides next to the body. Burial has to take place as soon as possible during

the daytime. If somebody dies in the late afternoon, he is buried the next day The corpse might rest for a period of time in a cool place or a mortuary but only if there are close relatives coming from a far away place. According to religious belief, if somebody is buried without an ablution, he is not allowed to enter heaven. Therefore, dead people have to be washed by authorized people, and always women by a woman, men by a man. Meanwhile the death is declared from a mosque minaret by a muezzin with some words from the Koran together with his name, funeral time and place. After the ablution the corpse is dressed in a white shroud, put in a wooden coffin covered with a green piece of cloth. A martyrs coffin is covered with the Turkish flag. The coffin is carried to the table outside in the courtyard of a mosque on peoples shoulders before prayers. Nobody stands in front of the funeral procession and people in the street stand up and salute the funeral motionless and in silence. While

the coffin rests guarded on the table outside, people perform their regular prayers. From within the mosque, following the prayers, they all come out and line up in front of the coffin to take part in the funeral service under the leadership of the Imam. Women are not allowed to join this service. At the end of the service, the Imam asks people what they thought of the deceased and answers are always positive: "He was good. May God bless him. Mercy be upon his soul, etc" Funeral services are not held for parricides or the stillborn. - 49 - http://www.doksihu Interment The coffin is carried to the cemetery by a hearse followed by a long convoy. Graves are rectangular in shape and designed to accommodate only one person. The deceased is buried in only the shroud not the coffin. The body is laid on its right shoulder facing the direction of Mecca. The tombstone is on the heads side The Imams prayers signify the end of the burial. The deceased is commemorated on the seventh

and fifty-second days of his death with Islamic readings; mevlit. Sometimes big funerary meals or halvah are offered to the poor and surrounding people. TRADITIONAL COSTUME51 Clothing has come by its present forms as a result of the influence of social and moral values. With the passing time, a wide variety in forms of clothing emerged These differences were the result of social and economic structure, geography, the materials available and climate. Each region had its own characteristics in the way of clothing, headwear, scarves and socks, which have all, through the centuries, attracted interest and admiration. Clothes indicate whether societies are settled or nomadic, and are a source of information about historical events and ethnological origins. For example, in Yöruk or Turkoman villages, one can tell whether a woman is engaged, married or a widow from the way in which she does her hair. Daily, work and special day clothes are different. Hair styles during a wedding and after

the bridal chamber differ. In markets, it is easy to identify which village people live in just from their clothes. Today in Anatolia, there are differences even between the clothing worn in different neighbourhoods of the same village. Men who leave their villages to do their military service or to take up employment inevitably adapt to city culture. In rural areas, women generally have little contact with the outside world. They tend to dress in conformity with the lifestyle and traditions of the community of which they are a part. Dress and decoration tends to follow that of preceding generations. Children’s clothes also differ according to sex and age The concept of the evil eye is widespread, and one can observe many amulets to ward it off 51 Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey: http://www.kulturgovtr/EN/Genel/BelgeGosteraspx?17A16AE30572D313A781CAA92714FCE09967B 13382E62777 05 November 2009 - 50 - http://www.doksihu in peoples’ clothes and hair. In

conservative communities, each generation follows the clothing styles and customs of earlier generations. Yet it is nevertheless impossible to say that traditional clothing and finery are totally unchanging. In rural areas, women spend most of their time with working. As a result, their daily, work and special day clothes are different. Special costumes and hair dressings are only to be seen at wedding ceremonies. Women’s hair styles differ in accordance with their social status, and whether they are married or engaged, or not. Hair style is an important feature of women’s lives. The tradition of using jewellery and ornaments to complement traditional clothing still exists in traditional societies. The jewellery and ornaments used at wedding ceremonies in Anatolia differ according to the importance of the couple about to be married. For example, on the "henna night" (a party for a bride-to-be during which she and the other guests henna their hands and fingers, generally

held one day before the wedding ceremony itself) the bride wears no ornaments, her clothes and jewellery being worn by another girl. It is considered inappropriate for a young girl to adorn herself before marriage, although she will do so before leaving her fathers house, either to give a favourable impression or for protection from the evil eye. Jewellery and ornaments are also worn by children and adult males. KARAGÖZ52 Karagöz (literally means Black-eye) and Hacivat are the main figures of the traditional Turkish shadowplay. The origin and the time of first performance are unknown. It was a very successful form of entertainment in the Ottoman area, nowadays, because of the TV and cinemas it is played at Ramadan. It was played in Coffee houses and main squares. According to the legends Karagöz and Hacivat were living people. The main characters are opposites, Karagöz is an uneducated, outspoken swain, while Hacivat is an educated citizen, who speaks Ottoman Turkish and uses

literary language. Karagöz is usually hit and mocked. The performance is improvisation, so the line of the story can be changed according to the reaction of the audience. The basic story is always based on their 52 The Armory: http://www.armorycom/~ssahin/articles/article8htm 29 October 2009 Terebess Ázsia Lexikon: http://www.terebesshu/keletkultinfo/lexikon/karagozhtml 29 October 2009 - 51 - http://www.doksihu controversial character and quarrel. It consists 4 parts: at first the introduction (mukaddime), conversation, dialogue between Karagöz and Hacivat (muhavere) and the main plot (fasil) and conclusion (bitiş) Sometimes there are additional characters rarely women, whose are played by men, and people from different nations with its stereotypes. Kurds are usually security and using Kurdish words, Arabs are travellers, Persians are trading with textile and Jewish are avaricious usurer or antique dealer. The shadows appear on muslin (ayna), this canvas is 1x1,6 meters. The

puppets are usually 30-32 centimetres high and made from camel leather, which is made to be very thin. The leather is coloured by natural vegetable paint Behind them, there is an oil lamp, which lights both the muslin and puppets. The light seeping through the colourful almost transparent puppets by projecting their colours on the canvas. Without music it could be unimaginable, the actors often sing as well. - 52 - http://www.doksihu ISLAMIC ARTS In the Moslem world a concrete message is transmitted through its abstract forms. A strong, centralized state, the Ottoman Empire concentrated its creative energies on the development of uniquely logical mosque architecture. As early as the 14th and 15th century, in Bursa and Iznik, the Ottomans chose to use the single dome as the focal compositional element of their monuments. This fascination with the cupola was in large part inspired by the Byzantine church of the Hagia Sophia and culminated in the 16th century masterpiece of the

Suleymaniye mosque in Istanbul. Ottoman decorative art, especially ceramic objects and tiles and miniature painting are largely derivative of other traditions, although many examples are noteworthy for the exceptional precision of their execution.53 CALLIGRAPHIES AND TUĞRAS Among Islam art branches the most upscale was the calligraphy, the art of penmanship, because its prime task was to write the Holy Koran down, which is the word of Allah for the believers. In the Islam it is forbidden to use people or animal bodies because it distracts away the attention from religious thoughts. That is why artists and craftsmen could show their talent in geometric and meticulous vegetable decorating motives so called arabesques. Under the Ottoman ruling the most beautiful examples were from the workshop of the sultan from Nakkaşhane, where the traineeship could be 10 year long.54 Copying of the Koran is considered a religious act and Islamic calligraphy is much esteemed because of its

religious associations. Major styles of script are Kufi, a formal 53 54 All about Turkey: http://www.allaboutturkeycom/indexhtm 05 November 2009 Ottoman Sultan Tugras: http://www.tugraorg/indexasp 19 October 2009 - 53 - http://www.doksihu style with an angular character, Sulus, a cursive flowing script written with rounded letters, Divani, generally used for writing the decrees, and Talik. These scripts are also classified in themselves according to the places that they are used or their sizes.55 The tuğra was a personal monogram, an outstanding calligraphic imperial design, monogram or a kind of signature of the Ottoman Sultans. This was carved into a wood cube and was used as a seal The tuğra, on its own, it’s peculiar to the Turks. After the tuğras evolved as a monogram, the calligraphers entered the artistic dimension and tried to write better and better tuğras. It is widely accepted that the most excellent tuğra among all tuğras is the tuğra of Sultan Abdulhamid II

written by master calligrapher Sami Efendy. Nowadays lots of interesting tuğras can be seen, for example the Besmele (means in name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful) calligraphy shape of bird figure. 56 Calligraphies were used also for decorating the mosques, mausoleums. Most of these quotes are from the Koran, the name of Allah or words of praise about Allah. For example the Hagia Sophia is decorated with 8 disc of calligraphies, each is 7,5 meters in diameter with the names of Allah, Prophet Mohammad, the first 4 caliphs (Abu Bekr, Omar, Othman and Ali), Hassan and Hussein whose were the 2 martyr grandchildren of the Prophet. MINIATURES The calligraphies established the illustration of books. Painting of pictures on a small scale. The word miniature is derived from minimum, the name of a red oxide of lead used for the decoration of sacred texts. The techniques developed in this art of illuminating manuscripts were later applied to the creation of many small portraits, known

as miniatures. Miniature painters generally work in a microscopically minute technique, using thin, pointed brushes on such varied surfaces as the backs of playing cards, stretched chicken skin, vellum, metal and ivory. In the Islam world the Persian miniatures were the most prominent.54 In the way of paintings it contradicted to the prohibition of the Prophet. The Ottoman miniature 55 56 Turkish Odyssey: http://www.turkishodysseycom/defaulthtm 19 October 2009 http://www.bookingturkeyorg/shoppingcalligraphyhtm 19 October 2009 - 54 - http://www.doksihu paintings reached its peak in development at the end of 16. century under the ruling of Suleiman the Magnificent. Lots of miniature painters were brought from the Persia to the workshops of Topkapı Palace. A unique style was evolved with they could perpetuate the history of dynasty, like battle scenes, ceremonies in the Palace, main festivals and topographical illustrations. Unfortunately these paintings are not signed and dated.

CERAMIC ARTS Ceramic art was flourished at the Ottoman era. There were 2 centres İznik and Kütahya. Ceramics were used very widespread, storing pots, jars, plates and tiles were made from it. The early ceramics from İznik were bluewhite coloured Ceramics arts reached its peak in the 16 century when the well-known “tomatoes” colour was developed. After that new and faithful tulip and flower motives were introduced around 1550. The origin of İznik ceramics is that when in the 14 century Chinese ceramics were imported to Turkey, it was copied. Significant collection of Chinese ceramics can be found in the Topkapı Palace. Tiles used for interior decoration Ceramics as a tile was not used before the ruling of Great Suleiman. Examples for ceramics as tile the dome of the in Jerusalem, in Suleiman, Rüstem Paşa and in the Blue Mosque.57 EBRU (PAPER MARBLING)58 Ebru was used extensively in the binding of books and within the calligraphic panels in Turkey. Ebru is likely to have

originated from Central Asia Natural dyes mixed with ox gall are sprinkled with brushes made of horse tails on the surface of water in a deep ebru tray. The oily dyes are designed on the surface of water After the design is ready, tray-size papers are left on the tray to absorb all the dyes as they are, with their formed shape. Usually random or geometric forms come out, but in Turkey they produced recognizable forms like flowers, e.g tulips or camomile 57 SWAN, SUZANNA: Törökország, Budapest, Panemex Kft., 2007 Turkish Odyssey: http://www.turkishodysseycom/turkey/culture/islamarthtm#PAPER MARBLING 03 November 2009 58 - 55 - http://www.doksihu ANATOLIA ARTS “I would like to point out with special emphasis that one of the historical characteristics of the Turkish nation, which is a society composed of worthy people, is to appreciate the fine arts and to advance in them as well.” M Kemal Atatürk TAPESTRY It is a rural tradition. The patterns of carpets and kilims go from

generation to generation. Carpets were made originally against cold weather, for decorating homes, marriage portion or as a gift to the mosque. The carpets have 2 kinds, the halı, it is the hand-knob ted carpet and the kilims, which are weaved from vertical and perpendicular threads with simple knotting. Carpets can be made by manually and mechanically. If at the back of the carpet knots can be seen and the threads cannot be pulled out, than it is made manually. Before weaving wool is washed, carded, twisted and painted. Weaving is a home industry in Turkey. Women weave at winter, because at summer they have to deal with farming/agriculture. Carpets can be made from wool or silk. Chemical paints were introduced in 1863, formerly the materials were coloured blue by indigo, red by wheat root and yellow by camomile. Prayer rugs have the prayer pattern which was An early example of Tree of Life with mihrab pattern inspired by the mihrab (opening on the wall of mosques, which shows the

direction to Mecca). Another important motive is the Tree of Life, which is the symbol of immortality. Kilims are made with engraving technique, the change of colours are shown by straight lines. The returning patterns have an often strange origin. Both abstract and figurative can be found. Lots of pattern has remained from those symbols with nomads and villagers - 56 - http://www.doksihu signed the animals. People have believed that by imitating, or weaving part of a dangerous animal, they will have power over it and protection from it like scorpion. Symbol of evil eye is a general protection from bad things.59 ICONOGRAPHY53 The function of iconography is to recognize and explain images and to search for the origins of personages and scenes. A symbol, however, is an object or figure that by itself represents something else, often an abstract idea. The earliest recorded images were those associated with the rites of ancient religions, especially those in which the deity had a human

form. To propitiate or petition the gods, worshippers offered sacrifices to statues in temples; the statue was thought to contain the actual presence of the deity and the temple was considered to be his "house." This was developed significantly by the great poet Homer who organized the ancient gods into a kind of family or pantheon and gave each one an individual personality and specific physical characteristics. When Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, its imagery began to reflect borrowings from the emperors court at Constantinople. Christ was no longer depicted as a youthful shepherd, but as an enthroned emperor and judge with a dignified beard. The Virgin Mary appeared crowned and robed like the empress and saints dressed like courtiers approached the throne of God with veiled hands, as was the custom in the courts of Eastern monarchs. 59 About Turkey: http://www.about-turkeycom/carpet/languagehtm 18 October 2009 - 57 - http://www.doksihu

PAINTING53 The Romans decorated their villas with mosaic floors and exquisite wall frescoes portraying rituals, myths, landscapes, still-life and scenes of daily activities. Using the technique known as aerial perspective, in which colours and outlines of more distant objects are softened and blurred to achieve spatial effects, Roman artists created the illusion of reality. Certain stylization and artistic conventions are characteristic of these representations of the New Testament events. The otherworldly presentation became characteristic of Byzantine art and the style came to be associated with the imperial Christian court of Constantinople, which survived from 330 AD until 1453. The Byzantine style is also seen on icons, conventionalized paintings on wooden panels of Christ, the Virgin, or the saints, made for veneration. SCULPTURE 53 Small fertility figures or mother goddesses modelled in terra-cotta found in Catalhoyuk (5500 BC) and Hacilar are among the earliest examples of

sculpture in Anatolia. The first statues were influenced by Egyptian sculpture, which in the 7th century BC already had a long tradition. Egyptian sculpture, however, showed little stylistic change over the centuries. Especially in the earliest phase, sculpture was carved in a severe (or formal) classical style. The male body became a broad-shouldered, trim-hipped athlete, often shown in arrested motion. The female figures were still severely draped; the earlier archaic smiles were sometimes softened in expression in the Classical period (5th-4th century BC). After the death of Alexander the Great, his extensive empire was dissolved into many different kingdoms. This fragmentation was symbolic of the diversity and multiplicity of artistic tendencies in the Hellenistic period. The great centres of art were in the islands and in the cities of the eastern Mediterranean Alexandria, Antioch and Pergamum. The Hellenistic period (4-2 century BC) was a period of eclecticism Art still served a

religious function or to glorify athletes, but sculpture and painting were also used to decorate the homes of the rich. - 58 - http://www.doksihu The awareness of space that characterized architecture also began to emerge in sculpture and painting. As a result landscapes and interiors appeared for the first time in both reliefs and painted panels. The baroque style of the sculpture was characteristic of the time in its exaggeration of movement, physical pain and emotion, all set against a background of swirling draperies. MOSAICS Mosaic is the art of embedding small pieces of cut stone or pigmented glass in a plaster bed to serve as floor or wall decoration. Mosaic reached its greatest heights in Early Christian and Byzantine art and architecture. Solidity, resistance to moisture, durability and colour-fastness made mosaic a practical form of architectural decoration. The process of constructing a mosaic begins with cubes of cut stone, pigmented glass, or gold or silver leaf

sandwiched by glass. These cubes are known as tesserae The sophisticated mosaics evolved from the practice of gathering pebbles from the beach and setting them in a cement bed to provide durable flooring in homes and temples. At first randomly scattered and set, the pebbles later were arranged in simple ornamental patterns. Mosaic pavements became the fashion in the 3century BC in the homes and villas of the wealthy throughout the Mediterranean area. Black-and-white mosaic style began on a small scale in private homes, where black figures and decorative motifs were silhouetted against a field of white marble or limestone, this style soon carpeted the floors of public baths, marketplaces and other areas of public assembly. Because it withstood the effects of humidity and moisture and because the tesserae were colourfast, mosaic was often used to decorate garden walls, fountains and baths in the ancient world. 60 Most beautiful examples are in the Hagia Sophia and in the Chora Mosque.

One of the most famous mosaics is in the sanctuary of the Hagia Sophia; it is where Virgin Mary holds the children Jesus in her hands near them there are Joanes Komnenos Caesar and Eiréne Empress. But further mosaics can be found here like Jesus, Gabriele archangel 60 Turkish Odyssey: 22November 2009 http://www.turkishodysseycom/turkey/culture/artshtm#ICONOGRAPHY - 59 - http://www.doksihu HANDICRAFT Handcrafting is the inheritance of the Ottoman guild system in Turkey. Oya or needlework, which is famous from its minute flower motives from silk. Weaving is a custom mainly in the rural areas. It is done by women The patterns of the carpets and kilims run in the family from generation to generation. Brass and copper goods are part of the Turkish households. Usually the old copper goods can be very expensive, the newer one are more affordable. Woodcarving is the inheritance of the Ottomans. Most famous cities of this are Devrek and Adana Handprinted textiles are called to yazmas.

These are the pride of the Central-Anatolian cities like Tokat. Turkey is on the cutting edge of quality clothes and knitwear Pottery is an important tradition in Turkey. The style is changing regionally İznik, Küthaya and Çanakkale are famous from its ceramics.60 MUSIC AND DANCE Turkish music and dance originates deeply from the history and traditions. Ottoman classics, mysterious Sufi songs, different folk music, jazz and pop had an effect on Turkish music. The result of these is a mixture of the ancient and the new styles Today these styles and traditions are still being fostered. Visitors of Turkey can easily meet these styles. The Mevlevi music is the music of Sufis. This music is based on instruments ney, ud and kanun. Their music is long and stands for complex compositions, called Ayin While dancers are whirling and getting into a trans-like state, the choir sings pieces of poetry of Jelaleddin Rumi. International well known mevlevi musicians are Necdet Yasar and Kudsi

Ergüner. Mehters (janissary band) musicians accompanied the troops of Ottoman Empire to battles from 1299 to 1826 with characteristic marching rhythm, which was based on the words of “Pious God is good. God is merciful” In our days the reborned Mehter orchestra plays in the Museum of Military History in Istanbul and in the Topkapı Palace. - 60 - http://www.doksihu Like the traditional folk dance, the colourful traditional costumes also play a very important part of Turkish culture. Kılıç Kalkan is a so called wooden spoon dance; it is performed by the wooden spoons hit together. This dance originates from the Black Sea part of the country.61 The fasıl music is similar to gipsy music. It is half classical music and played in concert halls. It uses traditional wind, percussion and stringed instruments Fasıl music is mainly listened to and rarely danced to.61 Since one third of the Turkish population is alevi, their folk music is well-known. These songs are about mystical

topics. They pray through this to Avlevi saints and to Ali The arabesque and pop musicians are celebrated stars in Turkey. Arabesque is one of the most famous popular music. The most famous arabesque performer is İbrahim Tatlises and Yıldız Tilbe, their songs are about the difficulties of life and love. İbrahim Tatlises has an own TV show also where famous people talk to each other and of course there are music and dance elements.61 Pop music affected Turkish music also. One of the biggest pop stars in Turkey is Sezen Aksu and the world famous Tarkan. Of course belly dance is famous in Turkey. It is still the favourite of tourists Belly dance has lots of different styles; the Turkish belly dance is not as light as the Egyptian, it is rather strong and forceful.61 The traditional instruments can be divided into 3 groups: wind, percussion and stringed instruments. The main stringed instruments are Saz and Ud Saz is a penance instrument with 3 strings, while Ud has 11 strings and

there is a piece of leather on it to protect the strings. The wind instruments are Kaval and Ney Both of them have ancient origins and both are made of wood. Ney is carved from cane, kaval is made of plum tree. Percussion instruments are Darbuka and Davul. These instruments have Arab origins The body of darbuka is made of wood and its top is made of various types of leathers - like goat, camel, sheep leather etc. The body of davul is made of metal and it is hit by a tupan stick.61 61 SWAN, SUZANNA: Törökország, Budapest, Panemex Kft., 2007 - 61 - http://www.doksihu LITERATURE By Turkish literature I mean both written and oral texts in Turkish. Early peaces were influenced by the Persian and Arab languages in the Ottoman Empire (Ottoman-Turkish language), later on the reformed Turkish language. The Turkish literature is almost 1500 years old. The earliest known Turkish text was found in the Orkhon valley, Mongolia from the 8th century AD. The works from the 9th 11th centuries

were subsisting by oral traditions like the book of Dede Korkut and the epic, Manasz. Literacy appeared in the 11th century when the Seljuks settled in Anatolia. At the beginning, lots of motives, topics and genre were adopted from the Arab and Persian literature. The most well-known person of the Turkish literature today is Orhan Pamuk, who won a Nobel Prize in Literature in 2006. - 62 - http://www.doksihu HAMAM – TURKISH BATHS The origin of Turkish bath comes from ancient Rome. They were built with emphasis on the interior rather than the exterior looks. There are double baths where there is a separate space for men and women, whereas in a single bath both sexes are allowed to go in but at different times. In Istanbul, less than ten percent of the bath houses are operational today, with both operational and non-operational ones in private ownership. Interesting as it may sound, Turkish people think that Entrance of Cağaloğlu hamam European people are unclean. It is because

we do not perform their bath ceremony where the upper skin layer is scrubbed, which makes us unclean. Bathing was also a form of social activity. They connect their most important occasions in their life to bathing, for example: A the bridal bath ceremony, which was held one day before wedding festivities commenced A the forty-day bath, which marked the fortieth day following the birth of a child A the tear-drying bath, attended by all relatives and friends of the deceased twenty days after her death A the votary bath, held when a persons wish was fulfilled A the guest bath, to which the hostess invited her friends and relatives to meet a special visitor A the holiday bath which was taken on the eve of religious holidays.62 The order of bath: After dressing in the dressing room or camekan it begins with the alternate of cold water with warm sauna more times. People can wear a swimsuit or just a towel given in the hamam. Then people go in a room called hararet, where there is a marble

platform (göbek taçı) in the middle, which is heated from under, people laid down there and relax, after a time men start to sprinkle cold water on people. Following this, a man starts to wash everyone’s body with a big sack full of soap. Than another man comes 62 Turkish Cultural Foundation: http://www.turkishcultureorg/pagesphp?ChildID=223&ParentID=12&ID=58&ChildID1=223 24 October 2009 - 63 - http://www.doksihu and starts to peel off the upper layer of skin with rough soaped gloves (kese). After all this, the people enter another room where they get a massage from head to toe. Finally people sit down in a hall and drink water or tea. It is good to know that the first towel was made for a Sultan in Bursa in the 18 century. Still the best towels are made in Bursa. Bursa is a centre of the silk trade and towel manufacturing. Özdilek is the leading towel and bathrobe producer in Turkey It started its business in 1971. Nowadays it exports to over 20 countries and

holds a place among Europe’s first four and the world’s first ten bathrobe manufacturers. 63 One of the most famous and luxurious hamam in Istanbul is the Cağaloğlu hamam. It was built in 1741 by Mahmud I. Its construction was begun by Süleyman Ağa and finished by Abdullah Ağa. This is the last example of this kind of building in Istanbul,3 it combines different Ottoman architectural styles. It was the last of the great hamams to be built in the city before their construction was forbidden by Sultan Mustafa III in 1768.64 The sultan spent the income of the hamam to maintain the library of Aya Sophia. In bigger hamams like this, there is a separate part for men and women In this hamam these parts are located at opposite angles to each other, and the entrances open from different streets.3 The door of the womens section is on a side street called Hamam street, while the mens entrance is from the main road of Yerebatan street.2 This hamam is still operating and can be visited by

tourists. The two parts are the same and are made up of 3 segments. These are camekan, soğukluk and the main room hararet Famous people like Kaiser Wilhelm, Ferenc Liszt, Tony Curtis, Richard Harrison and Harrison Ford visited this hamam.65 Ground-plan of the Cağaloğlu hamam CULINARY 63 http://www.ozdilekcomtr/uk/ 25 October 2009 All about Turkey: http://www.allaboutturkeycom/ist bathhtm 25 October 2009 65 Cagaloglu Hamam: http://www.cagalogluhamamicomtr/ 24 October 2009 64 - 64 - http://www.doksihu CULTURE The rich variety of Turkish cuisine can be derived on the one hand from the variety of products offered by the lands of Asia and Anatolia and the interactions with numerous different cultures (Seljuk and Ottoman empires) over a long historical process. Moreover, the fact, that religious rules had to be considered partly accounts for the diversity as well.66 Turkish cuisine keeps old traditions; it is a mixture of lots of origins. It is a transition between the

Middle-East and the Balkan. There are very big differences all over the country, e.g in cities the European norms can be found while in villages meals can still sometimes be spread on the floor. In the past, it was impossible to transport fish to long distances, thus fish dishes were popular at the sea side, while spicy meat dished were favoured in the middle of the country. In Turkey the religious prescriptions are not followed as strictly as in Arab countries. Pork is not consumed at all, and because of this, they do not cook with lard, but with oil (mainly olive oil) or butter. Beef has become widespread just recently Fish, lamb, poultry and mutton are preferred. Popular foods include meat roasted on the spit and grilled meat. Most frequently sheep, beef and veal are used Seasoning follows the Eastern taste. Yoghurt has an important role in the cooking Further milk products are essential at everyday meals. Their sweets are heavier and sweeter than ours From vegetables the tomatoes,

green pepper and onion is favoured. Garlic and pepper are often used spices.67 In the Islam, there is a religious rule that animals can only be cut by a Muslim, while he is reciting the Surahs from the Koran. Originally Muslims are prohibited to drink blood or eat bloody-meats. In the Arab world there are special butchers, where those meats can be bought which were prepared according to the Islam rules. As in every field of life, in Turkey there are very big differences in what extent people keep the religious rules. There are people who follow European norms (mainly in those areas where tourists can be found e.g Mediterranean part of Turkey), while in small villages people keep all the Islamic rules. 66 Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture and Tourism: http://www.kulturgovtr/EN/BelgeGosteraspx?17A16AE30572D313A781CAA92714FCE03D26410A2 2C2CA34 24 September 2009 67 SILLE, ISTVÁN: Illem, etikett, protokoll, Budapest, Akadémia Kiadó, 2008. - 65 - http://www.doksihu Lunch is

usually followed by a 2-4 hour “siesta” or lunch break, because of the hot weather early afternoon. Work continues after this, but it adopts the mood and character of social meetings.68 FOODS:68 People who lived under the Ottoman domination contributed to the delicious taste of the kitchen of Topkapi Palace from the Balkan to North-Africa. Different cultures and different tastes can be felt in the Ottoman delicacies, which was widespread through Turkey. More important foods were brought from Central-Asia by the migrating nomad Turks to the West. The various Anatolian foods, together with the French and Chinese culinary traditions are considered to be the best cuisines in the world. Variations of Turkish bread68: The Turkish word for bread is ekmek. The most common bread is the beyaz ekmek (it is the white bread), pide (pita) and simti. Pide is eaten at religious ceremonies and with kebab; it is flat wheaten bread. Simit is crispy, ring-shaped delicious bread with sesame seed on the

top of it. MAIN MEALS Breakfast67: A Turkish breakfast consists of the following: bread, cheese, which is similar to feta, other milk products (yoghurt), egg, tomatoes, olives, cucumber and further vegetables, honey, jam, cold meat and butter. Tea is a customary drink2 The yoğurt çorbası is a yogurt soup made from legumes or rice. It can be consumed any time of day3 Lunch68 In Turkey lunch is rarely the main meal. It contains mainly only soup and salad Dinner: Dinner as the main meal contains the soup, main dish with salad and dessert. Mezes68: Turkish meals are started often by mezes (appetizer), which has hundreds of types, from the simplest like the white-cheeses with melon to the special filled vegetables. Mezes can be found in every restaurant, it is served often with raki. The specialties of 68 SWAN, SUZANNA: Törökország, Budapest, Panemex Kft., 2007 - 66 - http://www.doksihu meyhanes (which are like tavernas where alcohol and mezes are served) are the Anatolian mezes,

which are served from filled trays. The appetizer consists of paté, small kind of sausages, cold meats, cucumber, crabs, shells and many kinds of fish.67 Dolma is made of fillings. It is put on a leaf of grape, green pepper, or seashell Böreği is savory pasta filled with minced meat, spinach or spicy cheese. Çerkez tavuğu is chicken meat cut into stripes and put into creamy sauce of nutmeat and bread crumbs.68 Cold mezes68: Many mezes’ are made with yoghurt based sauce or in puree form. It is served with fresh and hot bread. Most famous are patlıcan salatası (smoked eggplantpuree), haydari (mint, garlic and yoghurt) and tarama (caviar). Examples are Lakerda is a cut smoked tuna with lemon, which is popular at the Black Sea coast. Fasulye piyazı is a white bean salad with olive oil and lemon, it is served sometimes with boiled egg and zeytinyağlı enginar is artichoke, which is one of the special boiled vegetables, boiled in olive oil. Soups67: There is a wide range of soups

(çorbasi). The tarhana çorbasi is a caraway-seed soup with tomatoes, eggs, yoghurt, sprinkled with toast, cheese or browned meat. Sebze çorbasi is a Turkish vegetable soup with carrots, potatoes, onions, tomatoes, cabbage, celeriac, dill and spices. Yayala çorbasi is made from simple meat soup seasoning with rice, flour, egg and yoghurt. Main dishes67,68: The main dishes are very colourful in Turkey. Usually these are simple and traditional foods but they are often spicy and hot. For example the karides güveç is one of the many kinds of güveçs (stew). It is made from shrimps, tomatoes and pepper.68 Hünkar begendi (Sultan’s favorit) is similar to a stew made of lamb, onion, aubergine, milk and cheese.67 Fırında mantı is a meat filled dumpling. An internationally-known food from Turkey is kebab. It can be made from meat, fish and vegetables It has several kinds, like döner (roasted meat), şiş (meat roasted on skewer), Adana (minced meat roasted on skewer) and the

Iskender or Bursa kebab (döner meat on bread treacled with tomatoes sauce and yoghurt).68 - 67 - http://www.doksihu Pilaf is originally rice with meat and vegetables in various flavours. It can be made in many ways. The Istanbul Pilavi is made from chicken (breast, liver and gizzard of it) with almond, pistachio, green peas and saffron.67 The dishes from meat cannot be imaginable without a wide rand of vegetables. Çoban salatasi is cucumber, green pepper and radish mixed with olive oil with parsley and lemon on top of it. Cacik is cucumber seasoned with garlic, mint and thyme Padlican salatasi can not be prepared without garlic and yoghurt after the skin is peeled of the aubergine (Turkish tomatoes). Piyaz is bean salad with onion Zeytinyagli kereviz is celery in olive oil. Saray salatasi is a mixture of tomatoes, soaked and squeezed onion and green pepper in olive oil and lemon on top of it.67 Fish dishes are very popular. They can be bought at many places Fish can be prepared

in many ways, most of the times it is roasted or güveç (stew) is made from it. On the East side of the Black Sea hamsi (anchovy) is very popular and it can be prepared at least 10 ways.67 It is ideal to finish the Turkish meals with fresh fruit. Depending on the season, the most popular fruits are banana, strawberry, cherry, peach, pear, grape (raisin is an important export product) watermelon, fig, plum, apple, orange, grapefruit and pomegranate.67 SWEETS68 Turkish people eat sweets not only after the meal, but as a snack during the whole day. Some sweets are eaten just at religious holidays. Perhaps the most famous Turkish sweet worldwide is the baklava. It is baked from very thin pasta, filled with pistachio, peanut and walnut spreaded with whipped cream and syrup and soaked in honey.2 Another example is the aşure also known as Noah’s pudding, it is made from fruits and beans. Fırında sütlaç has to be baked in the oven It is a baked rice-pudding which is served in cold

form.3 Helva is made from fruits, seeds and honey Keskül is made in the following way: the almond is cooked in milk, rice is mixed with flour and sugar is added to it, and finally it is chilled and served in small plates sprinkled with drilled almond and peanut.67 DRINKS68 The most popular drink is the çay (tea), which is served most of the times without sugar in tulip shaped glasses. It is offered to the people everywhere, in shops, bazaar furthermore in banks and offices also. People drink tea for the breakfast, kahve (coffee) - 68 - http://www.doksihu is drunk after the meal and in the morning. Fresh juices like orange and cherry is served at meals. Although wine and beer are produced in Turkey, the most popular alcoholic drink is the raki, which is served with the mezes. ALCOHOLS68 Against the religious prescriptions of Islam raki is traditional drink of Turkey. It is an anise flavoured spirit of 50 degrees, which becomes “opaque”, when water is added to it. It is served

as an aperitif and especially with seafood and mezes The other specialty is the Efes beer which is produced in Turkey. The local wine production has not developed. The most famous beers are Kavaklidere, Doluca and Sevilen In Turkey alcohol is considered a luxury item, because of a 400% tax imposed on all alcohol products. In some smaller towns / villages alcohol is not available SOFT DRINKS Water (su), ayran and boza are popular non-alcoholic drinks in Turkey. Ayran is a savoury yoghurt drink made from yoghurt and water, while the other local drink, the boza, is made from bulgur wheat and is served with cinnamon and roasted chickpeas.68 It is consumed especially in the winter months, because boza is rich in carbohydrates and vitamins that is why the Ottoman Empire fed its army with it.68 Wide assortment of juices can be found everywhere, but the most popular juices are made from cherry (vişne suyu), carrot (şalgam suyu), grape (şira), orange, grapefruit, and tomato. Sometimes it is

pressed on the scene68 In Turkey, like in the whole Arab world, the rose water is well-known. It is like water with the taste of rose COFFEE AND TEA The habit of coffee drinking was widespread in Europe by Turkish effect. The first coffeehouse was opened in Constantinople (today’s Istanbul) in 1554. Traditionally women are not allowed to go in coffeehouses. The expression of Turkish coffee does not refer to a special kind of coffee bean from Turkey, but the way of preparation. Turkish coffee is very dark, strong and served in small cups. Turkish coffee is prepared in a long handled brass pot, covered with tin, it is called cezve. The powdered coffee is made with sugar, in Anatolia it is flavoured with smashed cardamom and it is not mixed in the cup. So at the order it has to be stated with how much sugar is desired: sade (without sugar), şekerli (with little sugar), orta şekerli (with one teaspoon of sugarstandard) and cok şekerli (with much sugar).67 - 69 - http://www.doksihu

Tea is called çay. In Turkey, tea is more popular, than coffee The first tea shrub arrived from Japan in 1878, but the cultivation did not began before the 1930s. The centre of the Turkish tea industry is in Rize. The best teas are made from tomurcuk, the blossoming bud of the tea shrub. Turkish people like the black tea, but they import green tea. Tea is made here in a double-walled pot called samovar It is consumed at any time of the day. It is served without milk in tulip shaped glasses The most famous tastes are apple (elma), mint (nane), lime-blossom (ılhamur) and rose hip (kuşburnu) tea.3 In the total production of tea in the world Turkey is the fifth with 6% In the consumption, Turkey is also the fifth - alongside Japan - with 5%.69 69 All about Turkey: http://www.allaboutturkeycom/teahtm 13 November 2009 - 70 - http://www.doksihu CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS Turkish people are Muslims, but the ancient religious prescriptions are not followed as strictly as in the Arab

countries. For example, at greetings and discussions we can keep to the European norms, but one must be prepared to typical manifestations of Muslim traditions, while in real connections the norms of Arab countries are kept.70 Way of thinking, idiosyncrasies of processing of information71 Turks always had hold aloof from the outside influences. Turkey was always the bridge between East and West. Because of the traditional upbringing, the Turkish way of thinking is characteristically subjective and associative. Turkey is a secular Islam country, but one, where the personal involvement plays an important role in problem solving. Conversational strategy, evidences The number one factor, which determines opinions, is the personal feeling and the loyalty for the Islam. The objective facts rarely play a key role Values, factors which influence the behaviour Three factors which characterize the values of Turkish culture: 1) Method of decision making Decisions have to be made by the male

leaders of the community, but they have to consider family - community aspects while deciding. The framework of private life is mainly the family, friends and smaller communities. These communities influence the decision making. It is essential in business life also to ground the personal contacts well, otherwise the official negotiations will not be successful. Personal identity evolves through the integration to society: the rise definitely depends on one’s academic career and qualifications. 2) Tools for ease the distress Identity is the source of security – outside of the family- depends on the played role in the structure of the society for Turkish people. Work has a high prestige, but their way of understanding time still differs from the western way of thinking. 70 SILLE, ISTVÁN: Illem, etikett, protokoll, Budapest, Akadémia Kiadó, 2008. MORRISON, TERRI; CONAWAY, WAYNE A.; BORDEN, GEORGE A: Meghajlás vagy kézfogás?, Budapest, Alexandra Kiadó, 1994. 71 - 71 -

http://www.doksihu The self-image and self-confidence depend on pride over nationality, family, rank in society. Open expression of feelings and will is natural in Turkey Risks and dangers of life are natural also, and are thought to be a necessary factor in improving selfconfidence and independence. 3) The question of equality/inequality Turkish society is strongly divided. There are numerous prejudices against different social classes, religious and ethnic groups. Power is in the possession of the privileged elite. Certain consumer goods and education are seen as status symbols Outside the family and friends it is not characteristic to trust people. It is conspicuous that older people have dominance over youth, and in men-women the relationships there is no equality, but the legal background is assured by law. Despite the fast changes, women and men form a separate society, and in public they still do not mix with each other. BUSINESS PRACTICES Meetings and appointments At business

meetings punctuality is important. If someone wants to contact a Turkish partner by mail, more time is going to be needed. Personal introduction or at least a cover letter is going to be needed, which will promote the favourable reception. Turkish businessmen speak at least 1, but sometimes rather more foreign languages. Almost everyone speaks English, but many people understand French and German. Negotiations and correspondence are mainly in English, but it is very useful to learn some words, expressions in Turkish also. At the beginning of the negotiations it is not customary to start with business. The introductory talk can be longer. It has its causes, the Turkish partner likes to get to know his future business partner. Work time is from Monday to Friday, from 9 to 12, then from 14 to 17. The office hours of banks are similar. Leaders in higher status arrive just around 930 and have longer lunch-break till 14.30 Friday is a traditionally Muslim rest day but there is no

interruption in business activities, namely the official rest-day is Sunday. - 72 - http://www.doksihu There is a smaller chance for business in June, July and August, because Turkish businessmen go for a longer holiday at this time of the year. Obviously negotiations will not be continued on national holidays. Lots of people do not work in the afternoon of the previous day of holidays. Negotiations In case of family businesses, the decisions are made by the older members of the family. Advanced age is much respected in Turkey. Never loose self-control, and never shout with an elder partner. Negotiations are going to be longer than in Europe. Politeness is crucial, in the course of meetings innumerable cups of teas and coffees are going to be consumed. The meeting begins with personal questions about work, education and so on. Shortening the talk is against the etiquette. The text on the business card has to be in Turkish as well. Take plenty of it and give it to everyone with whom

you get to know, at the reception or secretariat and to the partner. At talks there are taboo topics, like the problem of Cyprus. Favored topics are family, hobby, interests, profession and if the partner is man and has children, then it is advisible to ask about them, because for Turkish men are most proud of their sons. Almost everyone smokes in Turkey. In practice there are no “non smoking areas” Business and entertainment Business get-togethers are mainly held in restaurants. It is an advantage because Turkish cuisine offers the most delicious foods in the world. There is a small chance to entertain Turkish partners. Because of the legendary Turkish hospitality they will insist on the entertainment (and settling the bill). Restaurants of international hotels are boring and featureless as compared to the true Turkish restaurants, but western alcoholic drinks can be found more easily in the restaurants of hotels. The silverware is the same as in the West and is used in the same

way. The service in Turkish restaurants is very fast. Turkish people do not order the whole menu together, but choose one dish and then they decide what next. - 73 - http://www.doksihu Turks usually light a cigarette between dishes. Toothpicks are put on the table just after the meal. It can be used at the table, but it is proper to hide the mouth with the hand The true national drink is not coffee, but tea. The tea concentrate or instant tea is filled into glasses of tulip shape and it is watered down with as much water as desired. They put sugar in it, but no milk. Because of the small size of the glass, it can be refilled several times during a meeting. Usually it is served at an enjoyable tea drinking place in the garden. They drink the strong coffee right after the meal. They draw each portion of the coffee separately and mix the sugar immediately to it, so the desired amount of sugar has to be pre-told. Western instant coffees are available everywhere PROTOCOL Greeting

formulas At encounters and at introduction Turkish men greet each other with a handshake. At leaving it is not customary to shake hands. Friends of the same sex shake hands with both hands at the same time and kiss each other’s cheeks - first right and then left. Older people have much respect, if an old man enters the room; it is proper to stand up. In case of a bigger group, the oldest person enjoys priority in the introductions. Since Turkey is an Islam country most business partners are going to be male. In general, Turkish women keep away from business. Women more often take up work from the Greek and Armenian community. Among women just after she has been introduced, she has to hold out her hand. Some common Turkish greetings: “Merhaba!” – “Good morning/afternoon!”, “Nasilsiniz?”- “How are you?” and the answer is “Ijijjim, teshekur ederim”- “Well, thank you”. Form of address, rank and title Professionals are addressed most respectfully with their

title. They can be called Doktor or Avukat (lawyer). In case of women add the word Bajan to the title is customary (ie a woman lawyer is called: Avukat Bajan). - 74 - http://www.doksihu If the partner does not have this kind of title, the situation is more complicated. Before the “Name Act” came into force (21 April 1934), Turks did not have family names. Today the order of names follows the western examples; first is the given name, second is the family name. Long ago Turks were called by the name which was given at birth, for which the bej word was given in case of men and hanim in case of women. These addresses can be used in case of older people. In business life, the modern addresses are used, which consist of the family name and the attached Baj (in case of men) or Bajam (in case of women). So the name of the novelist, who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2006 and who was the first Turkish Nobel Prize winner, Orhan Pamuk’s address would be Orhan bej (traditional

version), Baj Pamuk (according to the modern version). The authoress Nezihe Meric’s traditional name would be Nezihe hanim, the modern version would be Bajam Meric. Gestures During sitting both legs have to be on the ground. Never turn the sole of shoes towards others so that it could be visible. It is inappropriate for women to cross legs when sitting in front of someone. Folded arms and hands in the pocket are also inappropriate when standing in front of somebody. Blowing the nose in public is not done – especially not in a restaurant If it happens, Turkish guests stand up from the table and leave the restaurant. If it is necessary to do it, one should turn away from the others and do it as secretly as it is possible, if possible in the restrooms. Never cuddle or kiss a person with other sex in front of others, furthermore do not hold hands. The gesture for “yes” is the same as in west, they are nodding up and down with their heads, but the “no” is different. They can

express it in 2 ways: ¾ The gentle way is when the eyebrow is lifted up, which is accompanied with the characteristic “ck” sound. ¾ The universal way is when the eyebrow is lifted up but the eyelids are let down. - 75 - http://www.doksihu The shaking of the head means for us the “no” in Turkey means that “do not understand”. Therefore at a business meeting waging probably leads the Turkish partner to rephrase his message, perhaps in another language. The length, what we show with our 2 hands on breast high they show it with one of their hands on their other outstretched arm. Pointing at people or things is considered rude. Present giving If it is known that Turkish partners drink alcohol then they are going to welcome a vintage liqueur or whiskey. If there is an invitation to the partner’s home it is necessary to bring present. If the host drinks alcohol, than the liqueur or wine is an appropriate gift. Candies, cakes or flowers (rose and the carnation) are

appropriate. Glassware like vase, goblet and ornamental glass are all regarded as valuable gifts. If the invitation is not just for lunch or dinner, but for longer time, something more substantial has to be given. English language books and CDs are popular, which are not easy to get hold of in Turkey. For children, sweets or smaller toys ought to be brought Dressing Turks dress conservatively at business occasions. Men wear dark suits, women wear costumes with high-heels. In the summer, when the weather is very hot in Turkey, coats and ties are often taken off. Women should dress cosily but solidly They should never wear a miniskirt or a low cut blouse. Gala dresses are worn at balls around New Year and national holidays. Men wear dark suits or tuxedos, women wear long evening-dresses at these times. The casual wear is also decent. Short trousers are worn just at summer resorts Farmer trousers can be worn by both men and women. Clothes have to be suitable for the local habits when you

want to step into a mosque; everyday wear is suitable, but it is important that it has to cover the body in appropriate measures. Shoes have to be left outside, because it is forbidden to step on the carpets of the mosque with shoes. Women can enter in trousers but their heads, shoulders and arms have to be covered. During service entry is forbidden - 76 - http://www.doksihu CULTURAL DDIFFERENCES IN PROTOCOL (GRADUATION ASSIGNMENT) PROBLEM DEFINITION I would like to begin with placing the Protocol Department in the Ministry. In order to do so, I am going to introduce the main tasks and main departments and their tasks in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Then I introduce the Protocol Department in general I would write about the general tasks of the Department, I would like to give a brief introduction into how an official visit has to be organized, what kinds of things have to be considered and have to be taken care of at these visits, in what order. The first part of my

assignment would be about the tasks of protocol consultants before an official visit and the tasks of the catering consultants at the same time. I plan to make a time line and flow chart about the flow of the procedure. In the second part I would like to deal with the problem that could arise if a delegation comes from a country where the culture, traditions and probably the protocol are different and I would like to take a look at what has to be done differently if the delegation comes from an Islam country, like Turkey, which is between two civilizations. Is it the European norms or the Islam norms that are more characteristic of Turkish diplomacy? At the end I would like to explore the differences of culture and protocol and I would like to give suggestions or solutions how these could or should be surmounted. My main questions are: what are the differences between the Islam protocol – more specifically Turkish protocol – and the European protocol? How can the possible obstacles

be surmounted? - 77 - http://www.doksihu MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS72 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the administrative top organization, which deals with the Hungarian foreign affairs. The ministry was established in the past century at the Reform era, in 1848. The first minister was Prince Pál Eszterházy at the Batthyány government; his origin was from a very famous Hungarian family. Today the foreign minister is Péter Balázs. The tasks of the Ministry are very widespread The tasks of the Ministry are determined in the prevailing laws in force which disposes of the tasks and competence of the minister. In the interest of supplying the tasks of the Ministry, it operates around 100 foreign representations (embassies and consulates). These foreign representations belong to one-one department according to territorial classing. The Ministry does not have a domestic subservient organization. The tasks of the Ministry are determined in accordance with the foreign aims and

tasks of the programme of the government. The main field of the foreign connections of Hungary is the European Union, as a comprehensive, positive and acting framework and community of interests, which also serves to enforce our interests. The Ministry supports the competent State Secretary of the Office of the Prime Minister to fulfil their job about national defence. STATE SECRETARIES AND DEPARTMENTS OF THE MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS To the Minister of Foreign Affairs belong the following departments: Spokesman / Spokesmans Office, Inspection Unit and the Communications and Public Relations Department. The Senior State Secretary is responsible for the following departments: Energy Security Secretariat, Parliamentary Liaison Unit and National Diplomatic Policy Unit. Another State Secretary is responsible for the Foreign and Security Policy; that person is the Political Director also. The following departments belong to him: European Foreign and Security Policy Department, Security

Policy and Non-proliferation Department, International Organisations and Human Rights Department, International 72 Ministry of Foreign Affairs : http://www.kumhu/kum/en/bal/ 24 November 2009 - 78 - http://www.doksihu and EU Public Law Department, European Correspondent and Regional Co-operation Unit. Departments of the State Secretary of European Union Affairs are EU Presidency, Coordination and Legal Department, EU Economic Policy Department, EU Sectoral and Trade Policy Department and Enlargement Unit. Departments of the State Secretary of EU Bilateral Relations and Policy Planning over the 1st European Department, 2nd European Department, Strategic Policy Planning and Information Department and EU Danube Region Strategy Ambassador. To the 1st European Department belong countries from the Western and Southern parts of the EU, i.e the following countries: Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, the Benelux Union, Germany, Andorra, Bulgaria, Cyprus, France, Greece, Malta, Monaco,

Italy, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Spain and the Holy See. To the 2nd European Department belong the following Northern and Central European countries: Great-Britain, Denmark, Estonia, Finland Ireland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden, Northern Council, Austria, Czech Republic, Liechtenstein, Swiss, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The fifth State Secretary is responsible for the issues concerning Eastern Europe, Western Balkans, Caucasus Region, Central Asia, Economic and Scientific Relations and Management Issues. Its departments are the 3rd European Department, 4th European Department, Economic Relations Department, Management Department, Security and Informatics Department, Protocol Department, Documentation Department, Tender Management Unit, Public Procurement Unit, Real Estate Management Unit, EU Presidency Budget & Logistics Unit. To the 3rd European Department belongs: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey.

To the 4th European Department belongs: Eastern-Europe and Central-Asia and the Caucasus: Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. - 79 - http://www.doksihu The sixth State Secretary is responsible for Relations outside Europe, Consular Affairs, International Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid, the departments for this are:, Department for the Americas, Department for Asia and the Pacific, Department for Africa and the Middle East and Department for International Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid. The departments of the Chief of Cabinet are Ministry Cabinet, International and European Union Constitutional Law Department, Consular Department, Human Resources Department and Coordination and Legal Department. PROTOCOL DEPARTMENT The Protocol Department consists of 4 further departments which are the State Protocol, Diplomatic Protocol, Protocol Office and Programme

organization Department. Each has its own tasks, which are the following: The tasks of the Diplomatic Protocol are: ¾ Assisting the connection of the Ministry, the foreign representations and other organizations. Helping foreign representations in an undisturbed operation ¾ Managing the agréments of the ambassadors and permits of military attachés and consul generals who are delegated to Hungary. ¾ Managing the order of agréments of Hungarian ambassadors and military attachés; the operational permits of the consul generals, the letters patent and making the credentials. ¾ Organizing the handing over and farewell visit of the ambassadors at the President, organizing the official arrival at the public dignitary ¾ Controlling continuously the accurateness of the data of the Corps of Diplomacy list. ¾ Publishing the protocol circular every day. ¾ Organizing the entrance at the airport and booking the VIP lounge ¾ Coordinating and managing the appointment cases - 80 -

http://www.doksihu The tasks of the Protocol Office are ¾ Keeping a record about the stuff of the Corps of Diplomacy and Consular and the Hungarian representatives of those international organizations which have diplomatic exemption. Judging and issuing the members of the staff the income applications for passes, the tax and duty discharges of the foreign representation and its workers. ¾ According to the standpoint of the International and European Union Constitutional Law Department, managing the affairs of the staff and their families of the Hungarian Diplomatic and Consular representations in abroad and the foreign representations in Hungary and their affairs in connection with exemptions and privilege of the international organizations and its officials. ¾ Giving certificate about duty free, import and export licences for the Corps of Diplomacy and Consular and the administration of these. Intervening on behalf of the Corps of Diplomacy and Consular and the workers of the

foreign representations in case of application for vehicle licence and number plate. Tasks of the Programme organization Department It fulfils the protocol and organizational tasks of the foreign visits of the Minister and State Secretaries, or when their partners come to Hungary. ¾ Fulfilling the protocol and organizational tasks of the multilateral conferences at ministry level or the sessions of international organizations in Hungary. ¾ Organizing the foreign visits of the State Secretaries of the Ministry and the visitors of their partners. ¾ In case of multilateral international conferences –if the Ministry bears the coststaking part in organizing the programme. ¾ In case of previous approval, giving help to organize programmes to other ministries and organizations with national powers. - 81 - http://www.doksihu The State Protocol deals with: ¾ Fulfilling the tasks of arrival, Hungarian stay and departure of a foreign delegation, whose leader is the guest of the

President and the Prime Minister, and for further reasons high-ranking qualified delegations and organizing the foreign visits of delegations, whose head is either the President or the Prime Minister. ¾ For the request of the Office of the President, Office of the Prime Minister or one territorial department of the Ministry, it manages the affairs which go together with the contact of Presidents or Prime Ministers. ¾ Preparing and arranging the national and state ceremonies and the tasks of the State Protocol at programmes of overriding importance. ¾ Taking part in those programmes, which are organized by or in the attendance of the state dignitaries to the Corps of Diplomacy. ¾ Taking part in carrying out and sending out the New Year’s greetings of the President and the Prime Minister. ¾ In case of the defined events in the first point, it also sees to have the appropriate level of gifts. ¾ It takes care of the formal usage of the allocations of the State Protocol. ¾ Keeps a

record of data of the visits and programmes, which are in its field. - 82 - http://www.doksihu COURSE OF ORGANIZING AN OFFICIAL VISIT When the protocol consultant gets the information about who and when would arrive, he/she starts his/her work by drawing up the programme of the guest. The work starts with drawing up a programme scheme with the label “working copy”. The elements of the scheme are: 1. List of the people who are going to participate 2. The movement of the participants 3. Accommodation of the participants 4. Detailed description of each programme point 5. Drawing up a contact list 6. Negotiation of the details of each programme points with the guest side (or embassy) 7. (Scene) Scenarios of each programme 8. Drawing up a gift-list 9. Additional tasks List of the people who are going to participate The announcement of arrival of a delegation is the task of the Embassies. When an Ambassador announces it and the Protocol Department gets it officially the protocol

consultants start their work. May be the most important is that who is going to be the main guest. It is important because his/her rank determines lots of things, for example, what kind of safety conditions are needed. It is also important to know who are going to be the members of the delegation, how many press representatives will come and who and where is going to joint to the delegation (for them the accommodation and the tickets have to be arranged separately, but that has to be done by the Embassy in this case). The security officers have to be registered before they arrive with their names, rank and what kind of gun they want to bring (its type and calibre) and how many missiles they want to come with. In Hungary only 2 securities are allowed to go into the Parliament and in the Sándor Palace also. The Hungarian Dignitary Protection Service decides about for who has to be secured on what level that is, do we need to provide an armoured car? The Dignitary Protection Service

decides also about which frequency can be used by the member of the foreign security. All these information have to be clarified before the visit. - 83 - http://www.doksihu The rank of the main guest determines also whether a doctor should join to the delegation or not. Meanwhile organizing the different programmes all of the needed information has to be asked from the Embassies like what is the blood group of the main guest, does he have an allergies or what are those thinks the does not eat (because of vegetarianism or religious rules) etc. The movement of the participants The details of the vehicles which are going to be of assistance in the programme have to be considered. At every programme point the parking places have to be assured for each car; this is done by the Dignitary Protection Service. If it is a car, then how many vehicles are needed for the transportation, how many can be assured by the host country (it is usually on a mutual basis). The main guest seated in one

car and official delegates on minister level has to be seated in cars also, but maximum 2 or 3 ministers can be seated in one car. For the further delegation members bus can be ordered. All numbers of the number plates have to be given to the Embassy and to the Dignitary Protection Service, whom check all the cars and allowed them to the different programme places. In case of rented cars before the travelling all have to be combed by bomb-disposal experts. For the members of the press a separate bus have to be assured, because of easier transportability, another bus has to be assured for the luggage if it is needed. If the delegation comes with car to the boarders than there they take another sit into the Hungarian cars. In case of travelling by ship or airplane the journey time has to be asked for and taken into consideration. The exact times of arrival and departure have to be fixed in advance and the VIP lounge has to be ordered according to that. The transfer of the luggage have to

be organized Usually someone from the Embassy stays at the airport to collect the passports and to show up. The transfer of the luggage is organized by the Dignitary Protection Service, the arrangement of the convoy is made also by them, it has to be checked and prepared for the departure. If a private airplane is needed then it has to be ordered and the flightpermission has to be asked in advance If the arrival is happened with a private flight than the convoy departs from the concrete, if it is a scheduled flight then the main guest uses the VIP lounge. The luggage of the main guest is handled separately - 84 - http://www.doksihu Accommodation of the participants In case of the accommodation it has to be considered who and how long are going to be with the delegation. Usually the Embassies tell in which hotel they want to the accommodation. If the main guest is a President, Prime Minister or Minister, a suit has to be provided for him. For the further delegation members on

minister level they get the junior suits. Those who are under this rank get normal room with view to the Danube. The security who assures the main guest has to get the room near by or in front of the secured person. The representatives of the press can be accommodated in a separate hotel. If there is a special order by the delegation than that has to be organized in advance like a fax machine into the main guest’s room. For the main guest, additional fruit juice with fibre, soft drinks and in some cases decoration is needed. Financing the accommodation happens on a mutual basis also. A room arrangement has to be done before the arrival, which makes the procedure of the arrival to the hotel easier. The hotel makes a recommendation for the arrangement the protocol consultants check it. Detailed description of each programme point The next step is the completion of the programme points. The followings have to be stated in every case: ¾ type of the event ¾ starting time and its

duration ¾ and who are going to be the participants In some cases, when not the whole delegation takes part at a certain programme, it has to be decided where they are going be/wait and what they are going to do at this time. Similarly, the length of the program and the length of time needed for the transfer have to be taken under consideration. If there is a gap in the programme, then that has to be filled in for example with a visit in the Parliament. In every case the exact place with address, floor and the name or number of room has to be given. The name of the person, who is going to await the guest before each program also has to be given. In case of ceremonies, everything has to be written down in detail, who stands where; when the flower is given, how long the event is going to be, etc. - 85 - http://www.doksihu Draw up a contact list The most important telephone numbers, addresses and fax numbers have to be collected in a list. It has to contain the numbers of the places

of events and delegation members, embassy, the number of the ambassadors, organizing consultants, according to the programme the number of the offices of the President and Prime Minister. It has to contain the address, numbers of the head of the security, restaurants and hotel as well. The country-code of each telephone number must be given, in case of Hungary the 00 36. Negotiation of the details of each programme points with the guest side (or embassy) Usually, when the programme points start to fall into place, than the best solution, if the Hungarian and the foreign side meet and discuss everything in a very detail (for example whether the hotel, the menus are good and which side pays what and for how many people). It is useful because questions may arise and they can discuss them immediately. Scenarios of each programme In case of business lunch or dinner the list of the participants has to be made. The names have to be recommended and then the competent office decides who is

going to be there from the Hungarian side. After this the invitation cards have to be written and sent out The President independently from the nationality of the invited people invites only in Hungarian. Draw up a gift-list In this case, it has to be considered who the participants are, and for whom it is essential to give a gift. The nature of the gift has to be considered, whether the commonplace gift is appropriate or something special is needed. In case of the main guest, the kind of gift he has already received have to be considered, if a special gift is asked to be given than his or his wife’s hobbies, or a special connection to a town etc. has to be taken into account. The basis of the presentation is also the mutuality and the aim of the presentation. It has to be careful with not to give the same gift what he has already got, - 86 - http://www.doksihu or to give a complementary gift to that what he has received. Some examples for gifts from the Hungarian side are lace

from Halas, porcelain from Herend or commemorative medal. Further gifts have to be given to the members of the delegation Additional tasks One of these tasks is to order the flags, for the streets, for every room where the delegation is going to have a meeting, to the hotel, for the cars and if needed for ships and other vehicles. The flag of the delegation nation can be only on the main guest’s car. From the point, when the programme points start to fall into place the tasks run on two ways, one is the further organization of the programme the other is the catering part. The catering consultants get a draft of the programme from the protocol consultants from which they chose, on which program they have to participate. Usually the programs contain the same elements - like the habit of long standing -, and as a help sometimes they refer to previous cases. The catering consultants have to book the needed places for the events, for example in the Parliament, what kind of event should

be in which room. Events can be private discussions, plenary sessions, business lunches or dinners, banquets, press conferences. Their task is also to ask for an offer for menu for the main guest (this is called V1), for the V2, which consists of the members of the Dignitary Protection Service and the protocol and for the V3, which consists of the police and rented drivers, order the guard of honour, audio settings (amplification, etc.), flowers and they have to send the list about those people who can be admitted to these events. In general it starts with a request for an offer for a menu for the V1, V2 and for the V3. The V2 has to be close to the V1 so their meal is usually at the same place but the V3 who do not have to be close to the V1 - is usually ordered to a restaurant nearby. For the V1 the menu consist of a first course with wine, soup, main dish with wine and a dessert with an appropriate wine also. Usually 3 menus are offered and from these the choice is to be made. The

menus must not be a general, “puritan” menu The offered menus have to be checked weather the wines are appropriate for that meal, if not it has to be - 87 - http://www.doksihu changed and the naming of the meals as well. In case of the President and the Prime Minister the Chief of the Protocol Department in the Office of the President or in the Office of the Prime Minister chose from the 3 menus, if it is a private meal, the Chief of the Protocol Department in the Ministry chose the one, which is going to be served. Of course when the menus are drawn up the information, which is got from the Embassy or the protocol consultants have to be taken under consideration that is if the main guest has an allergy, or there are some meal which he does not eat because of dislikes, vegetarianism or religious rules than those must not be given to him. For the V2 buffet meal is ordered, which similarly consists of a first course, soup, main dish and dessert. Usually it is asked to be filling

with the used Hungarian tastes and do not contain sour cream and cream. Before the order the Dignitary Protection Service has to state the number of people that are going to eat there (in both cases of V2 and V3). All costs have to be checked and the order has to be written according to the agreements, within the order these have to be fixed. When the menu is chosen than it is sent to the interpreter to translate (usually it is 1 day). For the Hungarian participants the menu is in Hungarian, for the foreign delegation it is either on their language or in English. For these the interpreters have a common tariff system. If that is ready and there is a need for a double-sided menu card, especially at banquets, then the printing house has 2 days to get ready with that. At the same time the flowers have to be ordered. There are customs about which room and for what kind of event how many flowers have to be ordered. The colours of the flowers have to reflect the colours of the national flag

of the delegation. If there is going to be a press conference than the press cordon has to be put up. Usually the guard of honour is ordered form the level of the Foreign Minister in the Parliament and Sándor Palace. All of the supplementary services have to be entered separately, for example: who transfers the flowers, decorations, audio settings, etc. Otherwise no one is allowed to go in these buildings. That is why permanent connections have to be between the Ministry and the Dignitary Protection Service, the florist and the further service providers. - 88 - http://www.doksihu The list of people who could enter the building at the days of event has to be sent 1 day before the event. If a delegation comes only for one day, then the leader of the delegation often requires a rest room, which is usually one of the rooms in the Parliament or the guest house of the government on the Andrássy Street to refresh himself or to change his clothe. In case of longer programmes a press

centre has to be settled and for the other members of the delegation scones, sandwiches and water have to be arranged. If the event is in the countryside for example, in case of a cabinet meeting, it is arranged half way between the 2 countries, and all offers have to be from 2 service providers, one from the countryside and one from the capital city. But of course in case of countryside programmes the organising process is much harder, because all of the places have to be visited in advance, at least 2 times, for the first time with the Dignitary Protection Service and for every programme point the appropriate places have to be found. The Dignitary Protection Service has to examine how these places can be secured. For the second time around, the inspection is done with the representative of the other country. And it is harder because the protocol has to cooperate with those service providers, who have not done these kinds of events before. Some days before the events the following

tasks have to be done: The badges and car slips have to be ordered and allocated. The labels for the members of the foreign delegation on their language, and for the Hungarians in English have to be written. Usually the following badges can be found: Protocol, Official delegate, Accompany, Security, Interpreter and Press. When all the names of participants are collected then the seating can be made according to the protocol list. For the seating the name cards have to be made and printed The invitation card, name card are printed on a golden edged cards where the arms of Hungry is printed also with gold in case of the President, it is the same in case of the Prime Minister but with silver. - 89 - http://www.doksihu Tasks on the scene In case of a meeting, at first the tables and chairs have to be placed in the appropriate order, if there is additional furniture, than that has to be taken out. If it is completed, the name cards can be put on the tables according to the seating. It

is followed by the putting out of notebooks and pens. Then the flowers can be put on the table and the good order of the flags has to be checked. After this the drinks have to be put on the table and the ordered coffees and teas have to be checked to be ready for serving. In case of banquets, the tables have to be set by the restaurant, which made the menu. After this, the printed menus and name cards have to be put on the tables. The printed versions of toasts have to be put on the chairs, in case of the foreign delegation the Hungarian President’s toast has to be put on their native language or in English, for the Hungarians the toast of the foreign side has to be put in Hungarian. For this kind of meal the “information card” has to be printed, which consists the name and rank of the participants for the introduction and from this he gets to know the number of his table. The flowers also have to be placed. - 90 - http://www.doksihu WEEKS Week 5: TO DO’S The Ambassador

announce to the Protocol and the appropriate territorial Department about the arrival. The official memorandum has to be got. The members of the Protocol Department make a draft about the programme. Week 4: The Hungarian side looks around possibilities, tries to make the programme to be better and if it is needed than goes to a scene tour Week 3: Fall into place the official list of the members of the delegation, the hotel can be booked Week 2: Discussion of the 2 sides, talks with the associate organizations, the programme has to be send for opinions Week 1: Decide who sits to which negotiation, finalize and order of the menus Days before the arrival: Everything has to be checked again, the programme has to be finalized and printed. - 91 - http://www.doksihu START Get the list of participants Find and book the accommodation Programme points of the delegation Detailed description of each programme point Movement of the delegation Ask for an order of Menu Flag

ordering Booking of the negotiation rooms Gift‐list Ordering flowers Contact‐list END - 92 - Choose a menu http://www.doksihu CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN PROTOCOL We live in a global world, which is not totally global: we have to face the cultural differences, especially who deals with protocol in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, because here people have to handle delegations from different nations and cultures from week to week. We have to be aware of these differences to understand people with a different cultural background and in this way cooperation can be more successful and problem free. It is important to recognize that people from different cultures differ in a variety of ways, including different ways of looking at things, different ways of dressing, and different ways of expressing personality or emotions. First of all, I would like to define what we mean by culture: it is excellence of taste in the fine arts and humanities, an integrated pattern of human knowledge,

belief, and behaviour that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning, the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization, group or nation.73 We can also say that it is the behaviour at the national level or an inherited ethical habit.74 A difference between cultures can be based on the fact whether or not a certain culture is explicit as opposed to being rather implicit? In low context cultures, things are made explicitly. In high context cultures, things are spelt out less explicitly and are much more subtle or communicated in indirect ways. The interactions of two nations from different context cultures could bring about problems. Of course it is relative which those countries are, but if we look at the European Union and Turkey, Turkey would definitely be the high context culture. There can be difference in whether a country has a Future-, Present-, or PastOrientation. Past-oriented societies are

concerned with traditional values and ways of doing things. That would be Turkey or if we look for an example within the European Union: Great Britain. Future-oriented societies have a great deal of optimism about the future, like the United States has. Present-oriented societies deal with the present only and perhaps Hungary is one of them. 73 74 Kroeber, A. L and C Kluckhohn, (1952) Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions FUKUYUMA (1995), Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity - 93 - http://www.doksihu How societies manage time, differs as well. Turkey is an Islam country, where people are often late, this can be annoying for Europeans. Muslims think that the Koran disposes of everything properly and because it is stated in the Koran that “the human being is impatient” („Al-Iszrā”, Surah [17], aja 11) they think they have enough time. There is an Arab proverb which says that “Patience is form Allah, hurry comes from Satan.”, so they

will never be in a hurry – unlike people from EU countries, especially Hungary. There is a difference between the ways nations handle things. In a monochromic culture like Turkey, it is believed that everything has a right time and place, so they do things after one another, while in a polychromic culture (e.g: Hungary) things are managed in a parallel manner. In this respect there are differences within member countries of the European Union also, because French is also a polychromic country while Germany is rather monochromic. The Hofstede-model75 of cultural dimensions has to be examined when we try to examine cultural differences among countries. One element of this is the Power distance index which shows the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. Second is the Individualism as opposed to collectivism. There are societies, in which the ties between individuals are loose;

everyone is expected to look after himself. Masculinity: it shows the gap between male and female values. In feminine countries women have the same modest, caring values as men, while in the masculine countries they are somewhat assertive and competitive, but not as much as men. Uncertainty Avoidance Index shows to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Values associated with Long-Term Orientation are thrift and consistence, and the basic values of short-term orientation are respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations. In case of Turkey the Uncertainty Avoidance Index is quite high; while the Masculinity is around the average and Individualism index is lower than average. A high Uncertainty Avoidance Index - like in case of Turkey - means that they handle 75 http://www.geert-hofstedecom/ 13 December 2009 - 94 - http://www.doksihu dissimilar things as a curiosity and not as a danger. Low

Individualism index shows that this country is rather collective, which means, society and family play very important roles. The higher than average Masculinity shows that masculine and feminine behaviours differ. Considering this, Turkey should have a higher grade, but it also means that the feminine features are characteristic as well, because they take care of each other and they honour human connections. From these we can get an average grade. In case of Hungary, all of these indexes are higher than average, which means we are more individualistic than Turkey, so we are more self-centered and independent. Hungary’s masculinity is just a little bit higher than that of Turkey, so more or less the same things are true for us, but here is a smaller difference between the roles of men and women. Our uncertainty avoidance is much higher than average, which means we – similarly to Turks– handle dissimilar things as curiosity and not as danger. There are big differences between

customs. I would like to list and give examples from both Turkey and the European Union and if it necessary global examples, as well. The first thing that happens when people meet is the greeting. Greetings in Turkey and the EU are quite similar, because they shake hands at the beginning, but not necessarily, when saying goodbye. In Turkey, friends from the same sex - even men - kiss each other on the cheeks, while it is not customary in the European Union. But there is a big difference in how people greet on the Far-East. They have the same rules in case someone enters the room. The newcomer has to greet everyone else, and in case an older or respected person enters, it is proper to stand up. Turkish people are glad if we learn few worlds on their language, so we can use the bej and hanim expressions, which stand for Mr. and Mrs or Miss There are special gestures which are characteristics of one culture only, but some gestures may exist in more cultures with a different meaning. For

example in Albania head nods are reversed. While in the other European countries shaking the head around the vertical axes means yes, in Albania that is the sign of no and the horizontally nod means yes for them. In Turkey there is no difference in this respect, but they can express the no in two ways. The gentle way is when the eyebrows are lifted up, which is accompanied with the characteristic “ck” sound and the universal way is when the eyebrow is lifted up but the eyelids are let down, but they have further ways to express - 95 - http://www.doksihu their feelings or agreements which differs from the European norms for example shaking the head in Turkey means that “I do not understand”. As for dress codes, Western norms are followed - except of course in case of religious representatives. What to wear for certain events is strictly ruled, eg: white-tie, blacktie, informal, casual etc I think when we talk about groups of cultures, we can divide the world according to

cultures. This was done by Samuel P Huntington in his book The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. According to Huntington, in the future the nature of conflicts is not going to be interstate but intercultural, because “The most important conflicts of the future will occur along the cultural fault lines separating civilizations from one another”. Here we can see the groups of cultures. We can see that the Western societies are basically located in North America, Australia and Western Europe. The interesting thing is that there are two countries from the European Union which do not belong to the Western countries. These are Romania and Bulgaria Huntington grouped them to Russia, because of their Orthodox religion. I think this picture shows also where the fault lines are, where cultures are changing and different habits start appearing. - 96 - http://www.doksihu We can see the Muslim world where the Koran regulates even the every day life, for example the 5

prayer per day. The protocol staff has to accommodate for it, if the main guest wishes to carry out these prayers. In this case, some solution has to be found, for example, his programmes have to be organized in a way so that he could withdraw to his room for prayer at the desired times. In case of a Turkish a delegation there would be no problem with this, because they do not hold these religious habits – unlike guests from other Islamic countries. Of course different things have to be taken care of in case of a Chinese or Japanese delegation. Far-Eastern people tend to be rather introverted More attention has to be paid to the hierarchy (ranks and age) in case of such delegations. There are further interesting countries, like India with its Hinduism, Latin America or Africa. - 97 - http://www.doksihu CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Today protocol is a complex of written and sometimes unwritten rules, which contains a culture of behaviour, an order of ceremony and ceremony

organization. It determines the ways of official contacts. By this, someone can be hurt and honoured To some extent it is more or less the same around the world, but it can differ in small things from nation to nation, mostly because of the diversity of habits. What I found during my research is that it requires great care and circumspection to know how to deal with different nations. The first thing is that we have to be aware of the habits of the country where the delegation comes from. Lots of books deal with the differences of cultures, these can be useful, we can get ideas about what things are regarded as taboo in one country and the characteristics of communication. As a first step, the differences have to be learned The embassies can also help in informing us about what we can expect. During the organizational period their help has to be asked because they have an overview about the habits and customs of both nations. Diplomats they have been living here and experienced the

differences between the nations, therefore they know exactly what to expect from both parties and how to solve possible problems. It is paramount to learn the cultural differences of the member states of the European Union as well, because - despite the European unity - there are a number of differences among member states, even though these differences are smaller than the ones that occur in other parts of the world. We have to be very circumspect towards the cultures when organizing programmes and carrying out diplomacy related tasks. And of course the person who wants to deal with this has to be adaptable, tolerant and understanding. - 98 - http://www.doksihu THE POSSIBLE CULTURAL PROBLEMS OF THE TURKISH EU ACCESSION “There is no bigger challenge for the identity – and economic welfare- of the EU, than the potential membership of Turkey. Similarly, nothing makes harder the identitydilemma of Turkey, than the longing for the membership in the Union” Ömer Taspinar

Nowadays, the Turkish EU accession is a topic of high importance, which has a major significance from the viewpoint of the European Union and Hungary as a member state.76 The EU began the negotiations about the accession with Turkey on 3 October 2005. For the first time in the EU it is an open-ended negotiation 77 In this part I would like to examine what the cultural (and culture related) problems of Turkey in the EU accession could be. Are these problems real or just created by the EU to delay the accession? What are be the pros and cons of the possible accession? One of the criteria which can be doubted is Turkey’s “European nature”. It is the basic question of the dispute about the Turkish accession. In geographic sense it is beyond doubt that much of its territory and population is outside Europe, but in the historic sense there is no European history without the Ottoman-Turkish Empire. So its history, culture and economy are connected in many ways to the Old Continent.72

The European intellectual and ideological trends not only reached the Ottoman-Turkish Empire, but the entire modernization process was based on European norms. Eg the examples of the Turkish enlightenment were French. Turkey has been struggling for belonging to the West for about a hundred years. Turkey is aiming at becoming a country with working democracy and market economy. In Turkey’s neighbourhood more significant centres of crisis were formed, nevertheless Turkey could maintain its stability, furthermore it could join the crisis management (e.g Iraq) That is why Turkey wants to play the role of bridge between East and West because it lies on the boarder of the developed West and the “backward” East, on a borderline of civilisations. Turkey is on its way to 76 V PFENIG, VIOLA: Törökország EU-tagsága - érvek és ellenérvek, Förköli Gábor, Sági Tamás (szerk.), ADSUMUS V: tanulmányok a VII Eötvös Konferencia előadásaiból, Budapest, ELTE Eötvös József

Collegium, 2007, 281-296. 77 VÁSÁRY, ISTVÁN (szerk.): Törökország és az iszlám: az iszlám szerepe Törökország EUcsatlakozásának megítélésében, Piliscsaba, Avicenna Közel-kelet Kutatások Intézete, 2008 - 99 - http://www.doksihu become a regional power. Turkey is the only Islam country with a good relationship with Israel, moreover, it is a country, that other Arabic countries accept as a mediator. This way Turkey could have a prominent role in the peace making process of the NearEast. In the Caucasian area, Russia, USA and the Union all want to increase their influence. For this end, Turkey could give assistance because of its military presence and economic involvement in the area. According to the Turkish point of view, it could lead the EU to outgrow the role of “economic giant-political dwarf” and become an independent political actor in the Near-East. But it raises the problem that this way, the EU itself would become on the border with these crisis

centres, which would mean safety risks. It is hard to say, whether the prevention of such risks or the acquired influence is more important for the EU. The military potential of Turkey has to be mentioned as well. It could increase the military potential of the EU and the position of the Union in the NATO; since Turkey has the second largest army in the NATO after the USA (Turkey has the 27% of the European NATO members’ army). According the official standpoint the fear from Islam as a reason is not included. According to the constitution of the Turkish Republic, it is a secular state, at he same time the majority of its population is Muslim. The reason of the Turkish indignation was that in 1997, six Christian Democratic Prime Ministers refused the possibility of the Turkish accession by stating: “We want the closest connections, but we build a European Union.” At the next appointment of the Foreign Ministers of the Union, it was declared that the Islam identity cannot be an

obstacle of the membership. Turkey gives a certain impression of some kind of bastion of the Union which protects Europe from the Islam fundamentality. This fact has to be considered, since Turkey is the only Islam country where democracy actually works. If the EU refused the request of the state, which has been waiting for the membership for 40 years, it would lead to a rapid advance of fundamentalism in Turkey. That would increase the instability in the region as well. Turkey tries to do its best in accomplishing everything that the EU expects, so in their interpretation, the refusal of the accession request would mean the failure of both the Western model and democracy. It could also strengthen those thoughts that the EU is a “Christian club”. The failure of Turkey would affect further states in the region, and could interfere with the development of democracy. However, if the wish of Turkey came true and Turkey became a member state, it would confirm in the Near-East that - 100

- http://www.doksihu democracy, human rights and freedom can be achieved and respected in an Islam state.72 The fear of “otherness” in the European society has to be examined, because there are anti-Turkish hatred in those countries also, for example France, where the number of Turkish immigrants is insignificant. It is because they have a great experience of Arab immigrants, while there are huge differences among the European Islam communities. In general, the Muslim communities which live in Europe today can be divided into 3 groups: those, who have been living for hundreds of years in the South-Eastern part of Europe. The first bigger immigration was after the World War II Masses came from the colonies to the former colonial countries. Masses of Muslim aboriginals moved to Great-Britain, from the Indonesian archipelago to the Netherlands or from South –Africa to France. After this, the European economic development in the 50’s and 60’s, required a great amount of cheap

labour. In the beginning Germany received Turkish immigrant workers in a fixed contractual form. Later France followed the same to Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. At that time these contracts were fixedperiod contracts, later the residency became opened for the employees who came to Europe. The lack of integration of the Muslim communities became the centre of attention in the European countries after 11th September 2001 and especially after the terrorist attacks in Madrid and London. In the European public opinion and in the eye of the political elite, they became the biggest source of contingency and threat. Host societies gradually reject the “otherness”. This phenomenon raises a double problem in Central-European member states. On the one hand, they do not have a significant Muslim minority, on the other hand, they have to count with that sooner or later as gradually they will became a target of migration also. With that kind of attitude in the older member states, hatred can

easily appear in the new member states too, where that particular problem had not existed before. It has to be emphasised that the experience of the European states are quite different. While from Bulgaria to Slovenia and Slovakia the experiences are connected to the Ottoman-Turkish Empire, this way it is defined as a historic connection, while for the society of France, Spain and Great Britain the South-East Asian Pakistanis and Muslims of India mean the Islam and the threat.73 Because of this, there is a fear from the Turkish immigrants. The EU fears from the free flow of cheap labor. The member states have already stipulated that if Turkey accesses the EU then the free flow of labour cannot be fulfilled immediately, a long transition - 101 - http://www.doksihu period can be expected. On the other hand, the EU could benefit from it, because the society of Turkey is younger. (In Turkey the increase of population is 1,8% while in Europe only 0,2%.) It could mean the source of supply

of labour for the EU72 There are also further cultural related problems like the Kurdish, Armenian and Greek problem. That is well-known that the –linguistically and ethnically Iran- Kurds were out of the territorial arrangements on the Near-East after the partition of the Ottoman-Turkish Empire. The number of the Kurds today is estimated to be around 20-25 million They live on the mountainous territory near the boarders of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria and Armenia. Their aim is to establish a Kurdish state Around half of them live on the Eastern part of Turkey but significant amount of them has spread to other parts of Turkey. Kurds fight political - and often armed - fights in order to establish an independent Kurdish state. The PKK – Partiya Karkaren Kurdistan – Turkish Kurd Labour Party gave up the armed fight in 2004, but its successor organization started the armed fight and executes terrorist acts against Turkey from their Northern-Iraq basis. The Kurdish problem was an

internal affair of Turkey for decades, but today it became foreign affair and a task for prevention of terrorism. In the framework of the EU accession Kurds got cultural rights (education, newspapers and electronic media). That is an interesting fact that 100 of representatives of the ruling party (AKP) have Kurdish origins. There was an extensive argument about the Turkish events under the First World War, when around 1,5 million Armenian were relocated and killed. Numerous countries of the world like the USA, half of the members of the EU pronounced it officially genocide. According to the Turkish viewpoint it was not genocide, but connecting to the happenings of the World War ethnic and religious confrontation happened, where 300.000 Armenian and around the same amount of Turks died Yet, the Turkish documentation is closed till today. Jacques Chirac, French President at that time on his Armenian visit said, that Turkey should recognize the fact of genocide before it becomes member

of the EU. Although is has not been a condition of the accession73 The third problem is the problem of Cyprus. There is has been a conflict between Greece and Turkey for hundred years. Today it has two segments, one is the problem of Cyprus the other is he dispute about the Aegean Sea. In 1954 when Cyprus was - 102 - http://www.doksihu liberated from the control of Great-Britain Cyprus wanted to be unified with the native country, but it was not allowed by the Turks who live in the Northern part of Cyprus. This problem is still not settled even today. The other problem started in 1995 when Greece signed the Convention on the Law of the Sea. It provides possibility to expand their line of territorial waters from 6 to 12 miles. To apply this rule to the islands, which belong to Greece, would cause that the international surface of water dropped from 56% to 26,1%, while the Greek territory would increase from 35% to 63,9%. This situation could not be acceptable from military-strategic

point of view for Turkey, because it would prevent the free movement of the Turkish (military) air force and fleet. Moreover, the whole Anatolian seacoasts would be broke off from national waters. This opposition is still an acute problem of the NATO and it caused a regional arms competition between two member states of NATO.78 There is a theory of Huntington that in the following period of history conflicts are not going to be interstate but intercultural because “The most important conflicts of the future will occur along the cultural fault lines separating civilizations from one another”- Huntington. It can be because “The people of different civilizations have different views on the relations between God and man, the individual and the group, the citizen and the state, parents and children, husband and wife, as well as differing views of the relative importance of rights and responsibilities, liberty and authority, equality and hierarchy.”- argues Huntington There is a

fault line of 3 great civilizations in Europe: Christianity, Orthodox and Islam. According to Huntington there are 5 kinds of states: the core-states, which is the leading states of a civilization (there are no corestate in the Islam, in Africa and in Latin-America), the member state, which identifies itself entirely with the civilization, the solitary state like Ethiopia or Japan which are surrounded by states from other civilization, the splitting states, where there are people from more civilizations like India (Muslims and Hindis) and the "torn countries", which are changing civilization, like Turkey, because its been too secular to be a member state of Islam, but it has not been close enough to the European Union.79 78 SZIGETVÁRI, TAMÁS: Törökország és az Európai Unió ambivalens viszonya avagy "Törököt fogtam, de nem ereszt", Budapest, MTA VKI, 1998. 79 Huntington, Samuel P.: A civilizációk összecsapása és a világrend átalakulása, Budapest,

Európa Kiadó, 2008. - 103 - http://www.doksihu As a possible problem there is also the absorption capacity of the European Union, which is obviously restrained. According to the German viewpoint the ability to expand the EU should not be overburdened by the accession of new member states, especially Turkey, which is a “special economic, demographic and cultural challenge”. In 2006 the absorption ability became a precondition of the accession. The argument about the absorption ability –from the Turkish point of view- is “the new rhetoric joker”.73 As a summary I would like to sum up the pros and cons of accession. The pros are: ¾ Turkey was part of Europe for hundreds of years; furthermore it was a leading power. ¾ European Neighbourhood Policy. It includes the following countries: Russia, Belarus, Moldavia, Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and State of Palestine. The European Committee suggested expanding it to the countries of

Caucasian i.e Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia ¾ Europe wants to expand its political influence in the world (Although the last two can be seen as cons at the same time, as the European Union would be the neighbour of the most conflicting part of the world.) ¾ The society of Europe is aging while in Turkey there is a demographical boom (Perhaps this is seen as the biggest problem of Turkey, because educated labour would come to older member states, while the Turkish economy gives work for half million immigrant workers from the former soviet countries.) ¾ This is the country, which has been “on the waiting list” for the longest time (since 1959). ¾ Turkey was the bastion of West in the Cold War and be ready to be it again. ¾ Turkey serves as a pattern for the Islam countries. (The Islam world is keeping an eye on the Turkish accession. They would not totally accept the Turkish example, but if it were rejected then it would be attributed to its Islam religion.) The cons are: ¾

just a very small part of Turkey is located in Europe ¾ its neighbourhood is full of conflicts (it would be very costly for the Union) - 104 - http://www.doksihu ¾ its institutions are not working properly ¾ there has been problems with the equal usage of law and human rights ¾ a confrontation line of 3 big civilizations (Christianity, Orthodox and Islam) lies here80 There are further possibilities for cooperation like the “customs union and the 3+” formula, which means nearby the customs union with the EU and the 3+ would be a long term financial cooperation, restricted share of the EU funds and they could have the right to attend definite ministerial appointments. Or another version could be the full membership minus the free flow of labour. CONCLUSION As I see the accession of Turkey, considering the economic, politic and social situation of Turkey, the accession can be imaginable not in the near future, but in midterm. By that time it is paramount that Turkey

stabilized and developed with the help of the EU and the relation between them is strengthened. In the 19th century Turkey was the “sick man of Europe” that means it was considered as a European country. And if we consider, how hard Turkey tries to become a member state, it is easy to see that there has been no other country that had to wait as much as Turkey has to. Turkey is making strenuous efforts to carve out a new identity for itself, which has to be done unlike in case of any other country. And if we look at the history, there has not been hundred years ago when Germany and France were enemies in World War I and fought against each other. Less than fifty years later: both of them were founders of the European Union (in case of Germany it was only West Germany) (that time it was the European Coal and Steel Community than the European Economic Community). The European Union builds for long term of course, but who knows what happens in the next hundred years. Finally it has to

be examined whether the European rights allows such a member state considering that only 5% of its territory is in Europe. If this question is decided, then 80 BÖSZÖRMÉNYI-NAGY, GERGELY: Törökország EU-csatlakozásának kérdőjelei: tanulmányok, dokumentumok, Székesfehérvár, Kodolányi János Főiskola, 2006. - 105 - http://www.doksihu the answer has to be stated and the EU has to behave according to that, without letting Turkey hoping to become a member state for long decades and then telling them that there is a problem with this. (Even if it had been too late for this after the beginning of the accession negotiations). If it is decided that Turkey can in the end become a member state then there is one problem to be solved before the accession. The European Union has to consider that the Iraq-Turkey and Turkmenistan-Iran-Turkey pipeline goes through Turkey, which is very important for the Union because of the safety of energysupply. The other problem is its religion.

In the European Union there is a religious liberty, so basically that could not be a problem, but things are more complex of course. Lots of cultural differences arise from this. If Turkey were to join the European Union as an Islam country, there should be a high degree of tolerance and acceptance on both sides. (Similarly, according to Huntington, Romania and Bulgaria do not belong to the Western countries like the other members of the European Union, because their Orthodox religion, even if it is a branch of Christianity, they belong to states like Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. It also has to be considered what the reaction would be not only on Turkey’s part, but on the part of the Islam world if Turkey was rejected because it is an Islam country. - 106 - http://www.doksihu APPENDIX MAIN MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS81 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 GDP Growth (%) 9,4 8,4 6,9 4,6 0,9 Total net debt (% of GDP) 49.0 41.6 34.0 29.5 28.2 13.4 6.5 4,0 1.3 2.1 35.7 35.2

30.0 28.1 26.1 -14,431 -22,088 -32,051 -38,219 -41,289 -3.7 -4.6 -6.1 -5.9 -5.6 Trade Balance (million $) -22,736 -33,001 -40,962 -46,677 -52,844 Export, fob (million $) 68,444 78,174 92,915 114,332 137,311 Imports, fob (million $) 87,773 107,053 130,086 156,142 35,086 FDI (million $) 2,024 8,726 19,261 19,940 15,414 160,918 169,503 207,325 248,958 278,146 External Debt (% of GDP) Domestic Debt (% of GDP) Current Account Balance (million $) Current Account Balance/GDP (%) External Debt (million $) GENERAL ECONOMIC INDICATORS82 2004 GDP (US$bn) (current (A): IMF staff estimation 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009(A) 392.206 482685 529187 649125 729.983 593.533 658.633 747326 824864 888095 915.212 869.068 prices): GDP PPP (US$bn) GDP per capita (US$): 5,862 7,108.4 7,767 9,422 10,479.4 8,427 GDP per capita PPP 9,844 11,006 12,107 12,891 13,138.6 12,339 (US$) 81

http://siteresources.worldbankorg/TURKEYEXTN/Resources/361711-1227089539790/55937931233304555697/200910statspdf 20091027 944 82 http://www.imforg/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weoreptaspx?sy=2004&ey=2009&scsm=1 &ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=944%2C186&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPP PC%2CPCPI%2CPCPIPCH%2CPCPIE%2CPCPIEPCH%2CBCA%2CBCA NGDPD&grp=0&a=&pr1. x=26&pr1.y=16 20091026 1004 - 107 - http://www.doksihu Real GDP growth (% 9.4 8.4 6.9 4.7 1.1 -5.1 -3.679 -4.586 -6.027 -5.805 -5.656 -1.864 23.3 21.8 22.5 22.2 23.9 22.8 8.598 8.179 9.597 8.756 10.444 6.200 change yoy): Current account balance (% GDP): Goods & services exports (% GDP): Inflation (% change yoy): MAIN TRADE PARTNERS OF TURKEY IN 200883 Turkeys principal export destinations, 2008: 1 2 3 83 Germany United Kingdom United Arab Emirates Turkeys principal import sources, 2008: 9,8% 1 Russian Federation 13,3% 6,2% 2 Germany

9,3% 6,0% 3 China 5,1% http://spreadsheets.googlecom/pub?key=pbXY3Rhjkhmji3gKPDrQFIQ&gid=1 26 October 2009 - 108 - http://www.doksihu COLLECTION OF PICTURES Biggest towns of Turkey Pilgrimage to the Kaaba stone, Mecca Times of prays a day Entrance of the Kaaba stone Mihrab Well of mosque Minbar - 109 - http://www.doksihu Mahfili Rosary Hünkar mahfili al-Fátiha Whirling dervishes Tugra - 110 - http://www.doksihu Wells Konak in Safranbolu, Karabük Yali Yali Nazar on a plane of a Turkish Airlines, Fly Air Nazar Young boy goes to circumcision in a traditional dress Traditional women wear - 111 - http://www.doksihu Hamsa Calligraphy Ceramics from Iznik Miniature Mehters (janissary band) Arabesque performer İbrahim Tatlises Davul - 112 - http://www.doksihu Ud Saz Ney Kaval Hamam-Turksih bath Hararet of Cağaloğlu hamam - 113 - Fez http://www.doksihu Raki Çay Samovar Efes beer Ayran Huntington’s civilizations - 114 -

Different kinds of breads http://www.doksihu LIST OF SOURCES: BIBLIOGRAPHY: BARTHA, JÚLIA: Lâle: hagyományok a mai török társadalomban, az emberélet fordulóinak népszokása, Szolnok, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok Megyei Múzeumok Igazgatósága, 2006. BÖSZÖRMÉNYI-NAGY, GERGELY: Törökország EU-csatlakozásának kérdőjelei: tanulmányok, dokumentumok, Székesfehérvár, Kodolányi János Főiskola, 2006. FLESCH, ISTVÁN: Török Köztársaság története, Budapest, Corvina Kiadó, 2007. GLAVANITS, JUDIT: Törökország és az Európai integráció: Gondolatok az európai identitás jegyében, In Tavaszi Szél 2006, konferenciakiadvány, Kaposvár, Doktoranduszok Országos Szövetségének kiadványa, 2006, 112-115. GOLDZIHER, IGNÁCZ: Az Iszlám, Budapest, Franklin Társulat és Révai Testvérek, é.n HUNTINGTON, SAMUEL P.: A civilizációk összecsapása és a világrend átalakulása, Budapest, Európa Kiadó, 2008. MORRISON, TERRI; CONAWAY, WAYNE A.;

BORDEN, GEORGE A: Meghajlás vagy kézfogás?, Budapest, Alexandra Kiadó, 1994. NÉMETH, PÁL: Európa és az iszlám viszonya a múltban és jelenben In Székács, Anna (szerk.), A keleti nyelvek oktatásának gazdasági, kulturális vonatkozásai, és Európai Uniós csatlakozásunk, Budapesti Gazdasági Főiskola Külkereskedelmi Főiskolai Kar, 2004, 99-109. PFENIG, VIOLA: Törökország EU-tagsága - érvek és ellenérvek, Förköli Gábor, Sági Tamás (szerk.), ADSUMUS V: tanulmányok a VII Eötvös Konferencia előadásaiból, Budapest, ELTE Eötvös József Collegium, 2007, 281-296. SILLE, ISTVÁN: Illem, etikett, protokoll, Budapest, Akadémia Kiadó, 2008. SWAN, SUZANNA: Törökország, Budapest, Panemex Kft., 2007 SZIGETVÁRI, TAMÁS: Törökország és az Európai Unió ambivalens viszonya avagy "Törököt fogtam, de nem ereszt", Budapest, MTA VKI, 1998. VÁMBÉRY, ÁRMIN: A magyarság bölcsőjénél, Dunaszerdahely, Lilium Aurum, 2008. - 115 -

http://www.doksihu VÁSÁRY, ISTVÁN (szerk.): Törökország és az iszlám : az iszlám szerepe Törökország EU-csatlakozásának megítélésében, Piliscsaba, Avicenna Közel-kelet Kutatások Intézete, 2008. INTERNET SOURECES: Political structure of Turkey: http://www.byegmgovtr/db/dosyalar/webicerik33pdf Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey http://www.kulturgovtr/EN/Genel/Defaultaspx?17A16AE30572D313AAF6AA84981 6B2EF4376734BED947CDE United Nations: http://www.unorg/en/ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: http://www.oecdorg/home/0,2987,en 2649 201185 1 1 1 1 1,00html The Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe: http://www.osceorg/ Council of Europe: http://www.coeint/ North Atlantic Treaty Organization: http://www.natoint/cps/en/natolive/indexhtm World Trade Organization: http://www.wtoorg/ G20: http://www.g20org/ European Union: enhtm European Central Bank:

http://www.ecbint/stats/exchange/eurofxref/html/indexenhtml President of the Republic of Turkey: http://www.tccbgovtr/pages/president/ Office of the Prime Minister: http://www.byegmgovtr/icerikdetayaspx?Id=50 United Nations Statistical Division: http://unstats.unorg/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2007/Table03pdf Global Finance Magazine: http://www.gfmagcom/gdp-data-country-reports/157turkey-gdp-country-reporthtml World Fact book: Turkey: https://www.ciagov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/geos/tuhtml Turkish Statistical Institute: www.turkstatgovtr - 116 - http://www.doksihu Turkish Odyssey: http://www.turkishodysseycom/turkey/turkeyhtm The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life: f Az MTA Filozófiai Kutatóintézetének Akadémiai- Filozófiai Nyitott Egyeteme: http://nyitottegyetem.phil-insthu/horvath2htm Vistawide: World Languages and Cultures: http://www.vistawidecom/languages/top 30

languageshtm Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK: http://www.ataturkcom/content/view/19/38/ Islamic-Arch: Iszlám közösségi oldal: University of Southern California: http://www.uscedu/schools/college/crcc/engagement/resources/texts/muslim/quran/001 qmt.html#001001 National Geography Magyarország: http://www.geographichu/indexphp?act=napi&id=13855 Istanbul Mansions: http://www.istanbulmansioncom/Waterfront Legacyhtm Terebess Ázsia Lexikon: http://www.terebesshu/keletkultinfo/lexikon/hamszahtml International Women’s Democracy Centre: http://www.iwdcorg/resources/suffragehtm Political Participation Patterns of Turkish Women: http://www.librarycornelledu/colldev/mideast/womtur~1htm European Parliament: http://www.europarleuropaeu/news/expert/infopress page/01454483-117-04-18-902-20090427IPR54482-27-04-2009-2009-false/default enhtm All about Turkey: http://www.allaboutturkeycom/indexhtm The Armory: http://www.armorycom/~turkiye/ Ottoman

Sultan Tugras: http://www.tugraorg/indexasp Learn more about Turkey: http://www.about-turkeycom/carpet/languagehtm - 117 - http://www.doksihu Turkish Cultural Foundation: http://www.turkishcultureorg/pagesphp?ChildID=223&ParentID=12&ID=58&ChildI D1=223 Cagaloglu Hamam: http://www.cagalogluhamamicomtr/ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary: http://www.kumhu/kum/en/bal/ The World Bank: http://siteresources.worldbankorg/TURKEYEXTN/Resources/3617111227089539790/5593793-1233304555697/200910statspdf Internationall Monetary Found: http://www.imforg/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weoreptaspx?sy=2004&ey= 2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=944%2C186&s=NGDPD%2CNG DPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CPCPI%2CPCPIPCH%2CPCPIE%2CPCPIEPCH %2CBCA%2CBCA NGDPD&grp=0&a=&pr1.x=26&pr1y=16 Hofstede’s cultural dimensions: http://www.geert-hofstedecom/ - 118 -