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Year, pagecount:2007, 138 page(s)

Language:English

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Anatomy coloring workbook 2007 • ·i: t· 1·ZM t{i Ii ~ ;IM I: t·) <•%1• Superior Posterior M Cranial Dorsal surface Palmar surface Plantar surface Superior Anterior i::::=.t>- Diaphragm H I J K a 0 0 0 0 0 G J Posterior Anterior Anatomical position Midline Lateral Medial Proximal Distal A B F 0 0 0 0 0 0 Caudal G 0 C D E Body Cavities Dorsal cavity Cranial cavity Spinal cavity Ventral cavity Thoracic cavity Pericardia! cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity L 0 L1 0 L2 0 M 0 M1 0 M2 O M3 O M4 O Planes Transverse plane Frontal plane Sagittal plane N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 3 E M-=~~ f---,.,f--------A/L,t:-✓c--- H J Cell membrane Cytosol (Cytoplasm} Cytoskeleton Microvilli Cilia Centrosome A B C D E F 0 0 0 0 0 0 Centrioles Ribosomes Mitochondrion Nucleus Nucleolus Nucleoplasm F1 G H I1 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 Endoplasmic reticulum Rough ER Smooth ER Golgi body Lysosome Peroxisome J J1 J2 K L 0 0 0 0 0 M 0 5 • 4Uii :I4!t·1I B ;f}11l

f) C D E A G F A Basement membrane A Simple squamous epithelium B C Simple cuboidal epithelium Simple columnar epithelium Pseudostratified columnar epithelium D E 0 0 0 Stratified squamous epithelium 0 Transitional epithelium Stratified columnar epithelium Stratified cubaidal epithelium F G H 0 0 0 0 0 7 C{•l: I: IJi i ,1 Mt, l3 !#;1: I·I: IJI) ;f;i Ii tiiiJ !) G K A H F M D Connective Tissue I mm"" "Jl!Jj)JP ~· Ill" 1Jl!ll/JJP - - . <llii/1/lJ> <l!/JJ/J><llll/11!~ <llii/1/lJ> - ----- ", - Muscle Tissues N Nerve Cell 0 Elastic fibers Reticular fibers Collagen fibers Mesenchymal cell Fat cells Fibroblast Melanocyte Plasma cell A B C D E F G H 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mast cell Wandering macrophage Sessile macrophage Lymphocyte Red blood cells Muscle tissue Striated muscle Cardiac muscle J K L M N 0 0 0 0 0 0 N1 0 N2 0 Smooth muscle Nucleus Striations Nerve cell Cell body Axon Dendrites

N3 N4 N5 0 01 02 03 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 Structural Types • ii Qti·) I f=<•%3 iJ I: i11 !;i: 1·t) * Simple Exocrine Glands A Compound Exocrine Glands B Functional Types * C E D c, Simple exocrine glands Tubular Coiled Branched Simple alveolar glands Branched alveolar glands Compound exocrine glands A A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tubular compound gland Alveolar compound gland Tubuloalveolar glands Holocrine gland Discharged cell Developing cell Merocrine gland B1 0 B2 0 B3 0 C 0 C1 0 C2 0 D Secretion Secretory cell Apocrine gland Cell port Parent cell D1 0 D2 0 E 0 E1 0 E2 0 0 11 <3: t·1 ~ii ;I i,t•n the INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM c, • i:j I 1:i iJ1 11M a:, 1(3 :◄ 1: 11,,:1 ·I., 4;J Wu i f) Epidermis Stratum corneum Stratum lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum basale Dermis A Hypodermis Sebaceous glands Sweat glands Sweat gland ducts Sweat gland pores Hair Hair shaft Root C A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B D E E1 E2 F F1 F2 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A4 Root sheath Bulb Papilla Errector pilius Pacinian corpuscle F3 F4 F5 F6 G1 0 0 0 0 0 Meissners corpuscle Artery Vein Fat tissue G2 0 H 0 I 0 J 0 15 C3: fr1 ~ i4;Ii: i;J 4i. the SKELETAL SYSTEM D1 E1 D[i E2 K I1 Cranium Face Mandible Pectoral girdle Clavicle Scapula Sternum Ribs Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Vertebral column Pelvic girdle Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals 1Metatarsals Phalanges Flat bone Irregular bone Sesamoid bone Long bone Short bone A B C D D1 D2 E1 E2 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 G H I1 12 13 14 15 16 17 J K L M N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 •·1: t·i (·11$[1·) 1·1 t·l :til ~t·) :1♦ H A -1---F E C E Diaphysis Proximal epiphysis Distal epiphysis Metaphysis Epiphyseal plate A B C D 0 0 0 0 D1 0 Articular cartilage Periosteum Sharpeys fibers Nutrient arteries Compact bone E F G H 0 0 0 0 0 Spongy bone Trabeculae Medullary cavity Endosteum Marrow J J1 K

L 0 0 0 0 M 0 21 i: 4 I~3 :1 1J!~ i:i i3iJ: ~·~ 11 1J;J l·!3 I~ Ii.I ~ Occipital bone Parietal bone Superior temporal line Inferior temporal line Frontal bone Supraorbital foramen Glabella Temporal bones Zygomatic process Zygomatic arch External auditory meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Sphenoid bone Ethmoid bone Maxilla lnfraorbital foramen A B B1 B2 C C1 C2 D D1 D1, J1 D2 D3 D4 E F G G1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C M D 0 Lateral view B N Q J2 Anterior view Nasal bones Vomer bone Zygomatic bone Temporal process Zygomatical facial foramen Lacrimal bone Squamosal suture Mandible Mental foramen Body Ramus Condylar process Coronoid process Lambdoidal suture Coronal suture Occipital mastoidal suture Nasal concha H I 0 J J1 J2 0 K M N N1 N2 N3 N4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 N5 0 0 0 Q 0 R 0 s 0 23 Occipital bone Occipital condyles External occipital protuberance Foramen magnum Lateral foramen Condyloid fossa Parietal bones A 0 A1 A2 A3

A4 A5 B 0 0 0 0 • i: 13 :Jl !!d f!i i1;J: f;i lil iJ l;X31*4 Iirl I• 0 0 B A L1 Frontal bone Temporal bone Zygomatic process External auditory meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Stylomastoid foramen Mandibular fossa Carotid foramen Sphenoid bone Foramen ovale Maxilla Nasal bones Vomer bone Zygomatic bone Palatine bones Occipitomastoidal foramen Squamosal suture Mandible Lambdoidal suture Sagittal suture Coronal suture Occipitomastoidal suture Posterior view 0 C D 0 0 D1 D2 0 D3 0 D4 0 D5 0 D6 0 D7 0 E 0 0 E1 G 0 H 0 0 J 0 L 0 0 L1 M 0 N 0 0 0 p 0 Q 0 0 R N L D3 Inferior view 25 •i: I1-3 :J1l!!O 1:ii 4;1: t;, llll iJ l,13 • C Occipital bone Superior view of skull floor A E2 Foremen spinosum E4 Sphenoidal sinus E5 E3 Foremen lacerum E6 Greater wings E7 Lesser wings Ethmoid bone Ea F Crista galli F1 Cribriform plates F2 Perpendicular plate F3 G Maxilla Nasal bone Vomer bone H Palatine bone L Squamosal suture M N Mandible

Lambdoidal suture 0 Foremen magnum A3 Jugular foremen A4 Hypoglossal foremen A6 Posterior cranial fossa A7 Basioccipital band Aa Parietal bone B Frontal bone C Frontal sinus Temporal bone C3 D Styloid process D4 Internal acoustic meotus Sphenoid bone Da E Foremen ovale E1 E C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F2 As A7 Sella turcica Foremen rotundum A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 D 27 Manubrium Jugular notch Clavicular notch Body Sternal angle Xiphoid process Rib True ribs False ribs Vertebrochondral ribs Floating ribs Concave angle Shaft Demifacet Capitulum Neck A 0 A1 A2 B O 0 0 B1 O C D O 0 D1 D2 0 O D3 0 D4 0 • i:II ;:t•1;·13 tl¾;X1 I·1:I,I :(·lI,I ;t·1:1• D5 0 D6 O E ::::, D7 0 C: Ds D9 D1 L. E 2 O U) o F D4Antenor . view D1 Rib Articulation 11 D1 o D Anterior view Posterior view Tubercle Costa! cartilages Vertebrae Hyoid bone Hyoid bone body Greater horns Lesser horns D10 0 E 0 F 0 G 0

G1 G2 G3 0 The Hyoid Bone G G2 0 0 29 4 i: IJj 4iii 4:J i!r113·) !•l:, 1: • Superior view: Curvatures 8 Anterior Lateral view: Anterior A3 THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN IN PLACE Five divisions Cervical vertebrae Thoracic vertebrae Lumbar division A 0 A1 0 A2 0 A3 0 Processes of the Vertebra C Sacral division Coccygeal division Four curvatures Cervical curvature Thoracic curvature Lumbar curvature Sacral curvature Processes of the vertabra Body lcentrum) Vertebral arch Floor Pedicles Laminae Vertebral foramen Spinous process Transverse process Superior articular process A4 0 A5 0 B 0 B1 0 B2 0 B3 0 B4 0 C 0 C1 0 C2 0 C3 0 C4 0 C5 0 c6 0 C7 0 Ca 0 C9 0 31 • i: I13 3i? ti,11·1:I ·Ii: t·) i13 te 3ti i3:J ;1;1 ♦ Cervical vertebrae . .g J!! .,, ~ A2 The Atlas A (Superior view) Atlas Vertebral foremen Transverse foremen Transverse process Anterior arch Posterior arch Lateral mass Superior articular facet Articular surface for the dens A 0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7

As 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Axis Vertebral foremen Transverse foramina Transverse process Dens (odontoid process) Superior articular facet Lamina Bifed spinous process B 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 B1 The Axis B (Superior view) C4 Typical Cervical Vertebra C (Superior view) Posterior D5 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 D1 D 2 (Superior view) D4 (Right lateral view) Typical Thoracic Vertebra D Typical cervical vertebra Vertebral foremen Transverse foramina Transverse process Body (centrum} Superior articular facets Pedide Lamina Spinous process C C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 c6 C7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cg 0 Typical thoracic vertebra Body Spinous process Superior demifacet Inferior demifacet Transverse process Transverse costal facet Superior articular facet Prominent lamina D D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Dg 0 33 4;: II !1V,i f iil;i: I·if13 •t·i I) 3iii 3:j ;t,1 ♦ Typical Lumbar Vertebra A A4 A7 Articulated Lumbar Vertebrae E (Right lateral view) Typical lumbar vertebra Body Vertebral foramen

Transverse processes Spinous process Superior articular facets Inferior articular facets Superior vertebral notch Inferior vertebral notch Superior vertebra Inferior vertebra lntervertebral disk lntervertebral foramen Sacrum Base of the sacrum 0 Sacral canal Median sacral crest Sacral cornua Sacral hiatus Sacral foramen Ala Lateral sacral crest Sacral tuberosily 0 Apex 0 Articular processes and facets Coccyx Coccygeal vertebrae Coccygeal cornua Transverse processes 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 F2 0 F3 0 F4 O F5 0 F6 F7 Fa F9 F10 F11 0 0 0 0 0 0 G 0 D J.ul--A .,, , -1A1 ~J-- D li:-~.,, =-- ~"!!!-;:; C G1-4 o G5 G6 o 0 F4 G5 l"rJ.ll~~t-:::::"J G6 ffll"-"""11[~---.J G 1 G2 ./t11,,,;;,;::- ::-""o.lr,:- Anterior view Posterior view The Sacrum F and Coccyx G G3 G4 35 •ti 1 1) QQ4ii,:,; iJ JM ,,,,. ;: j jQ 1; ,, il;i ca j:j •]!fa Clavicle Acromial end Sternal end Conoid tubercle Costa! tuberosity Scapula

Acromion process Acromioclavicular joint Coracoid process C A A1 A2 A3 A4 B B1 B2 B3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 THE UPPER EXTREMITY IN PLACE E The Scapula 8 85 814 The Clavicle A Superior view Inferior view Glenoid fossa Spine of the scapula Supraspinous fossa lnfraspinous fossa Subscapular fossa Medial border Lateral (axillary) border Superior border 0 B4 0 B5 B6 0 B7 0 0 Ba 0 B9 B10 0 B11 0 Scapular notch Inferior angle Superior angle Ribs Sternum Humerus Radius Ulna Carpal bones Metacarpals Phalanges B12 B13 B14 C D E F G H I J 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 37 • •=i 11) QQi;I =t:i •;JfM, it-ii :jj:(IIM3)if-. A1 G F Humerus Head Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle lntertubercular groove Anatomical neck Surgical neck Shaft of the humerus Deltoid tuberosity Radial fossa Coronoid fossa Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle Capitulum Trochlea Olecranon fossa Scapula Clavicle Ribs Sternum Radius Ulna A A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 As A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 A15 B C D E F G 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A A7 A11 A12 Posterior view 39 • ;:I1 11QU1;I J:i i;J JMiit4 i:1I ;t;1 •, PfJ;1: I•11) !:t,, -----B--- - A5 B7 B5 A6 Radius Head of the radius Neck of the radius Radial tuberosity Shaft Ulnar notch Styloid process A A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ulna Trochlear notch Coronoid process Ulnar tuberosity Radial notch Short styloid process Olecranon process B B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Head of ulna Articular cartilage lnterosseus membrane Distal radial-ulnar joint Proximal radial-ulnar joint B7 Ba C 0 0 0 D1 0 D2 0 41 Radius Ulna Carpals Scaphoid bone Lunate bone Triquetal bone Pisiform bone Trapezium bone Trapezoid bone Capitate bone Hamate bone Metacarpals Middle A B C C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 c6 C7 Ca D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Base of the metacarpal Shaft of the metacarpal Head of the metacarpal Phalanges Proximal phalanx Middle phalanx Distal phalanx Base of the phalanx Shaft of the phalanx Head of the phalanx D1 D2

D3 E E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Middle finger finger Anterior view Posterior view 43 s, • i: II <·1•,,; 3•I ff:i i•1 J,,1 iif.i i:j I:) 3 tl1 l;J ·) !• Lateral view Lateral view PROCESSES OF THE OS COXA BONES OF THE OS COXA G Anterior view Pelvic bone Pubic symphysis Sacrum Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Sacrum Sacroiliac joint Coccyx Male pubic arch Female pubic arch Ilium Anterior inferior iliac spine A K L M 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 N 0 0 0 0 A1 B C D E F G H J 01 p 4 Anterior superior iliac spine Iliac crest Posterior superior iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch lschium lschial spine Lesser sciatic notch lschial tuberosity Ramus of the ischium Pubis Pubic tubercle Superior ramus Inferior ramus Body of the pubis Obturator foramen Acetabulum 02 03 04 05 06 p P1 P2 P3 P4 0 01 02 03 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 04 0 05 R 0 0 45 • i: II !·)ii 4ii f:i i;J JM iih;:

IIi Jt111•• 0 Medial epicondyle 0 Lateral epicondyle 0 Medial condyle Shaft of femur A A1 A2 A3 0 Lateral condyle Greater trochanter A4 0 lntercondylar Fosso Lesser trochonter 0 Patellar space surface 0 Pelvic girdle lntertrochonteric crest A5 A6 A7 0 Patella Linea ospera As 0 Tibia Popliteal surface A9 0 Fibula Femur Head of femur Neck of femur lntertrochonteric line A,o A11 A12 A13 A14 A15 0 B C D E 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 D A2 A1i,. A1 A7 I ( r Posterior view I 47 •;:II !·)?i 4;I J:i; ;J JM, i t-i i: IIi I:J frl·i: I·I j I:p) !;• 1 Anterior view THE PATELLA IN PLACE Anterior view Patella Base Apex Tibia Lateral condyle of tibia Medial condyle of tibia lntercondylar eminence Tibial tuberosity Anterior crest Medial malleolus A A1 A2 B B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fibula Notch Fibula Head of fibula Lateral malleolus Femur femur of epicondyle Lateral Medial epicondyle of femur lnterosseus membrane Posterior view B7 C

C1 C2 D D1 D2 E 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 49 •; :j I !·11i 1ti f:i; ;J =IM, ih i:j lsi:la !l·i :1 ·I l·X·) • lateral Posterior Medial A Tarsals Talus Calcaneus Cuboid Navicular Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform Trochlea Metatarsals Base Shaft Head Phalanges Proximal phalanges Middle phalanges Distal phalanges Tibia Longitudinal arch Transverse arch A A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 Aa B B1 B2 B3 C c, C2 C3 D E F 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C Superior view 51 CATEGORIES OF JOINTS •t·l I:, ft·1: I·1·1 iii ti) !i it·): f) B C TYPES OF DIARTHROSES D E H G Synarthrosis Fibrocartilage Amphiarthrosis Vertebrae lnvertebral disk Fibrocartilage Diarthrosis A 0 A1 0 B 0 B1 0 B2 0 B3 0 C 0 Fibrous joint capsule Synovial membrane Synovial Auid Articular cartilages Condyloid joint Ball-and-socket joint Gliding joint C1 C2 C3 C4 D E F 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Saddle joint Hinge ioint Pivot joint Atlas Axis Odontoid process G H I1 0 0 0 0 12 13

0 0 53 IMIII • t·) I:iI 1i t·1? tM3:i f) Abduction Adduction Pronation Su pi nation Flexion Extension A1 0 A2 0 B1 0 B2 0 C1 0 C2 0 Circumduction Depression Elevation Retraction Protraction Rotation D 0 E1 0 E2 0 F1 0 F2 0 G 0 Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion Inversion Eversion H1 0 H2 0 I1 0 2 0 55 C3: tziA ii;ll·XI) ;I- the MUSCULAR SYSTEM ·)li:ill;X3 ♦ K Lacrimal gland Frontalis Occipitalis I aponeurotica Gaea . Orbicularis ons Zygomaticus Levator Ia bii superioris . Depressor labii inferions Buccinator Mentalis Platysma Risorius Obicularis oculi Corruga tor supercilii A B O cB1 0 0 O D 0 E 0 F 0 G 0 H I J K L 0 0 0 0 0 f Anterior superficial view K Levator pa Ipe brae superioris Nasolis Masseter ·d Sternoc Ie1 omastoid . Omohyo,d Sternohyoid Temporal is P sterior auricular 0 •. Splenius cap.hs Trapez1us Levator scapulae Middle scalene M 0 a 0 b 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C d e f g h E B G 0 j k 0 0 I Right lateral superfi•1c1al

view 59 Parietal bone Occipital bone Masseter Temporalis Medial pterygoid Lateral pterygoid Genioglossus Styloglossus Palatoglossus Hyoglossus Levator labii superioris Zygomatic bone A A B C D E F G H a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parietal bone Mandible Right lateral superficial view Frontal bone Occipital oone Temporal bone (cut)--~-;,:=~~~ Zygomatic bone {cut) Temporomandibular joint C Styloid process Mandible Right lateral deep view F g Maxilla Tongue h d J H k Mandible I Larynx .l Hyoid bone Tendon Lateral view Thyroid membrane Buccinator Orbicularis oris Inferior longitudinal Geniohyoid Mylohyoid Digastric Middle constrictor Stylohyoid Stylopharyngeus Inferior constrictor Superior constrictor b C d e f g h j k I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 61 c?Jifl➔ ,£1•] 1 i;11 t• ,, ta i;Jlsfiti• E Frontal sinus A D Optic nerve Lacrimal gland ---I-fl B F Maxilla lateral view of the right eye Inferior oblique A B C D E F Levator palpebrae superioris a

Superior rectus Inferior rectus Lateral rectus Medial rectus Superior oblique Optic nerve 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Trochlea Medial view 1/ ~ D~ D C Anterior view 63 •,,ifl3 !!J·l Ii: II: I13 :t•1: i·1·) ;fs11¾;$*4 ia Mandible Parotid gland A }!Anterior belly ~osterior belly B Superficial muscles Digastric Intermediate tendon Fibrous tissue Stylohyoid Mylohyoid Omohyoid Sternohyoid Sternothyroid Thyrohyoid Cricothyroid Levator scapulae Masseter Scalene muscles Sternodeidomastoid Trapezius Deep muscles A 0 A1 0 A2 0 B C D E F 0 0 0 0 0 G 0 H 0 I 0 J 0 K 0 L 0 M 0 B A Hyoid bone M Right lateral view 65 • t. it13 !f1 ·lI •:II !·ii i:t:♦ 1 Omohyoid Superior belly Intermediate tendon Inferior belly Sheath of fascia Hyoid bone A A1 A2 A3 A4 0 0 0 0 0 Thyrohyoid membrane L A Sternohyoid Sternothyroid Thyrohyoid Cricohyoid Posterior cricoarytenoid Lateral cricoarytenoid Arytenoid Thyroarytenoid Thyroepiglottis Aryepiglottis Superior constrictor

Middle constrictor Inferior constrictor Palatopharyngeus Salpingopharyngeus Stylopharyngeus B C D E F G H I J K L M N 0 p Q 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tracheal cartilage Anterior superficial view Anterior deep view Epiglottis Hyoid bone J H -K Thyroid cartilage I Tracheal cartilage Right posterolateral view Left lateral view 67 •vlfl3 !fl·) Ii: iIi: t·) ;t .Y:f,,: I•1;1 :J •X·2M 3: lt·1: ii 3;J t·l ii• H M b N F j m Superficial view Rectus abdominis Intersections of tendon External oblique Aponeurosis Linea alba Deep view Internal oblique Transversus abdominis Pectoralis major Latissimus dorsi Serratus anterior C D E F G 0 0 0 0 0 Deltoid Pectoralis minor External intercostals Internal intercostals Subdavius Subscapularis Teres major Coracobrachialis Biceps brachii Plalysma Sternodeldomastoid Trapezius Gluteus medius Tensor fascia latae lliopsoas Pectineus Adductor longus H I J K L o 0 0 0 0 M 0 N a b c d e 0 0 0 0 0 0 f 0 g h

0 j 0 Gracilis k 0 Sartorius Redus femoris I 0 m 0 0 0 69 ,;t,•fi3 !ti·) Ii: IIi: t·l ilnf=iti :I •IJ ;J •%·2M 3:11•]j34• Sternum Ribs K Ribs J 01 A D Superficial view 0 0 Transversus obdominis Pedoralis minor Internal oblique A B C 0 Aponeurosis C1 0 External intercostols Internal intercostals Rectus abdominis External oblique Deep view D I 0 0 Diaphragm Central tendon J 0 Quadratus lumborum K 0 0 0 01 0 p 0 71 1bt 11 fi3, fJ•l Ii; 11 i; [•] i1;f:f;1 s, .,, ~, •I•ts,1 i sit S·}) i1;J [•] ;Ja E e Superficial view Trapezius Latissimus dorsi Supraspi natus lnfraspinatus Deltoid Rhomboideus major Rhomboideus minor A B C D E F G 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Serratus posterior superior Serratus anterior Serratus posterior inferior External oblique Internal oblique Erector spinous Sternocleidomastoid Deep view H 0 I 0 J 0 K 0 L 0 M 0 a 0 Semispinalis capitis Splenius capitis Levator scapulae Triceps brachii Gluteus medius

Gluteus maximus b 0 0 d 0 e 0 f 0 g 0 C 73 •,*,k-t3 !fl·) Ii: Ita: t·11l!·) 3;• E Clavicle Acromion process Subdavius Pectoralis minor Serratus anterior Trapezius Levator scapulae Rhomboideus major Rhomboideus minor Sternocleidomastoid Deltoid lnfraspinatus muscle Teres minor Teres major External intercostals Internal intercostals A B Coracoid ---~7 process 0 0 C O D 0 E F F 0 0 G 0 H I a b c d e 0 O 0 0 Anterior superficial view 0 Anterior deep view 0 0 H Nuchal ligament Cervical vertebrae Clavicle Scapula Humerus C Vertebral column -+--Ill,-#,, ,,.,,, ~ Posterior superficial view Posterior deep view 75 L F A B C D E F Splenius capitis Splenius cervicis lliocostalis cervicis lliocostalis thoracis lliocostalis lumborum Longissimus capitis 0 0 0 0 0 0 Transverse process Q Q Spinous process llJL.----i--R E Posterolateral view JNJ. ,,,L:--~---;--- 0 Atlas T Posterior view Longissimus cervicis Logissimus thoracis Spinalis capitis

Spinalis cervicis Spinalis thoracis Semispinalis capitis Semispinalis cervicis Semispinalis thoracis Multifidus group Rotators G H I J K L M N 0 p 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Second rib Anterior view Inters pi nales lntertransversari i Interior scalene Middle scalene Posterior scalene Q R s T u 0 0 0 0 0 77 A L B Anus K Superficial view Pubococcygeus lliococcygeus Coccygeus lschiocavernosus Bulbocavernosus Superficial transverse perineus Deep transverse perineus Urethral sphincter External anal sphincter Gluteus maximus Sacrotuberous ligament Obturator internus Deep view A B C D E F G H I J K L 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 79 41,eif13!ti·) Ii: Iltitr1 !I U3iJ I: 1=(IU; • ::J ~,c. ---Penis --t==------::. Ramus of ischium Fascia h--"=---+11H:ltt----A I.JA>~~~1-ttt---···- B J C Coccyx Pubococcygeus lliococcygeus Coccygeus lschiocavernosus Superficial transverse perineus Deep transverse perineus External anal sphincter Gluteus maximus

Sacrotuberous ligament Obturator internus Bulbospongiosus Central tendon A B C D F G I J K L M N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 81 •~11k%3 !fl·l Ii: II !s i4;ts1 Ii: t·1itst:• Clavicle E Anterior deep view Coracoid process f A Rib G Pectoralis major Latissimus dorsi Deltoid Subscapularis Supraspinatus lnfraspinatus Teres major Teres minor Coracobrachialis Brachialis Biceps brachii Triceps brachii Serratus anterior A B C D E F G H 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 a b c d 0 0 0 0 Thoracic vertebra C G C Humerus Levator scapula Subclavius Pectoralis minor Rhomboideus minor Rhomboideus major External intercostals Internal intercostals e 0 B 0 g h 0 0 - Fascia 0 j 0 k 0 Posterior superficial view Posterior deep view 83 Clavicle Acromion process Scapula process Humerus b D1 ~~~IMl D2~~, ~11--.vc-tmTH/j D Posterior view Anterior view E C Posterior Anterior superficial view Biceps brachii Long head Short head Brachialis Brachioradialis Triceps brachii

Long head Lateral head Medial head Anconeus Deltoid Teres major A 0 A1 A2 B C D 0 0 0 0 Medial Af2 B A1 0 0 D1 D2 D3 E a 0 b 0 0 Anterior 0 0 85 Tendon of D Tendon of E Flexer retinaculum 1 Metacarpals I a R Tendon of F Tendon of I ~~~~:;;:;;;;;.;:;;:::::::: Posterior superficial view C Tendon of K Posterior deep Carpals A Palmaris longis B Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum superficialis C Flexor digitorum profundus E Flexor pollicis longus F Extensor carpi radialis brevis I (]~~~~:;;;~+-- Flexer carpi radialis Extensor carpi radialis longus Humerus D 0 0 0 0 0 0 G 0 H 0 Extensor digitorum Extensor digiti minimi Extensor carpi ulnaris Abductor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis Extensor pollicis longus Extensor indicis Brachioradialis I J K L M 0 0 0 0 0 N 0 0 0 p 0 Supinator Pronator quadratus Pronator teres Biceps brachii Brachialis Triceps brachii Anconeus Q 0 R 0 s 0 a 0 b 0 C 0 d 0 87 •:,tifl3 !fl·) Ii:

IIi: It1:lfn1: ii3iJ t•] ;J• A Last rib Iliac crest C Patella Anterior superficial view Transverse section p Q Posterior K Medial ~~r-z.~7-:JJ""y;,-1w1r F H Femur L J Femur Anterior G Anterior superficial view Patellar ligament Anterior deep view Psoas major lliacus Tensor fasciae latae Sartorius Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis A B C D E F G 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vastus intermedius Adductor magnus Adductor longus Adductor brevis Gracilis Pectineus Obturator externus H I J K L M N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Biceps femoris Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Gluteus medius Quadratus lumborum Psoas minor O P Q a b c 0 0 0 0 0 0 89 Cvif%3 !fl•] Ii ;11 i;1 ta: 11l·}i ii;J [•]:JI E K Iliac crest F G J E B Femur D L M J Posterior superficial view Sciatic nerve Adductor magnus A B C D E F Biceps femoris G Vastus lateralis H Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Sartorius Gracilis Gluteus maximus Obturator internus I Quadratus femoris J

Superior gemellus K 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Posterior superficial view Tibial nerve Inferior gemellus Obturator externus L M Gluteus medius 0 Gastrocnemi us a Plantaris b 0 0 0 0 0 Posterior deep view 91 Right leg Patellar ligament llliTilff---- H--+tltttmr.~ ~~u+---- c--+lllltf-tl½l~Dl\11 Superior extensor retinaculum Superior extensor retinaculum Inferior extensor retinaculum .~-- Inferior extensor retinaculum {lateral) lateral superficial view Anterior superficial view Tibialis anterior Extensor hallucis longus A B Extensor digitorum longus C Peroneus tertius D Peroneus longus E Peroneus brevis F 0 0 0 0 0 0 Gostrocnemius Calcaneal tendon Soleus Plantaris Flexer digitorum longus Extensor digitorum brevis G G1 H I J K 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quadriceps femoris Tendon Fascia latae Biceps femoris a a] b C 0 0 0 0 93 C?if13 !fJ•l Ii; 11 S·)t◄ iii! flt ;•}iii iJ t•J iJa Posterior deep view Posterior superficial view Popliteal fossa

/•~--····~ H-~-~---lffiffi~tttn F-----1-!.tl E Tibia Tendon of G Calcaneus (lateral} (Medial) Gastrocnemius Calcaneal tendon A 0 A1 0 Soleus B Plantaris C Popliteus D 0 0 0 Flexor hallucis longus Flexor digitorum longus Tibialis posterior Peroneus longus Peroneus brevis E 0 F 0 G 0 H 0 0 95 ;I~,, , C3=t·1 Ai 4 the NERVOUS SYSTEM c-r, j ;!A j 11·) Ii: jI: Ij ;!l·X t:liti; JZ• 1 A Peripheral nervous system B Brain C Spinal cord D Visceral sensory nerves B [j Central nervous system Parasympathetic nerve E1 E2 F1 F2 F3 Gray matter G White matter H Cell bodies Axons I1 12 Somatic sensory nerves / Somatic motor nerve ., Sympathetic nerve a b Heart a Skin senses b Skeletal muscle C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A G H 99 •:I 3i!A 13 4!!?• The Neuron C4 I G ~ A2 A5 Myelin sheath Schwann cells (neurolemmocytes) Cytoplasm of Schwann cell Nucleus of the cell Neurolemma Nodes of Ranvier Astrocytes

Oligodendrocytes Microglia G H 0 0 H1 0 H2 0 H3 0 I J K L 0 0 0 0 J H1 Cell body Nucleus Nucleolus Mitochondrion Nissl body Neurofibril Dendrites Axon Axon hillock Initial segment Axis cylinder Axolemma Telodendrio Axon terminals End bulbs A A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B C C1 C2 C3 C4 D E F 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 B Types of Neurons B *BIPOLAR 101 •·1: ,., (·U,l·l Ii: Ita UI: t·i I{·) ;J ·• Spinal cord A Cervical enlargement A1 Lumbar enlargement A2 Conus medullaris A3 Filum terminal A4 Cervical segment Thoracic segment Ac Lumbar segment Sacral segment Ar AL As 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Gray matter White matter B C Dorsal root C1 Ventral root C2 Dorsal root ganglion Spinal nerve C3 D Pia mater E Arachnoid F Dura mater Cerebrum G a Cerebellum b Occipital bone C Sacrum d Coccyx e 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 103 • ·) JlU Iti·) Ii: I1-3 4I:t•i I{·) •1 ·l·i:I •1:14 ;W • A7 Gray matter Dorsal gray horn A1 Ventral

gray horns A2 Lateral gray horn A3 Gray commissure A4 Dorsal root A5 Dorsal root ganglion A6 Ventral root A7 Spinal nerve Aa B Spinal cord F1 A Ventral white columns B1 Dorsal white columns B2 Lateral white columns B3 Anterior white commissure Central canal B4 C Motor axons F1 Motor neuron Dorsal root ganglion Epineurium A6 F2 G2 H Fascicle Endoneurium J K Axon L Perineurium H SPINAL NERVE 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 K 105 • i:I13 4i,., (f, , ,1:I·I :Jit!3 :It!, I U!J:J if1!♦ 81 Cs {[4 8 C7 Cs T1 T2 T3 T.4 Ts T6 T7 Ts T9 82 ·---84 83 85 E 87 Brachia! plexus B Lateral cord B1 Posterior cord B2 Medial cord B3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Axillary nerve B4 0 Musculocutaneous nerve B5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cervical plexus D A Ansa cervalis A1 Lesser occipital A2 Transverse cervical nerve A3 Greater auricular nerve A4 Supraclavicular nerve A5 Phrenic nerve A6 Radial nerve B6 Median nerve B7 Ulnar

nerve Ba Lumbar plexus C Sacral plexus D E Ventral rami 107 Tio A T11 Lumbar plexus T12 lliohypogastric nerve L1 llioinguinal nerve L2 L3 B Genitofemoral nerve A2 Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve L4 Femoral nerve Ls Obturator nerve S1 S2 S3 Saphenous nerve ft.I) Sacral plexus Superior gluteal nerve B1 S4 Inferior gluteal nerve Sciatic nerve Ss A5 Tibial nerve Perineal nerve B2 Pudenda! nerve Medial sural cutaneous nerve Lateral sural cutaneous nerve A A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 B B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 Ba 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A4 B3 A7 109 Cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve) A Cervical dermatomes C2-8 Lumbar dermatomes L1-5 Sacral dermatomes S1-5 Thoracic dermatomes T1-12 0 0 0 0 0 L5 Anterior view Posterior view 111 Cerebrum Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus Epithalamus Cerebellum Brain stem Midbrain Pons D2 A B B1 B2 B3 C D D1 D2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A F D2 D3 Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Pituitary gland Corpus

callosum Olfactory bulbs Cranial nerves D3 E F G H 0 0 0 0 0 0 113 • i: IIM Uii :ta f:t F F1 G Scalp Skull bone Dura mater Outer layer Inner layer Dural sinus Faix cerebri Subdural space Arachnoid Arachnoid trabeculae Arachnoid villus Subarachnoid space Blood vessels Pia mater Cerebral cortex A B C c, C2 C3 C4 D E E1 E2 F F1 G H 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G 115 F B Right lateral view L C B G Anterior view Lateral ventricles A B third vel)tricle C Fourth ventricle D E f G H Cerebrum H M J p Frontal section Choroid plexus lnterventricular foramina Cerebral aqueduct J Single median aperture Lateral apertures I Subarachnoid space J Spinal cord central canal K Superior sagittal sinus L Cerebellum M Pons N 0 p Medulla oblongata Spinal cord 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 117 Anterior G Left hemisphere pos,enor • . Right hemisphere Superior view F Lateral view on right side Cerebellum B3 Frontal section B1 A Postcentral

gyrus Fissure C2 D Longitudinal fissure D1 Transverse fissure Sulcus D2 E Central sulcus Lateral cerebral sulcus (fissure) Parieto-occipital sulcus E1 E2 Gyrus B1 B2 B3 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 Precentral gyrus C1 0 Temporal lobe lateral view B1 Gray matter White matter Association fibers Commisural fibers Projection fibers A B Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Occipital lobe E3 F G H 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 119 Corpus Callosum E G C H L J M B C Posterior D G Anterior A Porohippocampol gyrus Singulote gyrus Hippocampus Dentate gyrus Amygdala Septal nuclei Mammillary bodies A B C D E f G 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anterior nucleus Olfactory bulb Fornix Stria terminolis Stria medulloris Mammilothalamic tract H I J K l M 0 0 0 0 0 0 121 4 ;: 11 ·l 13: t31 Q:f:1 ~·B• Thalamus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A Anterior nucleus A1 Medial nucleus A2 Ventral anterior nucleus A3 Ventral lateral nucleus A4 Ventral posterior nucleus A5 Pulvinar nucleus A6 B Lateral geniculate

body Medial geniculate body Hypothalamus A7 As B Supraoptic nucleus Paraventricular nucleus B1 Preoptic nucleus B2 Tubural region B3 B4 Sympathetic region B5 Parasympathetic region Mammillary region B6 Emotional center lnfundibulum Ba C Pituitary gland B7 D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 123 Dorsal view of brain As Sagittal section E3 Cerebellum Left cerebellar hemisphere Right cerebellar hemisphere Vermis Folio Anterior lobe Posterior lobe Flocculonodular lobe Primary fissure Cerebellar nuclei Cortex of the cerebellum A A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 Aa B C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 B Arbor vitae D 0 Superior cerebellar peduncles E1 0 Middle cerebellar peduncles E2 0 Inferior cerebellar peduncles E3 0 Pons F 0 Medulla G 0 Choroid plexus H 0 Fourth ventricle 0 125 4 i: II :J ;fr1 I: Iii !r,a A B Anterolateral view Midbrain Cerebral peduncles Superior cerebellar peduncles Corpora quadrigemina Superior colliculi Inferior colliculi Cranial nerves

Pons Middle cerebellar peduncles Medulla oblongata Pyramids A A1 A2 B B1 B2 C D D1 E E1 Posterolateral view 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Decussation Inferior cerebellar peduncles Olives Caudate nucleus Lentiform nucleus Amygdala Corona radiata Thalamus Pineal gland Mammary body lnfundibulum E2 E3 E4 F G H J K L M 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 127 a,: 1J3;f•1: t·1•:i ◄ iV; t> 1 Olfactory nerve Optic nerve Oculomotor nerve Trochlear nerve Trigeminal nerve Abducens nerve A B C D E F 0 0 0 0 Facial nerve Vestibulocochlear nerve Glossopharyngeal nerve Vogus nerve G H I J 0 0 0 0 0 Spinal accessory Hypoglossal nerve K 0 L 0 0 129 •;: Il· 1i (·): t·)1,i t◄ :14 i!Z•X 1tJ.iti; =ttlti1;~1 Pri i: Iii t➔• a Preganglionic nerve fibers Sympathetic (vertebral) ganglia Superior cervical ganglion Middle cervical ganglion Inferior cervical ganglion Postganglionic nerve fibers Splanchnic nerve Collateral {Prevertebral) ganglia Celiac ganglion Superior mesenteric

ganglion Inferior mesenteric ganglion A B Plexuses E E1 Cardiopulmonary plexus B1 B2 B3 C C1 D D1 D2 D3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Celiac plexus Superior mesenteric plexus Inferior mesenteric plexus Skin blood vessel Arrector pili muscle Spinal cord E2 E3 E4 F1 F2 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 131 • i: Il·!i (·l: t·2M t◄ : 14;!l·X•tiiE3 if ;•,t• P.1 i!liZM g, i: i=i it➔, A1~>;:l;::::----=::,~. ::;X2<~~~~ij1~~~~ A2-~~;,;. ~-~ 1, I a Otic ganglion Oculomotor nerve (Ill) A1 0 Facial nerve (VII) A2 0 Glossopharyngeal nerve {IX) A3 0 Vogus nerve (X) 0 Terminal ganglia A4 B 0 Ciliary ganglion B1 0 Pterygopalatine ganglion B2 0 Submandibular ganglion B3 0 0 Autonomic plexuses B4 C Cardiopulmonary plexus c, 0 Celiac plexus C2 0 Hypogastric plexus C3 D 0 Postganglionic nerve fibers E 0 Pelvic splanchnic nerves D 0 Pelvic splanchnic nerves Sacral nerves Spinal cord 0 0 S2-S4 0 a 0 1~ • i: IId 1: Ml·l I (·11 %3: 1£3

:◄ 1:1 ;J 134 J(·l if-J, A{r Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis Adipose tissue Free nerve ending Merkels corpuscles Meissners corpuscles Ruffinis corpuscles Pacinian corpuscles Root hair plexus Surface hair Sensory nerve fiber s{( c<[ B A B C C1 D E F G H I J K 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A B E B D J G A H B B B 135 4i=ildUfil·)I ifi i1(1ifi t,, t·l iI ;J 13 iJ(·l ;fi• B \ H~--:.,, il~-,--:::---.?,;;;;;;= """";; e:;"--=--- ~- - : Tongue Bitter taste Sour taste Salty taste Sweet taste Circumvallate papilla Fungiform papilla Filiform papilla Taste bud A A1 A2 A3 A4 B C D E 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pore Gustatory cell Microvilli Nucleus Supporting cell Supporting cell nucleus Cranial nerve Epithelium Connective tissue Epiglottis E1 F F1 F2 G G1 H J a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 137 • i: I3 4: MI·) l 1M4!It·)! lsi, (·);Iii J3 iif(·) ;fi• A Route of air D C Olfactory bulb Olfactory epithelium Olfactory receptor cells

Sustentacular cells Basal cells Olfactory knob Olfactory hairs Mucus layer Olfactory glands Axons Fiber bundles Mitral cell Glomerulus Olfactory tract A B C D E F G H J K L M N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ethmoid bone Nasal conchae Connective tissue (basal lamina) a b C 0 0 0 139 M E Sciera Cornea Limbus Iris Ciliary body Choroid Pupil Anterior chamber Ora serrata Suspensory ligaments Posterior chamber A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C D E F 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vitreous chamber Retina Lens Macula lutea Fovea Optic disk Optic nerve Ocular conjunctiva Palpebral conjunctiva Fornix A1 H J K1 K2 L M N1 N2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 141 Fibrous tunic A 0 Vascular tunic 0 Neural tunic B C Pigmented layer D 0 Optic nerve E 0 Optic disk 0 Photo receptors E1 F G H Rods H1 0 Cones H2 0 I 0 J K L 0 Blood vessels Retina B.ipoIar neurons Horizontal ne urons Ganglionic neurons Amicron neurons • ·l i i11 fl·l 0 0 J 0 0 0 0 K E D 143 •·133

fil•liili i;It, (ll ;1 fJ •lI•: II ii ♦ Eyebrows Palpebral fissure B1 Tarsal plates C Eyelashes D Meibomian glands E Palpebral cornea b A Ocular conjunctiva Conjunctiva! sac (fornix) Cornea F1 F2 G H Lacrimal gland Excretory ducts E Lacrimal punctum G H J K Lacrimal canal L Lacrimal sac M Nasolacrimal duct N Inferior meatus External nasal meatus 0 p Orbicularis oculi a Levator palpebrae superioris b 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 D M Lateral canthus 145 B A C D External ear Middle ear Internal ear Pinna Concha External auditory canal Helix Antihelix Scapha Earlobe (lobule} Tympanic membrane Temporal bone A B C D D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 E F Tympanic cavity F1 Eustachian tube G 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Auditory ossicles Malleus lncus Stapes Bony labyrinth Vestibule Semicircular canals Cochlea Oval window Round window Vestibulocochlear nerve Vestibular branch Cochlear branch H H1 H2 H3 I 1, 12 13 14 15 J J1 J2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 147 •., iil;1 ifl·) I ;:1 I 1: 1 : 1 ➔ ;I t;1 •• A Anterior view G D F c, c, H A Posterior view Semicircular canals Anterior canal Posterior canal Lateral canal A A1 A2 Vestibule A3 B Cochlea C Cochlear duct c, Basilar membrane C2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Organ of corti C3 Oval window Round window D Saccule F G Utricle Ampulla Cristae Endolymph sac Endolymph duct Macula E H H1 I 1, j 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 149 Ci: t,1 Ai 3;13 f:D the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM B •;:II Ul·X·X3 iJ 1:111 !;10 ·1) Pituitary gland Hypothalamus Pineal gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Thymus gland Heart Digestive organs Pancreas Adrenal glands Kidney Testis Ovary A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 H 0 I 0 J 0 K 0 L 0 M 0 B C D E F G G M ,---------1 L 153 Steroid hormone A Membrane B Cytoplasm C Receptor D Hormone-receptor complex E Nucleus DNA molecule F G Messenger RNA H Endoplasmic reticulum I Protein J 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4: t·J i!i.t·l:

Ilili iii ii• QA D B I. MOBILE RECEPTOR MECHANISM L 4 ll;; T .0 Protein hormone i Q) Cell membrane ~ 0 Receptor .c c. Inactive adenylate cyclase .c Q. Activated adenylate cyclase "0 s p AfP molecule Target cell responses Cyclic AMP Cellular cytoplasm Protein kinase II. FIXEDMEMBRANE RECEPTOR MECHANISM Inactive R c::- cAMP molecule Phosphodiesterase enzymes ~ Bloodstream K 0 L 0 M 0 N 0 0 0 p 0 Q 0 R 0 s 0 T 0 u 0 V 0 155 4 i: II U; ii) i(1 i11 !;U i·> B Posterior - Anterior THE PITUITARY GLAND IN PLACE E F H 1/, Uterine smooth muse Optic chiasma Basilar artery Hypothalamic trod Hypothalamic neurons Primary capillary plexus Hypophyseal portal veins Secondary capillary plexus Hypothalamus Kidneys H 0 I J K L M N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Testis Thyroid Anterior lobe Adrenocorticotropic hormone IACTHJ Growth hormone IGHJ Thyroid stimulating hormone ITSH) Gonadotropin hormones Prolactin Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) Posterior

lobe Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Oxytocin Sella turcica Hypothalamus lnfundibulum Sphenoid bone Sphenoidal sinus 0 A A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 B B1 B2 C D E F G 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L Venule Arteriole Venule PITUITARY-HYPOTHALAMUS 157 • i:II •:if it·) I •ij :I •I P. i ilsi i:•• ;t·) 1•11 !·i:I•1) F Thyrocervical trunk Superior thyroid vein Middle thyroid vein Internal jugular vein Inferior thyroid vein Brachiocephalic vein Thyroxin hormone Parathyroid glands Anterior view Left lateral lobe Right lateral lobe Isthmus Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Superior thyroid artery External carotid artery Inferior thyroid artery A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 C D E F G H J K L M 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M Posterior view 159 •i: II J;i:t3 ;J ftl• 3:1 •X·X3 ;J 1:1 I tl:tii t•l:•• B r~ M i1 N A 0 J Q L p Pancreas Body Head Tail Stomach Duodenum Aorto Celiac trunk Splenic artery Great pancreatic artery Superior pancreatic artery

Inferior pancreatic artery Superior mesenteric artery Anterior pancreatoduodenal artery A 0 A1O A2 0 A3 0 B 0 p C 0 D 0 E 0 F 0 G O H 0 0 J 0 K 0 Posterior pancreatoduodenal artery Gastroduodenal artery Superior pancreatoduodenal artery Pancreatic duct Exocrine cells Endocrine cells Cross sections of blood vessels L M N 0 p 0 0 0 0 0 Q 0 R O 161 Surface of adrenal gland Endocrine Function Left adrenal gland Right adrenal gland Left kidney Right kidney Aorta Left middle suprarenal artery Right middle suprarenal artery Left inferior phrenic artery Ai A2 Bi B2 C D1 D2 Ei 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Right inferior phrenic artery Left superior suprarenal artery Right superior suprarenal artery Left renal artery Right renal artery Left inferior suprarenal artery Right inferior suprarenal artery Left suprarenal vein Left renal vein E2 F1 F2 G1 G2 H1 H2 I J 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 N Right suprarenal vein K Cortex L Zona glomerulosa Zona fasciculata Zona reticularis L1 L2

Medulla L3 M Capsule N Celiac trunk a Superior mesenteric artery 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 163 ti i: ili:,·U,itl:1:1 ·J @l: 1f11d!·1:1 •f) The Thymus Gland Thymus gland Pineal gland Heart Lungs Trachea Thyroid gland Larynx Pons Cerebellum A 0 B 0 a 0 b 0 C 0 d 0 e 0 0 g 0 The Pineal Gland h ~-✓r - B 165 the CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <13: IJt,t,, •t:C·l Ii: I13 IiUll t·, (·) ;4iti i=U,• K = = = L C1 . - - , C2 C2 . . , 11 , C t D J C1 t ~~~ t E F1 B N t 11 M = = = Q Right ventricle B Pulmonary trunk . : Right pulmonary artery Right lung Left lung 0 Q A Left pulmonary artery Diaphragm = = . : = Right atrium Left pulmonary vein Right pulmonary vein . :. Left atrium of the heart Left ventricle C C1 C2 D E F1 F2 G H Aorta Q . : . Thoracic aorta : Abdominal aorta 12 Carotid arteries Upper extremities Superior vena cava 11 12 J K L Lower extremities M N 0 p Inferior vena cava Q Thoracic organs Azygous

veins Visceral organs 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 169 • i:II :If 1ii I If:i ii ;J :t·1I·1:t" <·Vtiit Aorta J1 Coronary sulcus K Anterior ventricular sulcus L Posterior ventricular sulcus M J1 A1 H T Q B Anterior view J Arch of the aorta Right coronary artery N1 Left coronary artery N2 Marginal branches 0 Circumflex branch p Anterior interventricular branch Q Cardiac vein R Middle cardiac vein s Coronary sinus T 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L A1 Superior vena cava A1 Inferior vena cava A2 Right auricle B Right ventricle C Pulmonary trunk D E F G H Pulmonary artery Right pulmonary artery Pulmonary veins Left auricle Left ventricle 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G K A2 C Posterior view T M 171 •i: iI: I1·1 ;i II I: ii 4iJ: t·i l;i: r;, (•2:,,••• Superior vena cava Inferior vena cava Right atrium Pectinate muscles A1 A2 B B1 Fossa ovalis B2 Cusp C1 Chordae tendinae C2 Papillary muscles Right

ventricle C3 D Trabecular carneae D1 lnterventricular septum Pulmonary semilunar valve E F Pulmonary trunk G 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Left pulmonary arteries Right pulmonary arteries Pulmonary veins Left atrium lntraatrial septum Cusp of the valve Chordae tendinae Papillary muscles Left ventricle Aortic semilunar valve Arch of the aorta Descending aorta 0 G2 0 H 0 I 0 J 0 K1 0 K2 0 K3 0 L 0 M 0 N 0 0 0 G1 173 •J;Jl:t3 IP.il·iJ •i iJ Ifl·) I ,:I i:t·l ·)a A 0 Thoracic aorta A1 O Abdominal aorta A2 B O 0 O O Right external carotid artery C1 C2 C3 o Right internal carotid artery C4 O D O E1 E2 F1 0 0 O F2 G1 G2 0 0 0 H1 H2 O O 11 0 12 J K L M N 0 01 O Aorta Brachiocephalic trunk Left common carotid artery Right common carotid artery Vertebral artery Left subdavian artery F2---1----+ Right subdavian artery A--,---tJ:z .,~----J1-------~~ Left axillary artery J1//f,f----~~-1!),~ Right axillary artery Left brachial artery Right

brachial artery Left radial artery Right radial artery ~~-/-~rlt-\"-01 02 ~~---1----t--\-\----ttT- A2••··-t-§~-t--+~~~U Left ulnar artery -P Right ulnar artery ~----./J-~-<--1---1-->n-+""=+--+-Q Coronary arteries Celiac trunk Hepatic artery Gastric artery Splenic artery ~---=~~--iit1-T 1 Anterior view Left renal artery Right renal artery 0 0 O 0 O 02 0 Superior mesenteric artery p 0 Gonadal artery Inferior mesenteric artery Q R 0 0 Left common iliac artery S1 O Right common iliac artery S2 0 Left external iliac artery T1 O Right external iliac artery Left femoral artery T2 U1 O O Right femoral artery U2 O 175 • ·i;ii4i1Iti•] I i:I I :1J;i ·I·i:I •I :I13 :♦ Aorta Brachiocephalic trunk Common carotid artery Subdavian artery Internal thoracic artery Thyrocervical trunk Costocervical trunk Vertebral artery Basilar artery Posterior cerebral artery J3 Q A B C D E F G H I J1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 p L

/:,F~,--=.:,""",,J,NJ-J-- N ~~~---lft-- M K Arterial Flowchart CD {>- CD E ~ Rib Communicating artery Middle cerebral artery Anterior cerebral artery External carotid artery Internal carotid artery Lingual artery Facial artery Occipital artery Maxillary artery Superficial temporal artery Superior thyroid artery J2 J3 J4 K L M N 0 p Q R 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 S::J ~J=DS:7 CK) CI) CD ~ {>- tf ( Circle of Willis) 177 •;1ii ii ;l Ifl·) I 1:j Jq UU3ii J:i iil JM i•·• Aorta A 0 Brachiocephalic trunk B 0 Left subclavian artery C 0 Left common carotid artery D 0 Right common carotid artery E F G H I 0 0 0 0 J 0 0 0 B D C Right vertebral artery Thyrocervical trunk A Suprascapular artery Right subclavian artery Axillary artery 0 Subscapular artery K Posterior humoral circumffex artery L 0 Arterial Flowchart CD -Or Anterior view ~ {7 G ) {7 ~ {7 ~ c s R n f) CB CD ~ c ~ Tand U ) ~ ~ ~ CD Anterior humoral

circumffex artery M Brachia! artery N Deep brachial artery 0 Nutrient artery of the humerus 0 p Radial artery Q Ulnar artery R lnterosseus artery s 0 0 0 0 0 :J} ~-~ ( Arteriole0 0 Superficial palmor arch T 0 Deep palmar arch U 0 Digital arteries V o 179 •·i ti iAiJI fl (·Ii: iI :J ;t•)l:1 Optic bulb B C H M N 12 11 L Posterior Inferior view Circle of Willis H B Internal carotid artery A 0 Anterior cerebral artery B 0 Middle cerebral artery C 0 Basilar artery D 0 Left posterior cerebral artery Right posterior cerebral artery Left posterior communicating artery Right posterior communicating artery Anterior communicating artery E1 0 E2 0 F1 0 F2 0 G 0 Circle of Willis H 0 Left vertebral artery I1 0 12 0 Right vertebral artery Superior cerebellar artery J 0 Anterior inferior cerebellar artery K 0 Posterior inferior cerebellar artery L 0 Pontine M Labyrinthine artery A 0 N 0 181 A 0 Superior phrenic arteries

J 0 Left lumbar artery Left subdavian artery B1 Inferior phrenic arteries K B2 Celiac artery L 0 0 Right lumbar artery Right subclavian artery 0 0 Left internal thoracic artery C1 0 Left gastric artery L1 0 Right gonadal artery Right internal thoracic artery C2 0 Hepatic artery L2 0 Left common iliac artery Left lateral thoracic artery D1 0 Splenic artery L3 Right common iliac artery Right lateral thoracic artery D2 0 Superior mesenteric artery M Bronchial arteries E Inferior mesenteric artery N Right external iliac artery T2 0 Pericardia! arteries F 0 0 0 0 0 01 0 Common carotid arteries a Esophageal arteries G 0 Right suprarenal artery 02 0 Vertebral artery b 0 0 Mediastinal arteries H 0 Left renal artery P1 0 Thyrocervical trunk C 0 0 Right renal artery P2 0 Aorta lntercostal arteries Left suprarenal artery Left gonadal artery Left external iliac artery 0 02 0 R1 0 01 R2 0 0 S2 0 T1 0 S1 183

Abdominal aorta Celiac trunk Common hepatic artery Hepatic artery Right gastric artery Gastroduodenal artery Gastric artery Esophageal artery Splenic artery Pancreatic arteries Left gastroepiploic artery Short gastric artery Superior mesenteric artery Jejuna! arteries lleal arteries lleocolic artery Middle colic artery Inferior mesenteric artery Left colic artery Sigmoid artery Superior rectal artery 0 B 0 C 0 D 0 E 0 F 0 G 0 H 0 I 0 J 0 K 0 L 0 M 0 N 0 0 0 p 0 Q 0 R 0 0 T 0 u 0 A •·i ;i; ~ i1 Itl·l I i=I l1;fi iit•l i:i iti i1:t;i li;t;Ji • A. Stomach B ~~:===-L -----ff--K-11-----<--+---- G D s Spleen Pancreas Duodenum B. Transverse colon Anterior view Transverse colon M p ~~---Ji-li~- C. s L R Jejunum Anterior view Descending colon 185 •·1 i i4;JI fl·l Ii :j I !·)ti ij ;I! Mi:• Aorta Left common iliac artery Right common iliac artery D 0 B1 0 B2 0 Internal iliac artery C O External iliac artery Deep femoral artery D O E 0 F O Medial

femoral circumflex artery G O Lateral femoral circumflex artery H O I 0 D F A Femoral artery Descending genicular artery J 0 Dorsalis pedis artery K L M N 0 0 0 0 Lateral plantar artery 0 0 Popliteal artery Posterior tibial artery Peroneal artery Anterior tibial artery Medial plantar artery p 0 Plantar arch Q 0 Digital arteries R 0 11Dm1--t----~- L---·1----~-~ Lil.----1---- K-~-½--J11 Arterial Flowchart • •• Anterior view ( R ) Posterior view 187 • UiJ l:t3 IP.1 I 11:EJ·) Ii: ii:t•l ·)• A--Wt/1-1/-~~~~;=.~-t- h----1 K2----1-U-J.1 L2---~-1--1-1- , , 0 Q s, T Left brachial vein Right brachia! vein Left basilic vein Right basilic vein Pulmonary veins Coronary sinus Hepatic vein Hepatic portal vein Splenic vein Anterior view Superior vena cava Inferior vena cava 0 Left internal jugular vein Right internal jugular vein Sigmoid sinus Facial vein Left cephalic vein Right cephalic vein 0 Left axillary vein I1 12 J1 0 Right

axillary vein J2 A 0 B 0 Left brachiocephalic vein Right brachiocephalic vein Left subclavian vein Right subclavian vein Left external jugular vein c, 0 C2 D1 D2 E1 0 Right external jugular vein E2 0 F1 F2 G H 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Superior mesentery vein Left renal vein Right renal vein Left inferior mesenteric vein Left common iliac vein Right common iliac vein Left internal iliac vein Right internal iliac vein Left external iliac vein Right external iliac vein K1 K2 L1 L2 M 0 N 0 p 0 Q 0 R 0 s, 0 S2 T u, U2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 v, 0 V2 0 w, 0 W2 0 189 H 4!i 1I:fl·1I •=II: if1·1•1:1 •I: iJ3:♦ G J F Internal jugular vein A B External jugular vein C 0 Brachiocephalic vein Vertebral vein Sigmoid sinus Superior sagittal sinus D E 0 0 o o Straight sinus Straight sinus !continued) E4 0 Occipital sinus E5 o Cavernous sinus E6 O Great cerebral vein Facial vein Ophthalmic vein Temporal vein •• O E1 E2 O E3 O

Inferior sagittal sinus Venous Flowchart E7 O F O G o H 0 Maxillary vein I o Posterior auricular vein J Occipital vein K 0 O 191 •!◄ 1I: fl·) Ii: I1 1) µµ1;I !:i j ;J it1 1ii• b Pulmonary veins 0 Superior vena cava Brachiocephalic vein Internal jugular vein External jugular vein G C O Axillary vein O 0 0 Highest thoracic vein a 0 Lateral thoracic vein b o Subscapular vein C 0 Brachia! vein G H I o Radial vein Ulnar vein c E ) 0 0 D E F Subclavian vein Venous Flowchart A B 0 0 Palmar venous arch J 0 Digital veins K L O 0 Basilic vein Median cubital vein Median antebrachial vein M 0 N O Right cephalic vein 0 0 Accessory cephalic vein p 0 " •" Anterior view 193 •i 4I: ti·) I;: II j: t·l ;f;:f;1:I •l;1:J •X·2M 3:• A J H E K B L N M 0 Q Diaphragm Inferior vena cava A B Mediastinal veins C Esophageal veins D Internal thoracic vein E Superior vena cava Left brachiocephalic

vein Right brachiocephalic vein F1 F2 Subclavian vein G 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Axillary vein H Cephalic vein Hemiazygous vein J K lntercostal veins L Azygous vein Hepatic veins M Phrenic veins N 0 Suprarenal (adrenal) veins 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Renal veins p Gonadal veins Q Lumbar veins R Common iliac veins s Internal iliac veins T External iliac veins u Internal iugular vein a Vertebral vein b External jugular vein C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 195 •*4 1I: ti·) I i:II !·1N 4;I i!i i;J J~,Iii• A C Venous Flowchart C A ) {t LL---- F----~• L .JL JJ-1----0 G .• J Anterior view Inferior vena cava Left common iliac vein Right common iliac vein Internal iliac vein External iliac vein Femoral vein • Posterior view 0 B1 0 B2 0 C 0 0 D E 0 A Great saphenous vein F Medial plantar vein G Dorsal venous arch H Metatarsal veins I Popliteal vein J K Small saphenous vein L Digital veins 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anterior tibial vein M Dorsalis pedis

veins Posterior tibial vein N 0 Lateral plantar vein p Deep venous arch Q Peroneal vein R 0 0 0 0 0 0 197 • : 1➔ Liver Ji, itt ;-) ;; l;1 liEi i Jr• Aorta 0 Inferior mesenteric vein A 0 Left colic vein B 0 Sigmoidal veins C 0 Superior rectal veins 0 Superior mesenteric vein D E F Right colic vein G Jejunal and ileal veins H 0 0 lleocolic vein I 0 Pancreatoduodenal vein Splenic vein K L N J J 0 K 0 Gastric vein L 0 Cystic vein M N 0 p 0 0 F Hepatic portal vein Hepatic vein Inferior vena cava H 0 Gastroepiploic vein E G 0 0 0 A -t--+--¼--t--Descending colon C Small intestine I D Schematic Diagram g Heart 0 0 b 0 C 0 Inferior mesenteric artery d 0 Hepatic portal vein e 0 Hepatic artery f 0 Hepatic veins g Inferior vena cava h 0 0 Aorta Superior mesenteric artery g C d e Intestinal tract 199 Placenta E Fetal heart ~CD~ (! H CD f. (D, 15 12 Heart Schematic Aorta Left internal iliac

artery Right internal iliac artery Left umbilical artery Right umbilical artery Umbilical cord Blood Flowchart Umbilical vein Liver E B1 B2 C1 C2 0 0 0 0 0 Ductus venosus Inferior vena cava Heart G H I 0 0 0 0 0 D 0 Right atrium of the heart 1, 0 A > F i Right ventricle Foremen ovale Left atrium Left ventricle Ductus arteriosus 12 0 13 14 15 16 0 0 0 0 201 C3: fr1 ~ i4;I 4(1: •i) the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM Thoracic duct Cisterna chyli Right lymphatic duct Palatine tonsil Su6mandi6ular lymph nodes Cervical lymph nodes Axillary lymph nodes Mammary lymph nodes A A1 B C D1 D2 D3 D4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A 62 61 F D4 -G A1 Da ·····-D5 d H D6 D7 Peyers patches Iliac lymph nodes Inguinal lymph nodes Intestinal lymph nodes Lymphatic vessels Thymus gland Spleen Appendix Bone marrow Internal jugular vein Right su6clavian vein Left su6davian vein Small intestine Large intestine D5 D6 D7 Da E F G H I a 61 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 62 0 C 0 d 0 205 1 51t,

1U:i :,·l,l f) E1 D F A \~ - fl Capsule Trabeculae Cortex Follicles Germinal centers Cortical reticular fibers Cortical sinus Medulla Medullary cords .1) A B C C1 C2 C3 C4 D D1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Medullary sinus Medullary reticular fibers Afferent lymphatic vessels Afferent valves Efferent lymph vessels Efferent valves Hilus D2 D3 E E1 F F1 G 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 207 • 51 MU :t3 ;ti ·) ;t,1 I:,.? I·) I i:II: If 1·) K lnfraorbital lymph nodes Parotid lymph nodes Buccal lymph nodes Mandibular lymph nodes Submental lymph nodes Submandibular lymph nodes Periauricular lymph nodes Retroauricular lymph nodes Occipital lymph nodes Superficial cervical lymph nodes Deep cervical lymph nodes Parasternal lymph nodes Subclavian lymph nodes Lateral axillary lymph nodes Central axillary lymph nodes Subscapular lymph nodes Pectoral lymph nodes Parotid gland Submandibular gland A B C D E F G H 0 N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 J K L M N 0 0 p 0 Q 0 a b 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 209

Diaphragmatic surface Visceral surface Gastric area Renal area Hilus Splenic artery Splenic vein Capsule Trabeculum Red pulp White pulp Trabecular arteries Splenic cords Venous sinuses Capillary network A B 0 0 0 B1 B2 0 B3 0 C 0 D 0 E 0 E1 0 F 0 G 0 H 0 0 J 0 K 0 83 Inferior D 211 Ii i: II M t, ti I: II Q•t·X3 !$) Bone Bone marrow Immature T-lymphocytes Thymus gland Mature T-lymphocytes Helper T-lymphocytes T-lymphocyte receptors Antigen for T-lymphocytes Activation of T-lymphocyte Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte Helper assistance Mature B-lymphocytes B-lymphocyte receptor B-lymphocxte receptor B-lymphocyte receptor Antigen for B-lymphocyte Activation of B-lymphocyte Plasma cells Antibody molecules a A 0 A1 0 B 0 C Lymphatic tissue Circulation a b 0 o 0 D1 0 D2 0 D3 0 E 0 E1 0 F 0 G1 0 H 0 A H1 0 H2 0 H3 0 I 0 I1 0 J 0 K 0 E ~ b K 213 the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM <•W 4;!4 I!,I·) I•: II,, t1 fi i,~ ill iJt. 1 Oral cavity Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small

intestine Large intestine Rectum Anus Salivary glands Liver Gallbladder Pancreas J Right upper quadrant Epigastric region Left upper quadrant Right lumbar region Umbilical region D Left lumbar region Right inguinal region Hypogastric region Left inguinal region A B C D E F G H I J K L a b C d e g h 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 b a 217 • i: II·) t?si If£)••·• Cheek AO Lips Vestibule Teeth Gingiva B 0 CO DO Hard palate F O Soft palate Uvula Palatopharyngeal arch Palatoglossol arch GO H 0 I O J 0 Tongue Lingual frenulum K O Hyoid bone MO Body No Root Papillae Sublingual salivary glands 00 p 0 Lingual tonsils Palatine tonsils R1 0 Pharyngeal tonsil Eustachian tube R30 S 0 Nasopharynx Oropharynx Epiglottis T1 0 G M Sagittal section D E O L O QO R2 0 T2 O U 0 B J B D Anterior view Tongue, anterior view 219 •i=ilifii:1 D D D D Lower Jaw Upper Jaw A B D C Upper jaw Lower jaw A B G K M 0 0 L oo•~ 0

• 0 • Q .o G) 0 Oo---0--J o•o O 0 G o s R C D Incisors Cuspids Bicuspids Molars Upper dental arch Lower dental arch Crown Neck Root Alveolar bone Gingiva Periodontal ligament Cementum Enamel Dentin Pulp cavity Root canal Apical foramen Nerves A 0 B C D E F G H I J K L M N 0 p Q R s 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 221 4i;i 4fi! Cti;11!•1:1•1) B a A (~-~-=~ ·•·. •· e D b d C Parotid glands Parotid duct IStensons duct) Opening of the parotid duct Submandibular gland Submandibular duct {Whartons duct) Sublingual glands Sublingual ducts Zygomatic arch Masseter muscle Second maxillary molar Mandible Lingual frenulum Tongue A 0 B 0 B1 0 C 0 D 0 E F a b 0 C 0 0 0 0 d 0 e 0 f 0 223 b H3 Oblique layer Serosa Submucosa Mucosa Muscularis mucosa Lamina propria Mucosal epithelium Gastric pits L Inner stomach wall K3 K H3 0 0 0 K 0 K1 0 K2 0 K3 0 L 0 I J N H H1 N Outer stomach wall Lesser curvature Greater curvature

Cardiac sphincter Cordia Fundus Body Pylorus A 0 B 0 C 0 D1 0 D2 0 D3 0 D4 0 Pyloric sphincter Pyloric outlet Rugae Muscularis externa longitudinal layer Middle circular layer E 0 F 0 G 0 H 0 H1 0 H2 0 Neck mucous cells Chief cells Parietal cell Esophagus Duodenum M N 0 a b 0 0 0 0 0 225 Duodenum Jejunum Ileum Plicae circulares Villi Intestinal crypts Muscularis mucosa Submucosa Circular muscle Longitudinal muscle Serosa Lamina propria Epithelium Artery Vein Lymph vessel Nerve Capillary network Microvilli A B 0 O • ;:I 3 i "1 !I I: iifi i1: I • C o D 0 E F O O G O H I J K L M N 0 p 0 0 0 0 0 B O 0 0 Large intestine 0 Q 0 R O S 0 227 ••:I I •;1 ita I 1:, iti i1:1 • Ascending colon A Transverse colon B Descending colon C lleocecal valve D Cecum E Vermiform appendix Splenic flexure F G H I Sigmoid colon J Mesoappendix Hepatic flexure Rectum K 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C d J F Levator ani muscle L Anal columns

Q External anal sphincter R Internal anal sphincter s Stomach a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Taeniae coli Epiploic appendages p L1 Haustra M Anus R Plicae transversales Anal canal N 0 p s N b 0 Jejunum C Ileum d 0 0 Duodenum 229 b f d J h ~-:.-r-~D-r--~r-,---1A3 A2 k B m n----- p F G F H Pancreas Head of the pancreas Body of the pancreas Tail of the pancreas Main pancreatic duct Ampulla of Voter Accessory pancreatic duct Acinus Exocrine cells 0 A1 0 A2 0 A3 0 B 0 C 0 D 0 E 0 F 0 A 0 Islets of Langerhans G Exocrine cells H Blood vessel Esophagus a Diaphragm b Stomach C Duodenum d Jejunum e Liver f Hepatic ducts g Gallbladder h Common bile duct Spleen j Left kidney k Right kidney I Left ureter m Right ureter n Superior mesentery artery 0 Superior mesentery vein p 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 231 D B e Posterior view E Hepatic Blood Supply Coronary ligament E Gallbladder Porta hepatis Common bile duct

Right lobe Caudate lobe Quadrate lobe Falciform ligament Round ligament A1 A2 A3 A4 B G 0 Diaphragm Stomach a 0 b o Inferior vena cava C 0 0 Hepatic portal vein d o 0 0 O 0 0 Hepatic artery e Capillary network Hepatic vein f 0 0 g 0 Pancreas h o j 0 0 k o The Gallbladder Left lobe 0 0 Ampulla of Yater J A E F H I J K Cystic duct Hepatic duct Sphincter Liver D 0 C 0 Pancreatic duct Duodenum Jejunum 0 0 0 0 233 the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Nosal passage Nosal conchoe Frontal sinus Sphenoid sinus Pharynx Larynx Trachea A 0 A1 0 B1 0 B2 0 C 0 D 0 E 0 Tongue a 0 0 Esophagus b 0 Ribs C 0 Sternum d 0 e 0 Left bronchial tree 0 F2 0 G1 0 Right bronchial tree G2 0 0 H2 0 Clavicles Left moinstem bronchus Right mainstem bronchus Left lung Right lung F1 H1 Diaphragm 23: E3 A3 C2 a h Maxilla G Nasal cavity External nares Vestibule Olfactory region Internal nares Nasal septum Maxillary sinus Frontal sinus Ethmoid sinus

Nosal conchoe Superior nasal concho Middle nasal concho Inferior nasal concha Superior nasal meotus Middle nasal meotus Inferior nasal meatus Nasopharynx A A1 A2 A3 A4 B C1 C2 C3 D D1 D2 D3 E1 E2 E3 F 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Frontal bone Sagittal section Orophorynx Laryngopharynx Epiglottis Glottis Vocal cords Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Trachea Hard palate Soft palate Oral cavity Tongue Eustachian tube Lingual tonsil Palatine tonsil Pharyngeal tonsil Esophagus Thyroid gland G H I J K L M N a b C d e f g h 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Zygomatic bone B D2 C1 C1 Frontal section 239 • i:I I !ii ;U f:• a H A2 >< ~ C E2 D2 g D1 Sagittal section Posterior view Anterior view Posterior J C Tongue I ~ (i; v (2 , )) I (Ji (2 Anterior Thyroid cartilage Laryngeal prominence Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Epiglottis Left arytenoid cartilage A A1 A2 B C D1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Right arytenoid cartilage Left corniculate

cartilage Right corniculate cartilage Left cuneiform cartilage Right cuneiform cartilage Intrinsic ligaments D2 E1 E2 F1. F2 G 0 0 0 0 0 0 Extrinsic ligaments Ventricular folds Rima vestibuli Vocal folds Rings of cartilage Hyoid bone H I1 J K a 0 0 0 0 0 0 241 •i: IIi i·X3: If1;1: I·I :J it•,: t3: I,., I• iJ 3• A Lumen of trachea B N Larynx lhyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Cricothyroid ligament Thyrohyoid ligament Hyoid bone Trachea Hyaline or tracheal cartilage Annular ligaments Left mainstem bronchus Right mainstem bronchus A Carina D A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B B1 B2 C1 C2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F F Right secondary bronchi Left secondary bronchi Cartilage Tertiary bronchi Bronchioles Lobules Mucosa Ciliated epithelium Lomino proprio Smooth muscle Mucous cells E1 E2 F G H J K L M N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 243 Right superior lobe Right middle lobe Right inferior lobe Left superior lobe Left inferior lobe Horizontal fissure Fo Oblique fissure Cupula

!Apex) Base Left costal surface Right costal surface Mediastinal surface Fo Esophageal groove Cardiac impression A B C D E Fh Fo G1, G2 H1, H2 I1 12 J1 J 2 I K L1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C Right lung Diaphragmatic impression Hilus Bronchi Pulmonary artery Pulmonary veins Aortic groove Trachea Mainstem bronchus Secondary bronchi Tertiary bronchi L2 M1, M2 N1, N2 0 p Q R a b C d 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L1 A C D lateral view, right lung Medial view, left lung lateral view, left lung 245 the URINARY SYSTEM C·11 ~ ;£1 Ii,l•l Ii: IJI) ;1 I: t,, ;liEi iJ,f• E A1 F A1 B A2 Iliac crest H I C C G D D Anterior view Posterior view Posterior Left kidney A1 Right kidney Ureter A2 B Urinary bladder Urethra K E E Renal artery Renal vein Abdominal aorta Inferior vena cava M F Lumbar vertebra Suprarenal glands Renal capsule Adipose capsule Renal fascia Peritoneum C D E F G H I J K L M N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anterior Inferior view of

transverse section 249 Blood Flowchart f--W-~~~ LL----rrT"T""J,,,,.- O Renal cortex A B Renal medulla C o Renal pyramids D O Renal sinus D1 D2 E F O O 0 0 Papillary duct G O H O 0 Capsule Base D Apex (renal papilla) D1 Hilus F Minor calyx Major calyces I Renal pelvis J Ureter Renal columns Frontal section of right kidney Renal artery K L 0 0 O 0 M O Renal vein N 0 Segmental arteries 0 0 lnterlobar artery p 0 Arcuate arteries Q 0 Interlobular arteries lnterlobar veins R S T U V W X y O 0 O 0 O 0 0 0 Segmental veins Z 0 Afferent arteries Glomerulus Efferent arteriole Peritubular capillary Interlobular vein Arcuate vein 251 B A B Renal artery Renal vein Ureter Cortex Medulla Renal corpuscle T I u Cortical nephron Juxtamedullary nephron \ Collecting duct Interlobular artery Afferent arteriole Glomerulus s Efferent arteriole Peritubular capillary network T Q !11 R To renal pelvis 0 0 C 0 D 0

E 0 F 0 G 0 H 0 H1 0 H2 0 I 0 J 0 K 0 L 0 M 0 N 0 0 0 p 0 Q 0 R 0 s 0 T 0 u 0 Kidney Nephron Bowmans capsule Proximal convoluted tubule Descending limb Loop of Henle Ascending limb Distal convoluted tubule Interlobular vein 253 4 i: 1JI) •1 1:f·1 ;·I :J !·1 ·) ·) 1;• E J Female H Ureter Ureter orifices H3 Peritoneum Detrusor muscle b H Male A 0 A1 0 B C 0 0 Trigone D 0 Mucosa E 0 Rugae E1 0 Neck of bladder F 0 Urethral sphincter G 0 Urethra H 0 Prostatic urethra H1 0 Membranous urethra H2 0 Spongy urethra H3 0 External urethral sphincter I 0 Urogenital diaphragm J 0 Prostate gland a 0 Penis b 0 255 «3: t·! Ai 4ii i1 45 JI the REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM H4 Testis Epididymis Ductus deferens Ampulla Ejaculatory duct Prostatic urethra Membranous urethra Spongy urethra Penis Corona A B C C1 D E F G H H1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Glans penis Prepuce Orifice of urethra Suspensory ligament Scrotum Seminal vesicle Prostate

gland Bulbourethral gland Sacrum H2 H3 H4 H5 I J K L a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Coccyx Pubic symphysis Urinary bladder Ureter Urogenital diaphragm Rectum Anus b C d e f g h 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 259 •i: II ifiit) p E H Scrotum Septum Dartos Cremaster muscle Internal oblique muscle Fascia External spermatic fascia Internal spermatic fascia Tunica vaginalis Cavity Tunica albuginea Septum Lobules A B C D E F F1 F2 G G1 H I J 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G F1 p Anterior view Seminiferous tubules Rete testis Efferent ductules Epididymis Head Body Tail Ductus deferens Blood vessels, nerves Spermatic cord Suspensory ligament Fundiform ligament Corpora cavernosa Corpus spongiosum Spongy urethra K L O O L1 M 0 0 M1 O M2 0 M3 0 N 0 p 0 Q R 0 S T U 0 0 0 0 o 0 Sagittal section 261 •:,t;1 !f;X{3 f}l·l :11 !·1: I·}) a Ductus deferens Smooth muscle Ampulla Seminal vesicle Glandular folds Outpockets Body Base Vesicle duct Eiaculatory ducts b C A 0 0 0 0 0 0 A1 B

C C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 D 0 0 0 0 a c, Posterior view D f3 F1 F4 f4 F3 Cross section of prostate gland C4 C5 Seminal Vesicle Urethra Prostate gland Mucosal glands Submucosal glands Main prostatic glands Submucosal ducts Bulbourethral gland Duct Urinary bladder Ureters E F F1 F2 F3 F4 G G1 a b 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 263 B1 C E Prostate gland A Urethra B Prostatic urethra H F Membranous urethra Spongy urethra B1 B2 Ejaculatory duct B3 C Bulbourethral gland D Urogenital diaphragm E Root of penis F Bulb G Crus H M Shaft B-· Corpora cavernosa J Corpus spongiosum K L Tunica albugineo K 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 B3 N 0 L R Frontal section Blood vessels M Smaller blood vessels N 0 p Glans penis Corona Prepuce External urethral orifice Urinary bladder Internal urethral orifice Q R a b 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M Cross section 265 C Ovaries A Uterine tubes B Fimbria lnfundibulum B1 B2 Round ligament C Uterus D Endometrium

Rectouterine pouch D1 E F Vesicouterine pouch G Uterosacral ligament 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 H Vagina J K Urogenital diaphragm L Greater vestibular gland M Vaginal orifice Mons pubis N 0 Clitoris p Labium minora Q 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Labium majora R 0 Posterior fornix Anterior fornix Cervix Urinary bladder a Urethra b External urethral meatus C Rectum d Coccyx e Anus f Sacrum g Pubic symphysis h 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 267 A1 L K4 K4 L1 H M1 A Ovary Cortex Vascular medulla Ovarian hilum A1 A2 A3 Tunica albuginea Fallopian tube A4 B 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fimbriae lnfundlbulum Ampulla Isthmus Intramural part of uterine tube Uterus Broad ligament Mesovarium Ovarian ligament Suspensory ligament Corpus albicans Cervix Cervical os Vagina Primordial follicle Cells Secondary follicle Mature follicle Egg cell Corona radiata Early corpus luteum Mature corpus luteum Vein B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 C D E F G H I1 J K1 K2 K3 K4 L L1 M1 M2 h 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 269 C Posterior view Uterus Body (corpus) Fundus Isthmus Cervix Cervical os Cervical canal Internal os Uterine cavity A A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 As 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fallopian tubes Fimbriae lnfundibulum Ampulla Intramural portion Ovaries Perimetrium (serosa} Myometrium Endometrium B B1 B2 B3 B4 C D E F 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Uterine artery Uterine vein Vagina Vaginal canal Fornix Rugae Vaginal artery Vaginal vein Ureter G H I1 12 13 J K L 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 271 A Ovary Uterus A B Vagina Cervical os Urogenital diaphragm Hymen External genitalia Vestibule Labia minora C C Urethra Clitoris Prepuce Greater vestibular IBartholinsJ glands J K L M Mons pubis Labia majora Anus N 0 p D E F G H 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 p A1 273 Pectoralis major muscle Lymph vessels and lymph nodes Deep fascia Superficial fascia Nipple Areola Coopers ligaments Lobes Lobules of mammary gland Secondary tubules Mammary ducts Lactiferous sinus Lactiferous duct A B C1

C2 D E F G H I J K L 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 D D 275