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Source: http://www.doksinet Judit Ormai (Interactive) English for Law Students – 1. Legal Systems Pécs 2013 1 Source: http://www.doksinet UNIT 1 Legal systems What is law? Think about the following questions: Why does society need rules (laws)? How would you explain what is law? Do you agree with the following definition? What are the functions of law? Law is a term which does not have a universally accepted definition, but one definition is that law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior. Laws are made by governments, specifically by their legislatures The formation of laws themselves have to be based on and comply with the constitution (written or unwritten) and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics and society in countless ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. (http://en.wikipediaorg/wiki/Law) Optional exercise What have you learnt about the functions of

law? What do you think, the following headings taken from the text below, cover? Read the text and compare your views with the facts expressed by the author. • • • • • • • Maintenance of public order and safety The protection of individual rights and liberties The organisation and control of the political sphere The regulation of economic activity The regulation of human relationships The preservation of a moral order The regulation of international relations The functions of law Maintenance of public order and safety The law is often regarded as a critical part of the glue that holds the fabric of society together, and protects us from the risks of social disorder and anarchy. The criminal law, in particular, is important in this respect, since it defines those behaviours which are regarded as sufficiently antisocial or potentially damaging to the public good as to be outlawed and punishable by the state. At the same time, there is a real risk that the state itself can

use the law to legitimate its rule and to suppress dissent by force. This abuse of law can be seen in many repressive regimes, and it is therefore considered important that political and legal authority in the state are kept reasonably separate and subject to a range of checks and balances, for example, by ensuring that the police and courts are independent of executive government. 2 Source: http://www.doksinet The protection of individual rights and liberties An important function of law in liberal democratic societies is that it should curb the capacity of the state and other powerful social actors to infringe the rights and liberties of individual citizens. This is often encapsulated in notions like the rule of law which requires that no person or organisation is above the law, and freedom under the law, which implies that individual autonomy can only be constrained by a legitimate exercise of law. The protection of fundamental rights and liberties such as the right to a fair

trial, the freedom of speech, and of lawful protest are important in constraining potential abuses of state power. Increasingly, in the context of the international and national human rights movements, the language of (negative) civil liberties and freedoms is being superseded by a language of positive, enforceable, rights such as the right not to be discriminated against because of ones sex, race, age, sexual orientation, or disability. The organisation and control of the political sphere Although we often think of law and politics as necessarily distinct systems, the reality is rather more complex, as law performs an important role in preserving the political structure and processes, and politics plays an increasing role in shaping the law, not least through the extensive annual legislative programme of Parliament. In many countries the relationship between law and state is defined primarily by a written constitution. The UK, by contrast, is distinctive in having a largely unwritten

constitution, but this does not mean that there is no constitutional law, nor that the courts lack any authority over the political and legislative process. Moreover, major legislative reforms such as the European Communities Act 1972, the Human Rights Act 1998, the various devolution Acts, and the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 all point to ways in which our constitutional arrangements are becoming increasingly embedded in written-statute-law. The regulation of economic activity Within the dominant ethos of market capitalism, law plays an important function in facilitating and encouraging national and international trade in goods and services. It does this by creating legal frameworks and conditions for facilitating trade, and by establishing principles of risk allocation and dispute resolution for when things go wrong. At the same time, the law also plays a role in restricting the activities of economic entities, and protecting citizens, states, and the environment itself – for

example, from unsafe labour practices, abuses by an entity of a dominant market position, and other forms of unfair exploitation. Achieving a balance between these aims is often extremely difficult, and, as the recent banking crisis has shown, regulatory failure can have massive economic and, consequently, social impact. The regulation of human relationships The law serves to legitimate and control various aspects of personal relationships. This includes laws on marriage and civil partnership; setting principles governing the distribution of family property on relationship dissolution or death; regulating parent-child relationships, and those situations where the state and the courts may take measures to protect the welfare of a child, even against the rights of the parent. 3 Source: http://www.doksinet The preservation of a moral order Closely related to the law’s role in regulating both public order and human relationships is another idea: that the law plays an important role

in the reproduction and enforcement of certain moral principles and values. Both laws and moral principles share a characteristic that legal philosophers describe as normativity --that is, they describe behavioural ‘norms’: or statements of what we ought to do. However, laws become distinct from purely moral norms by virtue of acquiring a particular form (as statute or case law) developed within and legitimated by the institutional framework of a ‘legal system’. This does not mean that laws have no moral content, or that law necessarily lacks moral functions and values. There are, of course, many specific areas of law which try to reflect a current moral consensus within society – for example, laws protecting freedom of religion, and others which attempt to control certain ‘immoral’ behaviours such as the public display of pornography, or racist ‘hate speech’. Beyond these sorts of specifics, however, some would also argue that the law itself is grounded upon certain

core moral values – a commitment, for example, to ideals of order, justice, and individual freedom (Stein and Shand, 1974). The rise of ‘human rights’ similarly can be regarded as a predominantly moral discourse that has sought to embed notions of human dignity and fundamental rights within national legal systems. In these ways the law itself, in its ideal form, can be regarded as a means of realising value, and an institution of civil society that is dedicated to human flourishing. When talking about the relationship between law and the moral order, it is difficult not to address the difficult question of the relationship between law and religion. Most legal traditions reflect a strong faith-based history – whether Christian, Islamic, Hindu, or other. Even in supposedly secular Western states, like the UK, there are often quite strong vestiges of the society’s historically dominant religious tradition within the law. However, at the same time, the relationship between law

and religion is itself a significant source of potential conflict within the law. Modern liberal democracies, like the UK, are, in theory, predicated on the principle of tolerance and a commitment to the moral neutrality of the state. But as these societies become more pluralistic, the drawing of legal boundary lines between morally acceptable and unacceptable behaviour may become harder to achieve in consensus terms. The state can become increasingly drawn into essentially faith-based disputes. The regulation of international relations International relations are governed primarily by a form of law called public international law. This creates rules, for example, for the recognition of states as legal entities, the setting of their territorial boundaries and the conduct of diplomacy between them. Wars and armed conflict are also governed by international legal rules, so that principles of international humanitarian law exist to protect those caught up in conflict, and, increasingly,

those accused of war crimes and other crimes against humanity are liable to be judged before international tribunals according to standards set by international criminal law. At the interstate level, international trade is also increasingly regulated, chiefly by the World Trade Organization in Geneva, but also by regional trade system s such as the European Union (which is the most closely harmonised, and most like a regional legal system of all the trading blocs), the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Free Trade Area. These bodies exist as negotiating fora, and offer systems of dispute resolution for trade disputes between states within their jurisdiction.” 4 Source: http://www.doksinet (Holland, James - Webb, Julian: Learning Legal Rules. 7th Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford; 2010. p 3-6) Discuss your views about the questions below with your partner. Here are some examples to help you: 1. Norman drinks 10

pints of beer He drives his car into a queue at the bus station injuring a young woman and her child. 2. Sue, who is pregnant, lives with Chris She smokes 50 cigarettes a day Sue is also carrying on an occasional affair with Richard. 3. Robert agrees to pay Joan, a professional decorator, L500if she paints his house She completes the work to a very high standard. Robert, who is a millionaire, refuses to pay her (How to Study Law p.14) • • • • Think of acts which are regarded as ’moral’ but not ’legal’. What about acts kept to be immoral but legal? Does every breach of law mean a breach of morality? Are rules concerning morality constant? In five minutes, write English words connected with law. (The photos may help you!) Classify the words into the following categories: places persons activities abstract ideas adjectives other 5 Source: http://www.doksinet Legal systems The most common forms are: • • • • • Civil law systems: e.g France, Italy, Sweden,

Hungary Common law systems: e.g England, the USA, New Zealand Traditional and religious law: e.g Afghanistan, Iran, Yemen Socialist law: e.g China, Cuba, North Korea, Vietnam Mixed legal systems: e.g South Africa, Quebec, Scotland, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Israel In order to receive more information on the basic legal systems, read the following text and do the exercises. Origins of Civil law Civil law is the legal system used in most countries around the world today. In civil law the sources recognised as authoritative are, primarily, legislationespecially codifications in constitutions or statutes passed by governmentand custom. Modern civil law systems essentially derive from the legal practice of the 6th-century Eastern Roman Empire whose texts were rediscovered by late medieval Western Europe. Roman law in the days of the Roman Republic and Empire was heavily procedural, and lacked a professional legal class. Instead a lay magistrate, iudex, was chosen to adjudicate.

Precedents that time were not reported. From 529–534 AD the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I codified and consolidated Roman law up until that point, so that what remained was one-twentieth of the mass of legal texts from before. This became known as the Corpus Juris Civilis As one legal historian wrote, "Justinian consciously looked back to the golden age of Roman law and aimed to restore it to the peak it had reached three centuries before." The Justinian Code remained in force in the East until the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Western Europe, meanwhile, relied on a mix of the Theodosian Code and Germanic customary law until the Justinian Code was rediscovered in the 11th century, and scholars at the University of Bologna used it to interpret their own laws. Civil law codifications based closely on Roman law, alongside some influences from religious laws such as Canon law, continued to spread throughout Europe until the Enlightenment; then, in the 19th century, both France,

with the Code Civil, and Germany, with the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, modernised their legal codes. Both these codes influenced heavily not only the law systems of the countries in continental Europe (e.g Greece), but also the Japanese and Korean legal traditions. Today, countries that have civil law systems range from Russia and China to most of Central and Latin America. (http://en.wikipediaorg/wiki/Law) 6 Source: http://www.doksinet Make a list of the sources of law referred to in the text above. List the famous codes mentioned in the text. Find the expressions for the definitions in the text above. Match them with their synonyms in the table below. 1. acts made by parliament 2. of the Middle Ages 3. act as an official judge to decide a dispute 4. judgements or decisions followed by the judge in subsequent cases 5. laws arranged into a system 6. stayed effective 7. explain the meaning

of sg 8. the law of the Christian church Optional exercise Make a short summary of the following text in Hungarian. Common law and Civil law ‘Common law’ systems are often contrasted with ‘civil law’ systems. Broadly stated, civil law relates to legal orders that have developed on the European continent as well as in those parts of the globe that have influenced by Europe’s legal systems. These are distinct from the common law that has evolved in England and the United States. However, the distinction between civil law and common law is not arbitrary. The concept of civil law is linked to the concept of common law. (see Ralf Rogowski: Civil law in: legal systems of the world A political, social and cultural encyclopedia. Vol I: A-D (ed: Herbert M Kritzer) ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, California, 2002.) “A common feature of many modern civil law systems is that their private law is based on a systematic set of general rules of law contained in

legislative enactments-typically, a code, such as the Code civil in France or Belgium, the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch in Germany, the Codice civile in Italy and the Burgerlijk Wetboek in the Netherlands. The difference does not reside only the existence of a civil code, however, since Scandinavian countries are generally recognised to fall within the civil law tradition although they do not have complete, systematic codifications. They do, however, share with the codified European systems (and other systems outside Europe which are now based on the European civil law model) features which mark them apart from the common law, and which the civil lawyer will immediately recognise by way of contrast with the general features of the common law. But one feature which certainly marks out the common law by contrast with its civilian neighbours is the limited reception in English law of Roman law principles. The term civil law is used to describe these European jurisdictions because of their

reception of the language, ideas and structures of Roman law in the revival and rediscovery of Justinians Corpus Iuris Civilis which began in Italy at the end of the eleventh century and spread with varying degrees of influence into the several countries of the Continent. There was a real sense in which the received Roman law rules, as refined and explained by scholars, became the common law of continental Europe – the ius commune.” (Cartwright, John: Introduction to the English Law of Contract for the Civil Lawyer. Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2007 p 8) However, it has to be mentioned that that time Roman law was not the only law to be found in medieval Europe. 7 Source: http://www.doksinet The living law was the feudal and customary law. But, the influence of the Glossators led to the reduction of much of the feudal customary law to writing and this in turn exposed it to analysis and commentary by the university doctors. Gradually, such feudal law became romanized. In Britain,

however, it was a different story (Geoffrey Samuel: Common law in: Elgar Encyclopedia of Comparative law. (ed Smith, J M) Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 2006. p 145) The revival of Roman law did not have the same impact on the law in England, where the Kings courts and the legal profession were already (and in parallel with the European developments) developing their own law – the common law of England – without the same academic influence which was so strong on the Continent.” (Cartwright, John: Introduction to the English Law of Contract for the Civil Lawyer. Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2007. p 8) Common law and equity Read the text about Common law. Choose one of the following notions: Norman Conquest Curia Regis, jury, Lord Chancellor and find information about it on the Internet. Then give a short presentation to your fellow-students. “The common law has been romantically and inaccurately described as the law of the common people of England. In fact, the common law emerged as

the product of a particular struggle for political power. Prior to the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, there was no unitary, national legal system. The emergence of the common law represents the imposition of such a unitary system under the auspices and control of a centralised power in the form of a sovereign king; in that respect, it represented the assertion and affirmation of that central sovereign power. Traditionally, much play is made about the circuit of judges travelling round the country establishing the Kings peace and, in so doing, selecting the best local customs and making them the basis of the law of England in a piecemeal but totally altruistic procedure. The reality of this process was that the judges were asserting the authority of the central State and its legal forms and institutions over the disparate and fragmented State and legal forms of the earlier feudal period. Thus, the common law was common to all in application, but certainly was not common from all.

By the end of the thirteenth century, the central authority had established its precedence at least partly through the establishment of the common law. Originally, courts had been no more than an adjunct of the Kings Council, the Curia Regis, but gradually the common law courts began to take on a distinct institutional existence in the form of the Courts of Exchequer, Common Pleas and Kings Bench. With this institutional autonomy, however, there developed an institutional sclerosis, typified by a reluctance to deal with matters that were not, or could not be, processed in the proper form of action. Such a refusal to deal with substantive injustices because they did not fall within the particular parameters of procedural and formal constraints, by necessity, led to injustice and the need to remedy the perceived weaknesses in the common law system”. 8 Source: http://www.doksinet ( Slapper, Garry - Kelly, David: The English Legal System. 13 ed, Routledge, London - New York, 2013. p

5-6) So, there were a number of serious defects with the early common law courts. They were obsessed with technical form, founded upon juries of ordinary people who were usually illiterate, and could offer for the most only monetary remedies. Appeal against a jury verdict was difficult. People who were disgruntled with the system could petition the king directly in his capacity as Fountain of Justice and the practice soon developed of the king passing such petitions to his Lord Chancellor. As a result, chancery slowly changed from a royal office to a royal court and the law administered in this court became known as Equity. From 1616 onwards equity was free to develop, which it did under the guidance of a number of notable Lord Chancellors, and by the 18th century Chancery had become just another court not so indistinguishable from the common law courts. That is to say equity had become a system of precedents and procedures itself lacking flexibility. Nevertheless equity as a system

of law remains in substance independent of the common law; only at the level of procedure are the two systems merged. (Based on Geoffrey Samuel: Common law. in: Elgar Encyclopedia of Comparative law (ed Smith, J M.) Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 2006 p 147-148) History of English Common Law Below is a brief history of English common law, including how it got its name and why there are juries, but the paragraphs have become mixed up on the word processor. Can you sort them out? Which words and phrases helped you put the paragraphs in order? Underline them. a) However, as local custom varied between different towns and villages, the king’s justices needed to talk to local people and this is the origin of juries. Juries were made up of local people and from them the justices could find out about local customs and make these customs law in the name of the king. b) There are a number of sources of English law, the newest one being legislation from the EEC. Every year there is more and

more legislation from parliament, but still a major source to guide the courts when they make a decision is the body of case law built up by justices since the Norman Conquest in the 11th century. This case law has English common law at its heart. c) William also started the important practice of sending members of his Royal Council out from Westminster to act as justices in all parts of the country. This type of hearing was attractive to both plaintiffs and defendants as they could avoid the corruption of local courts. d) When the justices returned to the royal courts at Westminster, they discussed the local variations they had found and moved towards more standard practice by excluding customs and practices they thought were unreasonable. At the same time, the principle of stare decisis (‘let the decision stand’) was introduced, which meant that the judges had to be guided by judgements made previously in similar cases. e) In this way, by 1250, common law (so-called because it

applies all over England and Wales) became a legal system with the principles which still apply today. 9 Source: http://www.doksinet f) William the Conqueror owned all England after his invasion in 1066, with his Norman lords and bishops holding the land as tenants. The Normans did not attempt to change the customary laws of the English, which showed a lot of variety anyway because of the influence of earlier invaders in different regions. William did separate lay courts and clerical courts however, so that from then on canon law (church law) was different from the law which governed ordinary people. (From Krisztina Pásztor & Caroline Moor: English for Law Students, Miskolc University, 1994) Put the words in the right order to make correct sentences. 1. a the of Chancellor Cabinet member the Lord is 2. Great the Keeper he Seal of the is 3. 16th been Lord the century since Chancellors have lawyers 4. Kingdom the of precedent still United a central is feature doctrine of the?

5. law do apply the judges merely not 6. French Code the refers to Napoleonic of entire the body law Equity Read the text below and answer the following questions: a) Why were some people discontented with the system of common law courts? b) Among others, what was the role of the Lord Chancellor with respect to unhappy litigants? c) Why was the Lord Chancellor followed by a lawyer in this role? d) Explain the common law joke concerning the Chancellor’s foot. e) What is the significance of the Judicature Acts (1873-75)? Origin The difficulty which was experienced in the common law courts in relation to the use of writs and the forms of action led to increasing dissatisfaction with the system. Litigants who were unable to get satisfaction from the courts turned to the monarch and petitioned her/him to do justice to her/his subjects and provide them with a remedy. The monarch handed these petitions on to the Lord Chancellor, who, as Keeper of the King’s Conscience and an ecclesiastic,

seemed to be a suitable person to deal with them. He set up his own Court of Chancery where he, or his representative, would sit to dispose of these petitions. In doing this work the Lord Chancellor would be guided by equity, or fairness, in coming to his decisions. Consequently, the legal decisions which succeeding Lord Chancellors made came to be known collectively as equity. The system seems to have become well established in the course of the fifteenth century. Because of the rapid increase in the judicial nature of the work, it was soon found necessary to have a lawyer as Lord Chancellor. The discretion vested in early Lord Chancellors gradually gave way to a system of judicial precedent in equity, but it was a long time before 10 Source: http://www.doksinet the common law joke died, about equity being long or short like the Chancellor’s foot. In practice both common law and equity came to operate as parallel systems, with each set of courts regarding itself as bound by its

own judicial precedents. (From Legal English Self-access Materials, Language Centre, University of Lapland, 2000) Development The division between the common law courts and the Courts of Equity continued until they were eventually combined by the Judicature Acts (1873-75). Prior to this legislation, it was essential for a party to raise an action in the appropriate court - for example, the courts of law would not implement equitable principles; the Acts, however, provided that every court had the power and the duty to decide cases in line with common law and equity, with the latter being paramount in the analysis.Common law remedies are available as of right Remedies in equity are discretionary: in other words they are awarded at the will of the court and depend on the behaviour and situation of the party claiming such remedies. This means that, in effect, court does not have to award an equitable remedy where it considers that the conduct the party seeking such an award has been such

that the party does not deserve it (D & C Builders v Rees (1965))." (Slapper, Garry - Kelly, David: The English Legal System. 13 ed, Routledge, London - New York, 2013. p 6-7) Find the words and expressions for the following terms in the text above. a) A legal document that orders a particular person to do or not to do a particular thing. . b) A person who makes a formal complaint about someone to a civil court of law. . c) To present a document .which asks that a particular thing be done . d) To succeed in dealing with a problem, a task or a question. . e) The freedom and authority to use one’s judgement to decide what to do. . f) To be obliged to do sg. g) A method available at law for the enforcement, protection or recovery of rights. 11 Source: http://www.doksinet Court of Chancery Read the following text and match the pictures with the information you have received. 1. 2. 3.

12 Source: http://www.doksinet 4. 5. 6. 13 Source: http://www.doksinet 7. The Court of Chancery was a court of equity in England and Wales that followed a set of loose rules to avoid the slow pace of change and possible harshness (or "inequity") of the common law. The Chancery had jurisdiction over all matters of equity, including trusts, land law, the administration of the estates of lunatics and the guardianship of infants. Its initial role was somewhat different, however; as an extension of the Lord Chancellors role as Keeper of the Kings Conscience, the Court was an administrative body primarily concerned with conscientious law. Thus the Court of Chancery had a far greater remit than the common law courts, whose decisions it had the jurisdiction to overrule for much of its existence, and was far more flexible. Until

the 19th century, the Court of Chancery could apply a far wider range of remedies than the common law courts, such as specific performance and injunctions, and also had some power to grant damages in special circumstances. With the shift of the Exchequer of Pleas towards a common law court, the Chancery became the only equitable body in the English legal system. For much of its existence the Court was formally led by the Lord Chancellor, assisted by the judges of the common law courts. The staff of the court included a large number of clerks, led by the Master of the Rolls, who regularly heard cases on his own. In 1813 a Vice-Chancellor was appointed to deal with the Chancerys increasing backlogs, and two more were appointed in 1841. Offices of the Chancery were sold by the Lord Chancellor for much of its history, raising large amounts of money. The Court of Chancery originated, as did the other High Courts before 1875, in the Norman curia regis or Kings Council, maintained by most

early rulers of England after 1066.[1] Under the feudal system, the Council was made up of the Monarch, the Great Officers of the Crown and anyone else the Monarch allowed to attend. Its jurisdiction was virtually unlimited, with executive, judicial and legislative functions. This large body contained lawyers, peers, and members of the Church, many of whom lived far from London. It soon became apparent that it was too unwieldy to deal with the nations day to day business. As a result a smaller curia was formed to deal with the regular business of the country, and this soon split into various courts: first the exchequer of pleas, to deal with finance, and then the Court of Common Pleas, to deal with "common" cases. The Chancery started as the personal staff of the Lord Chancellor, described as "a great secretarial bureau, a home office, a foreign office, and a ministry of justice". The earliest reference to legal issues being sent to him is from 1280, when Edward I

of England, annoyed with the number of cases coming to him which could have been dealt with by other elements of his administration, passed a statute saying that: all petitions that touch the Seal shall go first to the Chancellor, and those that touch the Exchequer to the Exchequer, and those that touch the justices or the law of the land to the 14 Source: http://www.doksinet justices, and those that touch the Jurie to the justices of the Jurie. And if the matters are so great, or so much of grace, that the Chancellor and the others cannot do what is asked without the King, then they shall take them to the King to know his will, and that no petition come before the King and his Council except by the hands of the said Chancellor and the other chief ministers; so that the King and his Council may be able, without the embarrassment of other business, to attend to the important business of his kingdom and his foreign lands. The Chancery came to prominence after the decline of the

Exchequer, dealing with the law of equity, something more fluid and adaptable than the common law. The early Court of Chancery dealt with verbal contracts, matters of land law and matters of trusts, and had a very liberal view when setting aside complaints; poverty, for example, was an acceptable reason to cancel a contract or obligation. Complaints were normally brought via a bill or petition, which had to show that the common law did not provide a remedy for the problem. The Chancery writs were in French, and later English, rather than the Latin used for common law bills. In the reign of Edward III, the Court found a fixed home at Westminster Hall, where it sat almost continually until its dissolution. Prior to this, the disposing of justice had been made difficult by the fact that the Lord Chancellor was required to travel with the King wherever he went. (https://en.wikipediaorg/wiki/Court of Chancery) Are the following statements true (T) or false (F)? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The basic

role of the Court of Chancery was to deal with cases concerning equity. The Lord Chancellor was the keeper of the King’s Conscience. The common law courts could revise the decisions of the Court of Chancery. The Lord Chancellor earned money on selling the offices of the Chancery. The Chancery was divided into smaller units, because its jurisdiction was unlimited. Some petitions could be sent to the king without the consent of the Lord Chancellor. Magna Carta (Runnymede 1215) Listen to the presentation on the Magna Carta (http://www.youtubecom/watch?v=FfAq0LpAmA) and fill in the missing words in the following sentences 15 Source: http://www.doksinet Steps leading to the Magna Carta: The barons put up with . The kings’ involved the following: kings had the right to noble marriages and to when a nobleman’s son his father’s estate. They granted barons gifts of and . The reason why the

barons King John to sign the Magna Carta is that he had his power. He didn’t reward barons for service, but kept them in check with and . He took noblemen’s sons as . He also his power as a matchmaker and forced the nobles into marriages they didn’t want. If they refused, they were , and if they couldn’t pay, he moved in and claimed their . The Magna Carta is the first document to protect people from the power of tyrannical kings. People can no more be without good reason, and they have the right to a fair . The Magna Carta helped to establish the of law Optional exercise: The Magna Carta may have served as an example for our Golden Bull, signed in 1222. Give a short comparison about the two documents: do not forget to refer to historical events, social backgrounds, common and different features. Grammar: Present tenses 1. Simple Present We can

use the Simple Present to talk about actions and situations in ‘general time’ – things which happen at any time, or repeatedly, or all the time: I read law at the faculty of law. We can also use the Present Simple to talk about the future. We do this a) after conjunctions: We will believe him whatever the witness says. b) when we talk about programmes or timetables: I start work tomorrow. 2. Present Continuous • • • We use the Present Continuous to talk about actions and situations ‘around now’: before, during and after the moment of speaking. What are you doing? I am reading a book on Equity. We also use the Present Continuous to talk about developing and changing situations: The circumstances at the university are getting better. Present continuous is used to talk about the near future: We are going to meet before the class begins. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Present or the Present Continuous tense. 1. English lawyers always (refer) to case-law even if

the facts of the case they (prepare) are covered by statute law and not common-law rules. 2. Judges (try) to decide controversies between litigants 3. When a judge (decide) a case, the decision (become) a precedent for future legal controversies. 4. Judges usually (listen to) the complaints of discontented litigants but today they (not listen) to them. 5. Judges (hear) the case tomorrow? 16 Source: http://www.doksinet 6. Some lawyers rarely go to court, but this morning they (go) there 7. I know that judges trying the case (leave for) the capital next week 8. This judge always (shout) at the defendants Present Perfect 1. Simple We use the Simple Present Perfect to say that something in the past is connected with the present in some way. The most frequent cases are: a) finished actions: result now. Somebody has shot the manager (=The manager is dead now) b) finished actions: time up to now. We have not had an accident yet c) repeated actions up to now. I have written 6 tests since

September d) actions and states continuing up to now. I have known the criminal since his childhood 2. Continuous We use the Present Perfect Continuous to talk about actions, states and situations which started in the past and still continue, or which have just stopped: We have been studying all day today. Present Perfect Continuous is often used with ’since’ or ’for’ to say how long something has been going on: I have been attending this course for ages. Use the right tense: Simple Past, Simple Continuous, Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous in the following sentences. 1. The system of equity (develop) in the 11th century 2. The unified common law and equity courts (exist) since the 19th century 3. We (read) the book about the Lord Chancellor two weeks ago 4. The power of the Lord Chancellor recently (decrease) 5. I (forget) to prepare for my Civil law exam but fortunately I (pass) 6. Our new professor (teach) Common law for 15 years Tegyen fel kérdést a

mondatok aláhúzott szavaira. 1. Judges have an enormous role in shaping American and British law 2. A jury decides on the facts of the case 3. Countries with civil law systems have comprehensive, continuously updated legal codes. 4. The litigants are standing before the court 5. The United Kingdom has been a monarchy since the Middle Ages 6. The Lord Chancellor is not the head of the judiciary any more 17 Source: http://www.doksinet Unit 1 – List of Terms abuse acknowledge act action adjudicate adjudication administration applicant apply appoint appointment approval approve arrest authoritative authority autocratic avoid backlog bill bind (bound, bound) binding blackmail breach cancel cancellation canon law charter clerical code codification codify 1 fn (a) vminek rossz célra való használata; (b) vmivel való visszaélés; 2 ige (a) vmit nem megfelelően használ, visszaél valamivel; (b) vkit rossz bánásmódban részesít, bántalmaz, elsősorban szexuálisan ige (a)

beismer, elfogad, elismer (b) tudomásul vesz, megerősít fn törvény, a törvényhozó szerv által hozott jogszabály fn (a) tett, eljárás, tevékenység (b) kereset, peres ügy ige (a) peres felek közt dönt (b) határoz, odaítél, megítél fn döntés, határozat fn (a) intézés, vezetés, igazgatás (b) gondnokság c) vezető testület fn kérvényező ige (a) kér, folyamodik (b) vonatkozik, alkalmaz ige kinevez fn (a) bejelentett találkozó; (b) kinevezés fn jóváhagyás ige (a) helyesel; (b) jóváhagy 1 fn őrizetbe vétel, letartóztatás 2 ige őrizetbe vesz, letartóztat mn (a) határozott, önkényeskedő (b) hiteles, mértékadó, irányadó fn (a) hatáskör, hatalom, felhatalmazás, jogosultság (b) hatóság mn egyeduralmi, zsarnoki ige (a) ki-/elkerül (b) vmit érvénytelenít, felbont fn restancia, elvégzésre váró munka fn (a) számla (b) adóslevél, kötelezvény, váltó (c) törvényjavaslat ige köt, kötelez mn kötelező erejű 1 fn zsarolás 2

ige zsarol 1 fn (a) megszegés (b) kötelezettségszegés 2 ige megszeg ige (a) visszavon, érvénytelenít (b) lemond (c) felbont fn (a) visszavonás, érvénytelenítés (b) lemondás (c) felbontás fn kánonjog fn statútum, alapszabály, okirat mn egyházzal kapcsolatos fn (a) törvénykönyv (b) egy állam törvényei, kódex fn (a) kodifikáció (b) egy témával foglalkozó jogszabályok és esetjogok egy törvénnyé szerkesztése ige kodifikál 18 Source: http://www.doksinet complain complaint conscientious consolidate consolidation constitute constitution constitutional constitutionality contract • enter into / conclude a contract contractual controversy court damages defendant derive (from) discontented discretion discretionary dispose (of) dispute dissolution dissolve effective • effective from enforce enforcement enlightenment equitable equity estate exchequer • the Court of Exchequer exclude • excluding executive explicitly fine ige panaszt tesz fn (a)

panasz, reklamáció (b) keresetlevél mn (a) lelkiismeretes (b) lelkiismereti ige (a) törvényeket összegyűjt (b) pereket egyesít fn (a) törvények egységes szerkezetbe szedése (b) perek egyesítésének eljárása ige alkot fn alkotmány mn alkotmányos fn alkotmányosság 1 fn szerződés 2 ige munkára szerződik ige szerződést köt mn (a) szerződésszerű (b) szerződésbe foglalt fn vita, polémia fn (a) királyi udvar (b) bíróság fn kárösszeg, kártérítés fn (a) alperes (b) vádlott ige származtat, származik (vmiből) mn elégedetlen, elkeseredett fn mérlegelés mn (a) önkényes, tetszés szerinti (b) diszkrecionális, szabad mérlegelés/megítélés szerinti ige (a) elrendez (b) intézkedik vmiről 1 fn vita, per, veszekedés 2 ige (a) vitat (b) megvitat fn felbontás, feloszlatás, megszűnés ige feloszlat, megszüntet, felbont mn hatékony mn hatályos -tól ige kikényszerít, végrehajt, érvényesít fn kikényszerítés, végrehajtás, alkalmazás,

érvényesítés fn (a) felvilágosítás (b) felvilágosodás mn igazságos, méltányos, jogos fn méltányosság rendszere az angol jogban fn (a) (föld)birtok, földtulajdon (b) hagyaték fn az UK-ban az a pénzalap, amely a kormányhoz befolyt összes jövedelmet tartalmazza fn megszűnt angol bíróság, amely beleolvadt a XIX. századi bírósági reform során a High Court of Justice Kings/Queens Bench-be ige kizár, kivesz hsz kizárván, kivéve, nem beleértve 1 mn végrehajtó, közigazgatási 2 fn (a) végrehajtó hatalom (b) ügyintéző, előadó, vezérigazgató, ügyvezető hsz kifejezetten 1 fn bírság, pénzbüntetés 2 ige megbírságol, 19 Source: http://www.doksinet force • remain in force fuse govern • governing body government grant guardian guardianship hear hearing hence hostage inherit inheritance inheritor initial injunction • interim injunction • interlocutory/temporary injunction interpret interpretation issue judge judgement judicial judiciary

jury • grand jury justice administer justice (administration of) justice law lawyer lay legal legislate legislation legislative legislator legislature limit litigant pénzbüntetést ró vkire 1 fn erő(szak), kényszer 2 ige erőltet ige hatályban marad (törvény) ige (a) összeolvad (b) összeolvaszt ige kormányoz, irányít fn kormányzó testület fn vezetés, kormány(zat) 1 fn (a) adomány (b) ösztöndíj 2 ige engedélyez fn (a) gyám (b) gondnok fn (a) gyámság (b) gondnokság ige tárgyal, bizonyítást meghallgat fn tárgyalás, meghallgatás, kihallgatás hsz (a) innen, ezentúl (b) ennélfogva, ezért, ebből eredően fn túsz ige örököl fn örökség fn örökös mn kezdeti fn felfüggesztő végzés, közbenső határozat fn ideiglenes intézkedés fn előzetes felfüggesztő végzés ige értelmez fn értelmezés 1 fn kérdés, ügy, vitapont 2 ige kibocsát 1 fn bíró 2 ige dönt fn döntés, határozat, ítélet mn bírói, bírósági fn bírói testület

fn esküdtszék fn (US) 12-24 tagú esküdtszék, amely a vádemelésről dönt fn (a) igazság (b) (~ of the peace) laikus bíró, helyi bíró, magisztrátus ige igazságot szolgáltat fn igazságszolgáltatás fn (a) jog, törvény (b) jogszabály fn ügyvéd, jogász mn laikus mn (a) jogos, törvényes, jogszerű (b) joggal kapcsolatos, jogi ige törvényt hoz fn törvény, törvényhozás mn törvényhozási fn törvényhozó fn törvényhozó szerv 1 fn határ, korlát 2 ige határt szab fn peres fél 20 Source: http://www.doksinet litigate litigation Lord Chancellor magistrate • Magistrates’ Court maintain Master of the Rolls matter • printed matter mediate mediation mediator merely misuse noble obligation on sy’s behalf override overrule pass • pass sentence patronage peer • hereditary peer • life peer • peeress peerage petition plaintiff plea • plea bargaining precedent presume presumption • presumption of innocence primarily principle prior (to)

procedural procedure reason reasonable reasoned ige pereskedik fn pereskedés fn brit igazságügy miniszter, a kabinet tagja fn laikus, fizetetlen bíró fn laikus bíróság ige (a) fenntart (b) eltart fn a fellebbviteli bíróság Civil Division főbírája, aki az ügyvédek felvételéért felelős 1 fn (a) probléma (b) tárgy, téma 2 ige fontos vmi, számít fn nyomtatvány ige közbenjár, közvetít fn közbenjárás, közvetítés, mediáció fn közvetítő, mediátor hsz csak, csupán, egyedül 1 fn (a) visszaélés (b) bántalmazás 2 ige (a) rosszul bánik vkvel (b) rosszul, helytelenül használ, alkalmaz vmit 1 mn nemes, előkelő 2 fn nemes(ember) fn kötelezettség hsz vki helyett, nevében érdekében ige fontosságban felülmúl ige fellebbviteli bíróság az alsóbb fokú döntést hatályon kívül helyezi 1 fn belépő, igazolvány 2 ige megszavaz ige ítéletet kiszab fn kormányállások vagy kitüntetések adásának joga fn Lordok Háza tagja fn öröklés

útján tag a Lordok Házában fn nem öröklés (kinevezés) útján tag a Lordok Házában fn Lordok Háza női tagja vagy egy tag felesége fn Lordok Háza tagság 1 fn kereset, kérelem 2 ige kérvényez, folyamodik fn felperes, panaszos fn (a) kifogás (b) vádra való felelet fn vádalku fn precedens ige feltételez, vélelmez fn feltételezés, vélelem fn ártatlanság vélelme hsz elsődlegesen fn alapelv mn előzetes mn eljárási fn eljárás fn indok, indoklás, magyarázat mn ésszerű, méltányos mn indokolt 21 Source: http://www.doksinet reign rely (on) remedy remit right rule • rule of law ruling seal seek (sought, sought) specific performance standard stare decisis statute statutory • statutory instrument subject • subject to succeeding supplement tenant threat threaten thus trust unification unify unreasonable vest Westminster • the Palace of Westminster writ(of summons) wrong • civil wrongs wrongful 1 fn uralkodás 2 ige uralkodik ige (a) megbízik

vkiben (b) függ vkitől 1 fn jogorvoslat (anyagi jogi értelemben) 2 ige jóvátesz ige börtönbüntetést enyhít fn jog, jogosultság 1 fn (a) szabály, előírás (b) kormányzat, uralom 2 ige (a) dönt, határozatot hoz (b) uralkodik fn joguralom, jogállamiság 1 mn (a) uralkodó (b) legfontosabb 2 fn határozat, döntés 1 fn (a) bélyegző (b) pecsét 2 ige (a) lezár (b) lepecsétel ige (a) kér, követel (b) keres, kutat fn szerződés teljesítésének bírói kikényszerítése 1 fn (a) szabvány, mérték (b) minőség, színvonal 2 mn szabványosított, általános lat „precedens alapján”, magasabb fokú bíróság ítéletének kötelező ereje fn törvény mn törvényes, törvényi fn jogszabály fn (a) tárgy (b) lakos, alattvaló mn (a) vmtől függően, vmi vminek a tárgya (b) vmnek kitett, vmi alá esik mn (a) utána következő (b) egymást követő 1 fn pótlás, pótlék kiegészítés 2 ige pótol, kiegészít fn bérlő fn fenyegetés ige fenyeget ksz

így, ekképpen 1 fn (a) bizalom (b) alapítvány, célvagyon (c) valakinek a javára rendelt vagyontömeg, amelyet más e személy érdekében kezel (d) őrizet, gondnokság 2 ige vkire rábízni vkit vagy vmit fn (a) egyesítés (b) egyesülés, unió ige (a) egyesít (b) egységessé tesz mn ésszerűtlen ige átruház, átszáll fn London parlamenti negyede fn a Parlament épülete fn idézés fn jogtalan, helytelen v. erkölcstelen cselekedet fn magánjogi személyi v. vagyoni sérelmek, polgári jogi jogsérelmek mn rossz, sértő, hibás 22 Source: http://www.doksinet UNIT 2 Sources and Classifications of Law What are the sources of UK law? Underline the sources of the English law mentioned in the text below. () When we consider the sources of UK law, we must consider that the UK is made up of four different countries and as a result the sources of law vary between those countries. Scotland has its own system of laws and courts and its own Parliament. Northern Ireland has a

similar system to that of England and Wales. England and Wales have the same legal system and laws passed by the UK Parliament automatically apply to Wales. The Welsh Assembly has created some measures resulting in different law in Wales, although this has yet to produce any significant differences. Ireland has a different legal system, so if you want legal advice in Ireland, you will need to find solicitors in Ireland, rather than using other UK solicitors. The main source of law for the UK is legislation, which is law passed by Parliament. Primary legislation will come into force following debate and subsequent approval in the House of Commons, approval in the House of Lords and will then receive Royal Assent if it is to become law. Secondary legislation is law made outside of Parliament where the power to make law has previously been granted by Parliament in a ‘Parent Act’. This means that Parliament delegates the power to make legislation to another body. Case law is another

important source of UK law. It is worth noting that while the case law governing England and Wales is the same, case law governing Scotland is different. English law has developed through case law with a decision of a court binding lower courts to enforce the same decision. The system of setting precedent ensures certainty in the law, as once a decision has been made on a point of law, that decision must be followed by other courts. EU law is also an important source of UK law. EU law can be made in a number of ways, including law in treaties, regulations, directions and decisions. These types of law are binding on Member States and must be adhered to. The European Court of Justice will also make decisions on cases that come from UK courts and the decisions will be binding. (http://solicitors.contactlawcouk/general-legal/what-are-the-sources-of-uk-law-99297html) Match the following sources of English law with their definitions. 1. EU law 2. Primary legislation 3. Secondary legislation

4. Case law 5. Custom a/ Also known as delegated legislation; this is made by a body other than Parliament, but under Parliament’s authority. It normally takes three forms, namely Bylaws, Statutory instruments and orders in Council. 23 Source: http://www.doksinet b/ Also commonly known as ‘judge-made ‘ law, as it comes from decisions made by the courts. c/ Also known as statute. This sort of legislation is enacted by Parliament d/ A source of law that is now of little significance. e/ After the accession the UK passed the power to make laws for the UK to Europe in certain, defined areas. (Based on: Slapper & Kelly. The English legal System, Routledge 2013-14) Collect the sources of Hungarian law. Classifications of law Criminal law - Civil law Public law - Private law Procedural law - Substantive law Common law - Civil Law 1/ is generally uncodified. This means that there is no comprehensive compilation of legal rules and statutes. While common law does rely on some

scattered statutes, which are legislative decisions, it is largely based on precedent, meaning the judicial decisions that have already been made in similar cases. Judges have an enormous role in shaping American and British law. Common law functions as an adversarial system, a contest between two opposing parties before a judge who moderates. A jury of ordinary people without legal training decides on the facts of the case. The judge then determines the appropriate sentence based on the jurys verdict. is codified. Countries have comprehensive, continuously updated legal codes that specify all matters capable of being brought before a court, the applicable procedure, and the appropriate punishment for each offense. Such codes distinguish between different categories of law: substantive law establishes which acts are subject to criminal or civil prosecution, procedural law establishes how to determine whether a particular action constitutes a criminal act, and penal law establishes the

appropriate penalty. The judges role 24 Source: http://www.doksinet is to establish the facts of the case and to apply the provisions of the applicable code. Though the judge often brings the formal charges, investigates the matter, and decides on the case, he or she works within a framework established by a comprehensive, codified set of laws. The judges decision is consequently less crucial in shaping civil law than the decisions of legislators and legal scholars who draft and interpret the codes. (Based on: http://www.lawberkeleyedu/library/robbins/CommonLawCivilLawTraditionshtml) 2/ - The branch of law which creates, defines and regulates peoples rights, duties, powers and liabilities; the actual rules and principles administered by the court including legislative and common law principles. - A body of rules prescribing the manner, form, and order in which matters are dealt with and enforced. (http://wiki.answerscom/Q/What is difference between procedural law and

substantive law) 3/ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Creates laws for the protection of the society as a whole and to maintain law and order Provides punishment for those who break the laws Sets out types of behaviour that are forbidden within a society Criminal cases must be proven beyond reasonable doubt Criminal cases are usually brought on behalf of the State At the end of a case, if the defendant is found guilty, he will be punished by the State 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Settles disputes between individuals/companies/corporations Civil cases are brought to uphold the rights of individuals and to provide redress A civil case is brought by an individual/company/corporation Civil cases only have to be proven on the balance of probabilities At the end of a case, the party at fault has to pay compensation or comply with another suitable remedy, such as an injunction 4/ 25 Source: http://www.doksinet Concerns the smooth running of a society and covers areas in everyday life such as work, business

dealings, employment, and education. Examples: law of tort, contract law, law of succession, employment law, property law, family law, labour law, commercial law, etc. Involves the state or government. There are three main types of law that fall into public law category: constitutional law, administrative law and criminal law. 1. Constitutional law - controls how the government operates; resolves any disputes over constitutional matters, for example, who is entitled to vote. 2. Administrative law - controls how Ministers of State and public bodies should operate and make decisions. 3. Criminal law - Criminal law is part of public law because a crime is regarded as an action against society and the state as a whole. (Based on: http://itslaw.blogspothu/2012/07/classifications-of-lawhtml) Criminal and Civil Law One way of classifying and understanding the law is by subject matter. Lawyers often divide the law and the legal system into two: criminal law and civil law. A simple distinction

between the criminal law and the civil law is that the latter regulates the relationships between individuals or bodies and the former regulates the legal relationships between the state and individual people and bodies. Classify the following terms into the appropriate categories below. Some terms can appear in both categories compensation, contract, crime, damages, family law intellectual property, plaintiff, police, private individual, prosecution, the accused, the defendant, theft, to bring a case, Criminal Civil 26 Source: http://www.doksinet to charge someone with something plaintiff Now complete the following text contrasting criminal and civil law by choosing from the words/phrases above. The first letter of the missing words is given Criminal Law vs. Civil Law One category is the criminal law – the law dealing with crime. A case is called a p . The case is instituted by the prosecutor, who takes over the case from the p who have already decided to c

the defendant (or a ) with specified crimes. The civil law is much more wide-ranging The civil law includes the law of c and f l . In a civil case, the p , normally a p i or company, b an a to win c . If the case is proven (on the balance of probabilities, meaning that one is more sure than not), the defendant normally pays the plaintiff d (money). (From Nick Brieger: Test your Professional English: Law, Pearson Education Limited, 2002) Civil or Criminal Certain activities can be both crimes and civil wrongs. If you punch someone else on the nose and cause it to bleed you could be prosecuted for a crime of assault. you could be ordered to pay damages for the injury caused. A good example is the case of O.J Simpson Simpson was prosecuted for murder He was acquitted but has since been ordered to pay millions of dollars’ worth of damages following a civil trial to the relatives of his ex-wife. If

you are interested in the O.J Simpson case, visit any of the following pages, and make a short summary of the case. 27 Source: http://www.doksinet Branches of law There are many branches of law. Different university programmes emphasize different branches and students can choose different courses according to their own interests. Link each branch of law below with the best explanation: Administrative Law B Law of Tort Law of C Property A D Family Law E Contract Law Constitutional Law Law of G Succession Civil H Procedure 1) law which governs the rights and duties of husband/wife or parent/child 2) rules which control the structure and function of government 3) law which decides if a promise is legally enforceable 4) law which decides how a person’s property will be divided after his/her death 5) law which covers the rights people have over land and other property F 6) law which covers civil wrongs not covered by breach of contract I 7) law which concerns the way that

persons are affected by the instruments of government 8) law which places emphasis on crimes against persons, property and society 9) law which covers the theory and rules governing the litigation process Criminal Law (From Krisztina Pásztor & Caroline Moor: English for Law Students, Miskolc University, 1994) What branches of law do the following glossary extracts define? Choose from the following branches (2 branches have no definition counterpart): Company law, Roman law, Administrative law, Legal History, Family law, Conflict of laws, Conveyancing law, Labour law, Constitutional law, International law, Law of tort, Jurisprudence, 1. is the science or philosophy of law – the study of fundamental questions of law in general, not the explanation, criticism or application of the law of a particular system. 28 Source: http://www.doksinet 2. is the law relating to the legal structure of government in a State. It defines the

principal organs of government and their relationship to each other and to the individual. 3. is the area of law relating to the functions and power of government organisations (not the supreme executive and legislature) and how they operate in practice to administer government policy. 4. is the study of the origins and historical development of a particular legal system or legal systems, principles and institutions in general. 5. is the area of law relating to the organisation of the family and the legal relations of its members. 6. is the area of law of each legal system which regulates how to deal with cases involving a foreign element. Also called Private International Law or International Private Law. 7. is the area of law relating to the practical transfer of property, especially land. 8. is the area of law relating to the

employment of workers. It includes their contracts and conditions of work, trade unions and the legal aspects of industrial relations. Also called Industrial Law 9. is the system of law, which regulates relations between States. It is a special system of legal rules which is not part of any national system of law. Also called Public International Law (Not related to Private International Law) 10. is the area of law relating to businesses organised as companies. It includes the formation and ending of companies, their legal status and the duties of their members. (Based on Alison Riley: English for Law, Macmillan, 1991) What branches of law do you deal with during your studies? Choose one of them and write a short definition about it. Then without giving the name of the branch, make your partner guess it. 29 Source: http://www.doksinet A special branch of law: Tort Translate the following dictionary entry into Hungarian. Take

special care of the expressions underlined in the text. Tort in common law, civil law, and the vast majority of legal systems that derive from them, any instance of harmful behaviour, such as physical attack on one’s person, interference with one’s possessions, or the use and enjoyment of one’s land, economic interests (under certain conditions), honour, reputation, and privacy. The term derives from Latin tortum, meaning “something twisted, wrung, or crooked.” The concept encompasses only civil wrongs independent of contracts. Other legal systems use different terminology for this wide and amorphous area of the law. Germans, for example, talk of unlawful acts, and French-inspired systems use interchangeably the terms délits (and quasi-délits) and extra-contractual civil responsibility. Despite differences of terminology, however, this area of the law is primarily concerned with liability for behaviour that the legal order regards as socially unacceptable, typically

warranting the award of damages to the injured party or, occasionally, an injunction. (http://www.britannicacom/EBchecked/topic/600206/tort) Tort diagram Study the table below and give an outline of English tort. Tort, ordered by type of misconduct and type of injury Land Chattels Bodily safety and security Economic interests generally Intention to harm (or ‘malice’) Lack of care Trespass to land Negligence / Private nuisance Trespass to goods, Conversion Negligence Assault and battery, False imprisonment Negligence ‘Breach of statutory duty’ Economic torts Negligence, Public nuisance Specific statutes 30 Strict liability Rylands v Fletcher and liability for fire Source: http://www.doksinet Reputation Defamation in cases of qualified privilege, Malicious falsehood ‘Unintentional defamation’, Negligence Defamation (Hedley & Padfield: Tort, OUP 2008) Optional exercise: 1. Listen to the top cases of negligence and make a summary of one of them in

Hungarian McDonalds Hot Coffee Case: Snail in the Ginger Beer Case: (explained by a Scottish person) 2. Listen to the dialogue and take notes on the main elements of negligence mentioned Grammar: Future Tense Simple Future, going to, Present Continuous ‘Will’ expresses pure futurity, when the futurity depends on external circumstances. Present Continuous also refers to definite future, the time of which is fairly immediate. ‘Going to’ colours the future with intention or a feeling of certainty in the mind of the speaker. Examples: During your studies you will learn about several legal topics. In this lesson we are dealing with civil matters. Look out! The criminal is going to shoot at the crowd. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the future, using will or going to or present continuous. Sometimes more than one solution is possible 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A successful criminal prosecution .

(result) in a conviction The plaintiff (take) legal action to recover the loss. If the plaintiff is successful, the defendant (be found) liable. If the defendant is found liable, the court . (order) him to pay compensation The prosecuting lawyer (meet) the criminal before the trial. The defendant . (see) his lawyer tomorrow at 10 o’clock Future Continuous The Future Continuous (will be doing) is used to talk about an activity that will be in progress at a particular moment in the future. I’m afraid I can’t see you on 22nd because I will be attending a training course in England. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Jövő héten ebben az időben éppen vizsgázni fogok 2. Kedden lesz a büntetőügy tárgyalása 31 Source: http://www.doksinet 3. Tíz ember fog tanúvallomást tenni 4. Jövő hónapban nem találkozhatunk, mert börtönben leszek Future Perfect We use the Future Perfect (will have done), and a time phrase with by, to talk about something that

will be completed before a particular time in the future. I will have finished my thesis by August. I will finish the last chapter of my thesis on ‘Crime in Hungary’ in July. Simple Future or Future Perfect tense? Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate tense: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In a fortnight’s time we (take) our state exam in EC law. By the end of this term I (read) all 2 volumes of the book on ‘Labour Law’. Don’t worry about the exam. I (help) you I don’t think I (come) to the lecture. By the end of my university course I (attend) 600 lectures. 32 Source: http://www.doksinet Unit 2 – List of Terms accusation accuse accused acquit acquittal adhere to administer • administer justice Administrative law adversarial system/accusatorial system affect allegation allege apply (to) approval approve assault assembly • general assembly award • award damages be capable of (doing sg) beyond reasonable doubt bind (bound, bound) breach breach of contract bring a

case bring an action (against sy) burglar burglary charge (sy with sg) civil procedure civil wrongs code codify come into force Company law compensate compensation fn vád(olás) ige vádol fn vádlott ige bűnösség hiányában felment fn felmentés ige ragaszkodik vmihez ige irányít, vezet, igazgat ige igazságot szolgáltat fn közigazgatási jog fn akkuzatórius eljárás (vádelvű eljárás) (a szokásjogot alkalmazó országokban szokásos eljárás, melyben a felek kötelessége a bizonyítékok előteremtése) ige befolyásol, hatással van fn (bizonyítandó) állítás ige (bizonyítandóan) állítja vminek az igaz voltát ige vonatkozik vmire, érvényes fn jóváhagyás, beleegyezés ige jóváhagy hivatalosan 1 fn (a) testi sértéssel, támadással való fenyegetés, veszélyeztetés, (b) testi sértés, bántalmazás, támadás 2 ige megtámad, bántalmaz fn gyülekezés, gyűlés fn közgyűlés 1 fn döntés, ítélet 2 ige megítél, odaítél, juttat ige

kártérítést megítél mn (a) képes vmire (b) alkalmas vmire hsz kétséget kizáróan (bizonyíték, amelynek alapján a vádlottat el lehet ítélni) ige köt, kötelez 1 fn (a) megszegés (b) kötelezettségszegés 2 ige megszeg fn szerződésszegés ige pert, eljárást indít vki ellen, beperel ige pert indít, keresetet ad be (vki ellen) fn betörő fn betörés 1 fn vád 2 ige vádol vkt vmivel fn polgári eljárás fn polgári jogi jogsérelmek fn (a) törvénykönyv (b) egy állam törvényei, kódex ige kodifikál ige hatályba lép fn társasági jog ige kárt megtérít, kártalanít fn (a) kártérítés, megtérítés, jóvátétel, kártalanítás (b) US fizetés, bér 33 Source: http://www.doksinet compensatory damages comply (with) comprehensive condition Conflict of laws constitute Constitutional law contest contract Contract law crime criminal Criminal law damages debate decision defendant delegate • delegated legislation direct direction divide division

draft duty emphasis emphasize employ employee employer employment enforce enforceable enforcement executive fact • false • facts of the case false imprisonment fn megítélt reparatív (kompenzáló) kártérítés ige megfelel vminek, engedelmeskedik mn átfogó fn (a) feltétel (b) állapot fn jogok ütközése, kollíziós jog (nemzetközi magánjog) ige alkot fn alkotmányjog 1 fn (a) harc, küzdelem (b) verseny (c) vita, vitatkozás 2 ige (a) kétségbe von, megvitat (b) megtámad, perbe száll (c) vitatkozik, verseng 1 fn szerződés 2 ige munkára szerződik fn szerződések joga fn (a) bűncselekmény (b) bűneset, bűnözés 1 mn (a) jogellenes (b) bűnös (c) büntetőjogi 2 fn bűnös, bűnöző fn büntetőjog fn kárösszeg, kártérítés 1 fn vita 2 ige megvitat fn (a) határozat, polgári perben hozott döntés (b) döntés, elhatározás fn (a) alperes (b) vádlott 1 fn küldött 2 ige felhatalmaz, (jogkört) átruház fn törvényi felhatalmazással kiadott

rendelet (meghozása) ige útmutató magyarázatot ad (esküdteknek) fn bíró útmutató magyarázata az esküdtszéknek ige feloszt fn (a) felosztás, megosztás (b) bírói tanács, kollégium 1 fn (a) vázlat, terv, piszkozat, tervezet (b) váltó 2 ige megszerkeszt, megír, megtervez (okiratot) fn (a) kötelezettség (b) feladat, szolgálat (c) adó, illeték, vám fn nyomaték, érzelmi hangsúly ige hangsúlyoz, kiemel ige alkalmaz, foglalkoztat fn alkalmazott, munkavállaló fn munkáltató, munkaadó fn alkalmazás, foglalkoztatás ige kikényszerít, végrehajt, érvényesít mn érvényesíthető, végrehajtható, perelhető fn kikényszerítés, végrehajtás, alkalmazás 1 mn végrehajtó, közigazgatási 2 fn (a) végrehajtó hatalom (b) ügyintéző, előadó, vezérigazgató, ügyvezető fn tény fn tényállás mn hamis fn jogellenes fogvatartás 34 Source: http://www.doksinet Family law find (found, found) • find for sy findings fine govern government grant guilt

guilty investigate inflict injunction • interim injunction • interlocutory/temporary injunction injure • injured party injury inquisitorial system institute instrument insurance insure intellectual property International law interpret interpretation investigate judge jurisprudence jury Labour law Law of property, Law of succession Law of tort Legal history legal status legislate legislation legislative legislator legislature liability liable fn családjog ige (a) talál, (b) dönt, ítél ige vki javára dönt fn (bírói, bírósági) ténymegállapítás 1 fn bírság, pénzbüntetés 2 ige megbírságol, pénzbüntetést ró vkire ige kormányoz, irányít fn vezetés, kormány(zat) 1 fn segély 2 ige megad, engedélyez fn bűn mn bűnös ige nyomoz, kivizsgál ige (a) kiró, kiszab (b) okoz (sebet, fájdalmat) fn felfüggesztő végzés, közbenső határozat fn ideiglenes intézkedés fn előzetes felfüggesztő végzés ige (a) megsért (b) sérülést okoz (c) megsérül

fn (a) károsult személy (b) sérelmet szenvedett fél fn (a) jogsértés (b) sérülés, baleset fn inkvizitórius eljárás, római jogot alkalmazó országokban szokásos eljárás, ahol a vizsgáló feladata a nyomozás és a bizonyítékok előteremtése 1 fn intézet 2 ige alapít, elindít, megindít fn jogi irat, okmány fn biztosítás, biztosítási szerződés ige biztosít fn szellemi tulajdon, szerzői jogi védelem alatt álló mű fn nemzetközi jog ige értelmez fn értelmezés fn nyomozás, kivizsgálás 1 fn bíró 2 ige dönt fn jogtudomány fn esküdtszék fn munkajog fn tulajdonjog fn öröklési jog fn szerződésen kívüli károkozás joga fn jogtörténet fn jogi helyzet, jogállás ige törvényt hoz fn törvény, törvényhozás mn törvényhozási fn törvényhozó fn törvényhozó szerv fn felelősség mn jogilag felelős 35 Source: http://www.doksinet libel litigate litigation malpractice measure murder negligence negligent nuisance offence offender

on the balance of probabilities oppose parent Act/enabling Act/empowering Act pass • pass sentence penal penalty perpetrate perpetrator primary plaintiff policy power precedent principal private individual Private International Law /International Private Law procedural law procedure product liability property • personal property • real property prosecute prosecution prove provision Public International Law punish punishment 1 fn (a) tort igény esetén becsületsértés, jó hírnév megsértése (b) büntetőjogban rágalmazás, becsületsértés2 ige (a) jó hírnevet sért (b) rágalmaz ige pereskedik fn pereskedés fn foglalkozási szabályszegés 1 fn (a) mérték) (b) intézkedés 2 ige megmér, vmilyen méretű(nek lenni) fn szándékos emberölés, gyilkosság fn hanyagság, gondatlanság, mulasztás mn hanyag, gondatlan fn háborgatás, birtokháborítás fn bűncselekmény, szabálysértés fn bűnelkövető, tettes, elkövető hsz mindent összevetve mi a

valószínűbb, az eshetőségeket összevetve ige ellenez fn felhatalmazó törvény 1 fn belépő, igazolvány 2 ige megszavaz ige ítéletet kiszab mn büntető fn büntetés ige elkövet fn bűnelkövető mn elsődleges, eredeti, közvetlen fn felperes, panaszos fn irányvonal, vezetés, politika fn (a) hatalom, képesség (b) felhatalmazás, meghatalmazás, jogkör, hatáskör fn precedens fn (a) főnök, vezető, igazgató (b) fő, legfontosabb fn magánszemély fn nemzetközi magánjog fn eljárási jog fn eljárás fn termékfelelősség fn (a) tulajdon (b) dolog, tulajdon tárgyai fn személyi tulajdon fn ingatlan ige (a) vádat emel (b) vádlottal szemben a vádat képviseli fn (a) bűnvádi eljárás (b) vádemelő (c) vádképviselet ige bizonyít fn (a) fedezet, tartalék (b) intézkedés fn nemzetközi közjog ige büntet fn büntetés 36 Source: http://www.doksinet punitive damages regardless of regulate regulation • regulations relating to rely on remedy reputation

Roman law Royal Assent rule rule of law ruling secondary sentence • pass sentence on someone society solicitor • Solicitor-General source specific performance specify statute statutory • statutory instrument subject • subject to subsequent substantial substantive • substantive law suppress supreme theft • petty theft thief Tort law tortfeasor trade union transfer trespass • trespass to goods fn büntető kártérítés, elrettentő kártérítés, a kár tényleges mértékét meghaladó kártérítés hsz tekintet nélkül ige (a) beállít, igazít (b) szabályoz fn szabályozás, igazítás, beállítás fn szabályok, szabályzat hsz összefüggő, kapcsolatos vmivel, vmire vonatkozó ige megbízik vkiben, számít vkire, támaszkodik vkire 1 fn jogorvoslat (anyagi jogi értelemben) 2 ige jóvátesz fn jóhír, megbecsülés fn római jog fn királyi szentesítés, beleegyezés 1 fn (a) szabály, előírás (b) kormányzat, uralom 2 ige (a) határozatot hoz (b)

uralkodik fn joguralom, jogállamiság 1 mn (a) uralkodó (b) legfontosabb 2 fn határozat, döntés mn másodlagos 1 fn büntetés, ítélet 2 ige büntetést kiszab ige vkire büntetést kiszab fn (a) társadalom (b) társaság, egyesület fn (UK) ügyvéd fn (UK) az Alsóház tagja, az Attorney General (legfőbb államügyész) helyettese fn forrás fn szerződés teljesítésének bírói kikényszerítése ige részletez, meghatároz fn törvény mn törvényes, törvényi fn jogszabály fn (a) tárgy (b) lakos, alattvaló mn (a) vmtől függően, vmi vminek a tárgya (b) vmnek kitett, vmi alá esik mn (a) utólagos, pótlólagos (b) következő mn jelentős, tetemes mn tényleges, lényegi fn anyagi jog ige (a) eltitkol, elhallgat (b) elnyom, lever mn legfelsőbb, legfőbb, legfontosabb fn lopás fn kis értékre elkövetett lopás fn tolvaj fn szerződésen kívüli károkozás joga fn károkozó fn szakszervezet 1 fn átruházás, átutalás 2 ige (a) áthelyez (b) átszáll 1

fn birtokháborítás (tort) 2 ige birtokában mást zavar áruban kár okozása 37 Source: http://www.doksinet • trespass to land • trespass to person trial try verdict • reach a verdict/return a verdict violate violation wil(l)ful ingatlan birtokháborítás személy sértése, zavarása fn (a) tárgyalás (b) próba ige tárgyal (ügyet), bíróság elé állít 1 fn (a) ítélet (b) halottszéki tárgyaláson hozott döntés 2 ige ítéletet hoz bűnösség és ártatlanság kérdésében ige megszeg fn szabályszegés mn szándékos, előre megfontolt 38 Source: http://www.doksinet UNIT 3 Legal studies Training for solicitors and barristers Legal study remains strong in the nation that originated the common law system. This article outlines the process of becoming a barrister or solicitor in the United Kingdom and explores rankings of the UK’s top law programs. Read the following article and based on the information fill in the diagram below. Unlike in the US,

where law is solely a postgraduate pursuit, many UK students study law as undergraduates, earning an LL.B or a BA A standard LLB undergraduate law course takes three years to complete. To qualify as a barrister or solicitor students are required to obtain a ‘qualifying law degree’. For an LLB to meet the requirements of a ‘qualifying law degree’ the course must cover legal research skills and the seven foundation subjects: • Obligations I (Contract Law) • Obligations II (Tort Law) • Foundations of Criminal Law • Foundations of Equity & the Law of Trusts • Foundations of the Law of the European Union • Foundations of Property Law • Foundations of Public Law Others study a different undergraduate subject and then pursue a one-year conversion course called the “Common Professional Examination” (CPE) or “Graduate Diploma in Law” (GDL) that covers the basic areas of law: torts, contracts, criminal law, public law, equity and trusts, and European Union

law. Next, aspiring lawyers must complete a one-year practical training course, followed by a period of on-the-job training. To be a solicitor you do the one year Legal Practise Course, this costs around £5,000-£9,000. After this the solicitor needs to do a training course for two years. During this time the solicitor will get paid around £15,000. After this you are a fully qualified solicitor A commercial solicitor earns an average of £40,000. There is a brief post qualification course for 20 days. A barrister is self-employed in chambers When becoming a barrister you must join one of 4 inns: Lincolns Temple, Inner Temple, Middle Temple or Grays Inn. A barrister must complete a Bar Vocational Course (around £15,000). Here the trainee will have to dine 12 times at one of the inns although in practise it is much less (around 3 times). Once this course has been passed a student will be called to the bar. A pupillage is then to be completed. It consists of 2 six-month contracts in a

barrister’s chambers and the pay is normally around £7-8,000. The wages vary too much depending on the area of law and whether you are prosecution or defence. It is more difficult to become a barrister you need a first or second degree but in practise it is only those who come from a top uni (i.e oxbridge) that succeed in getting pupillages. It is possible for barristers and solicitors to progress to become a QC but for solicitors it is much less likely. Based on: http://www.ibanetorg/PPID/Constituent/Student Committee/qualify lawyer EnglandWalesaspx and http://uk.answersyahoocom/question/index?qid=20100523135016AAQ9q9P 39 Source: http://www.doksinet A degree other than English law A degree in English law 1. If you intend to become a barrister If you intend to become a solicitor 2. 4. 5. 3. 6. Admission as a solicitor Obtain tenancy Comments: 40 Source: http://www.doksinet The Bar Vocational Course means

studying at one of the four Inns of Court: Inner Temple, Middle Temple, Gray’s Inn or Lincoln’s Inn. Students are required to eat a number of dinners in the Great Hall of their Inn of Court. This tradition dates from the days when students received their legal education by attending lectures which were given while they were dining in Hall. Gray’s Inn Lincoln’s Inn Middle Temple Inner Temple Call to the Bar is a ceremony that takes place in Hall, at which newly qualified barristers are formally admitted to the profession. Admisson as a solicitor or “admission to the Rolls” means that the names of newly qualified solicitors will be entered on the roll (list) of solicitors permitted to practise. Tenancy means finding a permanent place in chambers. If the newly qualified barrister cannot find a place, he is forced to “squat” - he has to remain in his pupillage chamber without becoming a full member. A Note on Practicing in the UK For those who hold foreign law degrees but

want to practice in the UK, the situation is complicated. The UK actually has three legal systems, with separate laws for England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. US-trained lawyers can generally work in the UK without any additional qualifications or training, as long as they only advise on US law typically in a finance-related capacity. Becoming qualified to practice UK law is more involved. In England, would-be solicitors with at least two years of common law practice experience can take the Qualified Lawyers Transfer Test. Those without work experience must complete a two-year training contract To qualify as a barrister, foreign-trained lawyers must have passed a bar exam and completed three years of common law court experience. A lawyer would also need UK work status and must obtain a pupilage in a barrister’s chamber no easy feat. Scotland has two sets of transfer tests for lawyers wishing to re-qualify: one for solicitors qualified in other UK jurisdictions, and

one for EU lawyers. Those trained or qualified in other countries (such as the US) should contact the Law Society of Scotland for guidance on their qualification processes. In Northern Ireland, solicitors looking to transfer jurisdictions must submit an application that certifies their good standing and experience in a common law country; those whose applications are accepted usually have to complete a course and apprenticeship period. As in England, becoming a barrister is much more difficult Big law firms are becoming increasingly international. Many of the top US-based firms have offices in London or have combined with British firms, as in the recent merger of Hogan & Hartson and Lovells to form Hogan Lovells. Similarly, a multitude of British firms including four of the five prestigious “Magic Circle” firms have expanded into other countries. For American lawyers who want to work in the UK, the best route may be to work in a US office of a multinational firm and then

request a transfer to a British office. Likewise, some solicitors who started their legal careers in England are now practicing in the US, especially in New York. Based on: 41 Source: http://www.doksinet http://www.ibanetorg/PPID/Constituent/Student Committee/qualify lawyer EnglandWalesaspx and http://uk.answersyahoocom/question/index?qid=20100523135016AAQ9q9P Based on the text above choose the right answers: A 1. Lawyers with a US law degree can undertake any legal work in the UK 2. American lawyers pursuing their profession in the UK can deal with American clients only. 3. Lawyers possessing a US law degree can deal with matters concerning US law B 1. If you have a foreign law degree, it is easier to work as a lawyer in the UK if you have a 2-3-year practice 2. As a lawyer with a foreign law degree you have no chance to work as a lawyer in the UK. 3. If you can find a place in a chamber, you can work as a lawyer even if you

have a foreign law degree. C 1. Rules for getting a job as a lawyer are the same in Scotland and Wales 2. You can work as a lawyer under the same requirements in England and Northern Ireland. 3. Requirements to work as a lawyer are different in all the countries of the UK D 1. With an English law degree you can undertake legal work in the US 2. As an American lawyer you have to work in an international office to be entitled to deal with multinational cases. 3. English lawyers like to practice in Ney York Situation: Studying in the UK as a foreign student Act out the following situation with a colleague in English. Helyszín: Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Jogtudományi Kar 42 Source: http://www.doksinet 1. Ön magyar joghallgató, aki szívesen folytatná tanulmányait egy angol egyetemen Érdeklődjön angol diáktársától a feltételekről! - Kérdezze meg, van-e felvételi vizsga. - Mit jelent az A-level? - Milyen nyelvi követelmények vannak? - A jegyeken és a nyelvtudáson

kívül vannak-e egyéb követelmények? - Sikeres felvételi esetén kaphat-e támogatást vagy ösztöndíjat? - Milyenek az elhelyezkedési lehetőségek? 2. Ön angol joghallgató, aki Magyar kollégájának ad felvilágosítást az angol egyetemi oktatásról. Válaszoljon a kérdésekre! - Az EU-s bolognai rendszer bevezetése óta elfogadják a magyar emelt szintű érettségit a BA/BSc felvételi folyamatban. A jobb egyetemek jobb karaira három-négy emelt szintű vizsgával lehet bejutni. - Az emelt szintű érettségi vizsgák brit megfelelője, az A-levels vizsgák, ezeket feltétlenül érdemes letenni. A legtöbb vizsga ma is két részből áll; egy írásbeli és egy szóbeli részből - Leginkább az IELTS Academic nyelvvizsgát követelik meg az egyetemek, de sok helyen elfogadják a TOEFL vagy Cambridge Proficiency vagy Advanced bizonyítványokat is. - Az Egyesült Királyságban a jegyeken túl sokat számít a személyiség és a motiváció a BA/BSc, a Masters,

MBA, LLM és PhD képzésekre való jelentkezésnél. - Minden jelentkezőnek egy vagy több motivációs esszét (Personal Statement) kell csatolnia az online jelentkezéshez. Csatolni kell továbbá, szaktól és egyetemtől függően, egy vagy több tanári referencia levelet is. - Az éves tandíj összege az egyetemtől és a képzéstől függ, de a legtöbb esetben fel lehet venni egy tandíj hitelt (Tuition Fee Loan) a brit kormánytól és ezt már csak akkor kell majd nagyon kicsi részletekben visszafizetni, ha az egyetem elvégzése után a friss diplomás havi 630 000 Ft – nál többet keres. University of Pécs, Faculty of Law Prepare a short presentation about your faculty with the help of the following guidelines: - The history of the faculty - Departmental structure - Training and degree programmes - Academic staff and prominent students - Library and informatics - International connections - Student life Skills required to study Law at University List the skills

and abilities you think a law student should possess. Listen to the following presentation and compare the skills you have choosen with that of the speaker’s opinion: 43 Source: http://www.doksinet What about the following diagram? Are these activities typical of Hungarian law students as well? Academic qualifications Complete the sentences (a-k) by using (once only) each of the words below: degree doctorate graduated studied Masters post-graduate graduate passed trainee took undergraduate a) I’m a law . b) I have a . in law c) I in 1990 from Edinburgh University. d) I . law for five years e) I .my exams two years ago and was awarded my degree f) I . my final exams a month ago, I’m waiting for the results g) I’m still studying at university for my first degree, I’m an h) When I’ve got my first degree, I’d like to do a i) I got my degree last year, now I’m doing . studies j) I have a . (PhD) in International law k) I’m working as

a legal in a law firm. (From Krisztina Pásztor & Caroline Moor: English for Law Students, Miskolc University, 1994) 44 Source: http://www.doksinet The layout of formal letters http://www.goodletterwritingcouk/formal-lettershtml Notes: 1. If you don’t know the name of the person you’re writing to, begin the letter with Dear Sir or Madam and finish with Yours faithfully (Sincerely yours or Yours truly in American English). 2. If you know the name of the person you’re writing to, begin with Dear Mr Roberts, Dear Ms Cooper, Dear Mrs Williams or Dear Miss Thomas, and finish with Yours sincerely (Sincerely yours). 3. The letter should be written in a formal style so you should not use contractions – write I am and do not and NOT I’m and don’t. Useful expressions (letter of request/application): Reason for writing: • • • • I am writing to receive further information about I am writing to enquire about I am writing to receive more detailed information about I am

writing to receive further details about 45 Source: http://www.doksinet Requesting first piece of information: • The first thing I would like to know is • First of all I would like to know • I wonder if you would mind telling me first of all .? Requesting further information: • • • • • • • • Could you also tell me.? Could you also inform me .? Would you also mind informing me .? Would you also mind telling me .? Do you know .? I would also like to know if I would also like to know whether I hope you might also let me know about Thanking for information: I would like to thank you in advance for this information • • Thanking you in advance for this information Thanking you in advance Based on the university prospectus below, write a formal letter to the university. Give your personal details and academic qualifications, including your level of English. Include information about your extra activities in the field and about your interests. Ask for

information about studying at the university as a foreign student, whether your exams and qualifications are accepted, and about the subjects you should study. You can also choose from the following expressions: to be admitted to . to go to university to choose optional courses to study law/to attend courses to be interested in . areas of law to learn languages to apply for a scholarship to get a degree to do research work to do MBA to get a job (with) to work (as) 46 for year(s) when in then meanwhile/while years ago Source: http://www.doksinet Law (3 Years) [LLB] Selected entry requirements A-level: Grades AAA. Two AS levels are not accepted in place of one A Level. We prefer to see at least 2 traditional subjects in your ALevel choices, however we welcome all subjects from Arts, Humanities, Mathematics & Science provided they have an academic content of at least 70%. We do not accept General Studies or Critical Thinking. Unit grade information: The University of

Manchester welcomes the provision of unit grade information which, like all other available information, will inform the consideration of applications. Unit grades will not normally form part of offer conditions, except for Mathematics programmes. GCSE: Strong overall profile with a minimum of grade A in English Language and a B in Maths. Key Skills qualification: The University warmly welcomes applications from students studying the Key Skills qualification. However, as the opportunities to take these modules are not open to all applicants, currently this is not an essential requirement of the University. Course description The LLB is the largest undergraduate degree course offered by the Law School. It covers the core subjects of legal study and provides you with an extensive range of optional subjects to suit your particular interests and career plans. It is a qualifying law degree and thus provides exemption from the Common Professional Examination (CPE) which is otherwise required

by students who wish to become barristers or solicitors. In the first year you study six course units, three in each semester. These will be Legal Method; Contract, Public Law I; Public Law II; Criminal Law and Tort. In the second year you also study six course units across the two semesters. Four of these will be compulsory: Equity and Trusts; Land Law; European Union Law and Jurisprudence. In addition, you will choose two further options. The current list of options includes: Human Rights; Company Law & Partnership; Criminal Justice; Employment Law; Mental Health Law; Principles of Law, Medicine and Ethics; Criminal Evidence; Family Law & Relationships; Law of Freedom of Expression; Counter Terrorism; Insurance Law; Youth Justice & Juvenile Delinquency; Comparative Law; Consumer Law; Sale & Supply of Goods; Environmental Law; Constitutional Reform; Intellectual Property Law; Public International Law; Sentencing & Penal Policy; Law & Ethics in War and Warfare;

Education Law; Policing & the Police; Drugs & Society; Child Law; International & European Labour Law; Law, Literature & Art and Sociology of Law In the third year you study six units, to be chosen from the above list. It is also possible to submit a dissertation in place of one of these subjects. It may not always be possible to offer all optional subjects in any one year. Course fees 47 Source: http://www.doksinet Tuition fees for home/EU students commencing their studies in September 2013 will be approximately £9,000 per annum. Tuition fees for international students will be £13,000 per annum. For general information please see the undergraduate fees pages Academic department School of Law Academic department overview See: About Us. Contact details Telephone: +44 (0)161 306 1271 Facsimile: +44 (0)161 275 4724 Email: ug-law@manchester.acuk Website: www.manchesteracuk/law

(http://www.manchesteracuk/undergraduate/courses/search2013/atoz/course/?code=01052&pg=3) Grammar: Past Tenses /Simple Past and Past Continuous/ Simple Past is used to talk about completed actions in the past. The Simple Past is often used with expressions that refer to points of time in the past, like: yesterday, last week, 3 years ago, then, when. Look at the following common examples and the prepositions that are used with them: at : 6 o’clock / the end of the year / Christmas on : Tuesday / 15th May / in : January / 1978 /the 1980s /summer / the morning Past Continuous is used to talk about an action in the past which: - was going on at the same time as another action; - was already in progress and was interrupted by another action; - was in progress at a particular moment of time in the past. Examples: I was watching TV • while he was trying to phone; • when there was a knock on the door; • at 3 o’clock yesterday. Time Words/Phrases: at the same time as,

meanwhile, when, while Underline the correct tense: simple past or past continuous. I (1) met/was meeting an old business colleague of mine while I (2) travelled/was travelling to New York for a conference. She (3) noticed/was noticing me while I (4) stood/was standing in the queue at the airport check-in desk. We decided to travel together, and while we (5) waited/were waiting for the flight to leave, we (6) realized/were realizing that we were going to the same conference and staying at the same hotel. We talked about old times, and while 48 Source: http://www.doksinet we (7) had/were having lunch on the plane, she (8) said/was saying that she was going to look for a new job. I didn’t think of it at the time, but later on when the plane (9) came/was coming in the land, I suddenly (10) remembered/was remembering that we had a vacancy for a lawyer. I told her about the terms and conditions, and later that evening, when we (11) had/were having dinner, she (12) accepted/was

accepting the position. (From Michael Duckworth: Grammar & Practice, Oxford Univ. Press, 1998) Past Perfect describes an action completed before some special past moment we have in mind. Example: Did you post the letter of enquiry after you had written it? Supply the correct past tense. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. They (study) at the university before they become practising lawyers. He asked her why she (not attend) the lecture on Monday. We were surprised that he (pass) the exam at the age of 16. A friend of mine (write) a detective story although he never (be) at a police station. It (be) the madman who (do) the killing. 49 Source: http://www.doksinet Unit 3 – List of Terms ability barrister apply application apprentice apprenticeship argue argument available BA (Bachelor of Arts) bar • to be called to the Bar • Bar Council certify certificate challenge challenging chamber compulsory condition constitution Constitutional law Consumer law contract enter into / conclude a contract

Contract law criminal Criminal law defence defend degree dissertation Employment law Environmental law equity essential exemption of good standing grade graduate Insurance law fn képesség fn (Anglia, Wales) ügyvéd, aki felsőbb bíróságok előtt is eljárhat ige (a) kér, folyamodik (b) vonatkozik, alkalmaz fn (a) kérvényezés, kérelem (b) kérelem a bíróság határozathozatalára fn (a) gyakornok (b) tanuló, tanítvány, növendék fn (a) gyakornoki idő, tanoncidő, tanulóidő (b) tanonckodás ige megvitat, érvekkel alátámaszt fn (a) érv(elés), indok vmi mellett (b) vita(tkozás) mn rendelkezésre álló fn humán alapdiploma 1 fn (a) ügyvédi kar; (b) korlát 2 ige korlátoz, akadályoz, eltilt ügyvéddé avat ügyvédi kamara (Anglia, Wales) ige hivatalos igazolást kiállít fn bizonyítvány, oklevél, tanúsítvány 1 fn kifogás, ellenvetés 2 ige kifogást tesz, ellenez mn kihívó, erőpróbát jelentő fn (a) (tanács)terem (b) kamara, országgyűlés

háza mn (a) kötelező (b) kényszerítő erejű fn (a) feltétel (b) állapot fn alkotmány fn alkotmányjog fn fogyasztóvédelmi jog fn szerződés ige szerződést köt fn szerződések joga 1 mn (a) bűnös (b) büntetőjogi 2 fn bűnös, bűnöző fn büntetőjog fn védelem, védekezés ige (a) (meg)véd (b) védőbeszédet mond (vki érdekében) fn (a) fok, fokozat (b) diploma fn értekezés, disszertáció fn munkajog fn környezetvédelmi jog fn (a) méltányosság (b) törzsrészvény mn fontos, nélkülözhetetlen, lényeges fn mentesség, mentesítés mn tekintélyes, köztiszteletben álló fn fok, rang 1 fn diplomával rendelkező személy 2 ige diplomát szerez, egyetemet végez fn biztosítási jog 50 Source: http://www.doksinet jurisdiction Jurisprudence juvenile delinquency Law of the European Union Law of Trusts likewise LLB/ Bachelor of Laws merge merger multinational firm multitude optional penal • penal code penalty persuade police postgraduate Property law

prosecute prosecution prosecutor • Public Prosecutor pass an exam Public law pupillage pursue pursuit QC/Queen’s Counsel qualify requirement • meet the requirements route self-employed semester skill solely solicitor • Solicitor-General submit submission trainee tuition fee undergraduate fn hatáskör, joghatóság fn jogtudomány fn fiatalkorú bűnözés fn az EU joga fn kb. bizalmi tulajdon-, vagyonátruházás joga hsz ugyancsak, szintén, hasonlóképpen fn a jogtudomány baccalaureusa ige egyesül fn egyesülés fn multinacionális cég fn sokaság, mennyiség, nagy szám mn tetszés szerinti, szabadon választható mn büntető fn büntető törvénykönyv fn (a) büntetés, szankció (b) kötbér ige meggyőz 1 fn rendőrség 2 ige (a) biztosítja a rendet (b) megrendszabályoz mn egyetemi tanulmányok befejezése utáni, posztgraduális fn tulajdonjog, dologi jog ige (a) vádat emel (b) vádlottal szemben a vádat képviseli fn (a) bűnvádi eljárás (b) vádemelő

(c) vád képviselője fn vádemelő, ügyész fn államügyész, közvádló ige vizsát letesz, átmegy a vizsgán fn közjog fn ügyvédbojtárkodás ige (a) üldöz, nyomon követ (b) folytat fn (a) üldözés (b) törekvés (c) tevékenység fn fő- vagy rangidős ügyvéd ige (a) jogosultnak lenni (b) képesítettnek lenni fn követelmény, kívánalom, előfeltétel ige megfelel a követelményeknek 1 fn útvonal, útirány 2 ige munkamenetet meghatároz mn önálló, független, magánszektorhoz tartozó fn tanulmányi félév, szemeszter fn (a) ügyesség, jártasság, szakértelem (b) szakképzettség hsz egyedül, kizárólag, csupán fn (Anglia, Wales) ügyvéd fn az Alsóház tagja, a legfőbb államügyész helyettese ige (a) benyújt, előterjeszt (b) vitat, állít, kijelent (c) elismer, behódol fn vitatás, állítás, kijelentés, beadvány fn tanítvány, gyakornok, tanonc fn tandíj fn első diplomáját még meg nem szerzett egyetemi 51 Source:

http://www.doksinet unlike vocation vocational hallgató 1 mn (a) nem hasonlatos, különböző 2 elölj más, nem mint , eltérően vmitől fn (a) elhivatás, tehetség (b) hivatás, pálya, foglalkozás mn (a) hivatási, hivatásszerű (b) szakmai, szakszerű 52 Source: http://www.doksinet UNIT 4 The Legal Profession: Lawyers Solicitors v barristers Read the text below and fill in the words missing from the following sentences. Solicitors v barristers Read the text below and fill in the words missing from the following sentences. The neutral word for solicitors and barristers is: . work for a law firm, and barristers are . There are more women practising the profession of a than that of a . do a lot of paperwork and they have a direct contact with their Top barristers, after having complied with certain requirements, can become . One of the key questions you

must address when considering a career in the law is whether to become a solicitor or a barrister. Simply put, a barrister appears in court, while a solicitor works in a law firm. The term ‘lawyer’ applies to both However, the differences are much more complex. Some say it comes down to whether you are an individualist (barrister) or a team player (solicitor). While it is true that a barrister is almost always selfemployed and connected to other barristers only by convenience, and a solicitor may be just one worker in a law firm of thousands of people, in reality the situation is less black and white. Barristers are often involved in teamwork and some solicitors spend many hours on their own in a room drafting documents. The decision as to which strand suits you best rests on a number of factors concerning your abilities, temperament and - dare we say it - financial circumstances. It is also possible to practise law as a legal executive (CILEx) lawyer - a qualified lawyer who is

trained to specialise as an expert in a particular area of law. Solicitors Barristers As of July 2012, there were 12,364 As of December 2011, there were around selfemployed barristers (not including 160,000 on the solicitors’ roll. those in dual practice, registered European lawyers or second six pupils). Women make up around 48.5% of Women make up around 46% of the those taking pupillage and around 53% profession. However, fewer women than of those called to the Bar (according to men are currently at partner level - 18% the Bar Barometer December 2011 and compared to 45% of male solicitors in based on information as at December private practice. 2010). Mostly employed in private law firms, so Mostly self-employed, so receive receive regular monthly salary. irregular (but often substantial) fees. Work mainly with individuals, companies Work mainly with solicitors and other and barristers. barristers. Office-based. Chambers and court-based. Engage more in ongoing advisory and one-

Engage more in one-off advocacy (ie, to-one client work. court cases). Aspire to become partner (ie, part Aspire to Queens Counsel (QC) - ie, a 53 Source: http://www.doksinet ownership of firm and entitlement to a percentage of its profits). The Solicitors Regulation Authority has just abolished its minimum annual trainee salary, which means that as of 2014 trainees can be paid the national minimum salary. However, many firms will continue to pay considerably more; a first-year trainee at a large City firm could earn around £37,000, rising to £65,000 on qualification. top barrister, normally instructed in very serious and complex cases. The Bar Standards Board requires that all pupils be paid no less than £12,000 per annum. Many earn much more upwards of £60,000 in some cases (http://www.lawcareersnet/BeginnersGuide/SolicitorsVsBarristers) Note: Solicitor advotates are specially qualified solicitors, who can represent clients personally in the lower courts (magistrate court,

county court and tribunal) and with specialist training are also able to represent them in higher courts (Crown court, High court, Court of appeal). Guess which picture is connected with which profession: solicitor or barrister. Explain your choice. 1. 2. 54 Source: http://www.doksinet 3. 4. 5. 55 Source: http://www.doksinet 6. Listening: Barristers The following words are missing from the text below. Before listening to the presentation, look up their meaning in a legal dictionary. access advisers advocacy attorneys chambers clerks counsel drafting engage entitled to evidence gown instructed judge jurisdictions jury lay litigants 56 Source: http://www.doksinet litigation negotiating on behalf of pleading pleadings precedent hired reviewing rights of audience seek trial wig Now listen to the presentation and fill in the missing words. A Barrister

also termed as Barrister-at-Law or Bar-at-Law is a member of one of the two classes of lawyer found in many common law with split legal professions. Barristers specialize in courtroom , drafting legal , and giving expert legal opinions. They can be contrasted with solicitors -- the other class of lawyer in split professions -- who have more direct with clients, and may do transactional-type legal work. Barristers are rarely by clients directly but instead are retained by solicitors to act clients. The historical difference between the two professions -- and the only essential difference in England and Wales today - is that solicitors are , which means that they can act in the place of their client for legal purposes (as in signing contracts) and may conduct on their behalf by making applications to the court, writing letters in litigation to the clients opponent, and so on. A

barrister is not an attorney and is usually forbidden, either by law or professional rules or both, from "conducting" litigation. This means that, while the barrister speaks on the clients behalf in court, he or she can do so only when by a solicitor or certain other qualified professional clients, such as patent agents. Many countries with common law legal systems, such as New Zealand, allow for the roles of barrister and solicitor to be combined into one person. In countries with civil law or other kinds of legal systems, the legal profession is often separated into divisions but these divisions rarely shadow those of barristers and solicitors. Differences between barristers and solicitors: Essentially, barristers are the lawyers who represent as their advocate before the courts of that jurisdiction. They speak in court and present the case before a or . In some jurisdictions, they undertake additional training in order to

hone their skills with law, ethics, and court practice and procedure. In contrast, solicitors generally engage in preparatory work and advice, such as and legal documents, dealing with and receiving instructions from the client, preparing evidence, and managing the day-to-day administration of a matter. Solicitors can 57 Source: http://www.doksinet provide a crucial support role to a barrister when in court, be it in managing large volumes of documents in the case or even settlements outside the courtroom while the continues inside. Other differences include the following: A barrister will usually have in the higher courts, whereas other legal professionals will often have more limited access, or will need to take additional qualifications to do so. In this regard, the profession of barrister corresponds to that part of the role of legal professionals found in civil law jurisdictions relating to

appearing in trials or cases before the courts. Barristers usually have particular knowledge of case law, , and the skill of "building" a case. When a solicitor in general practice is confronted with an unusual point of law, they sometimes the "opinion of " on the issue. In most countries, barristers operate as sole practitioners, and are prohibited from forming partnerships or working as a barrister as part of a corporation (although, in England and Wales, the Clementi report has recommended the abolition of this restriction). However, barristers normally band together into " " to share (administrators) and operating expenses. Some chambers grow to be large and sophisticated, and have a distinctly corporate feel. In some jurisdictions, some barristers are employed by firms of solicitors, banks or corporations as in-house legal . Solicitors work directly with the client and are

responsible for engaging an appropriate barrister; whereas barristers generally have little or no direct contact with their clients, particularly without the presence or involvement of the solicitor. All correspondence, inquiries, invoices, and so on, will be addressed to the solicitor, who is primarily responsible for the barristers fees. In court, barristers are often visibly distinguished from solicitors by their apparel. For example, in Ireland, England and Wales, barristers usually wear a horsehair , stiff collar, bands and a . As of January 2008 Solicitor advocates have also been wear a wig, but will wear a different gown. Choose one of the professions: solicitor or barrister. Give a short presentation about his/her work. Use the expressions from the text above What matters does a lawyer deal with in Hungary? Make a list of the main tasks. Reforms to Legal Education and Training The two legal professions, however

traditional, are considered as outdated. There are plans to merge the two professions and some steps have already been taken. After having read a potential solution, written by a student, write a short essay about your view on legal training and education and on the legal profession in Hungary. I think the biggest reform to legal Education and training should be that the division between Solicitors and Barristers should be broken down and to be made into one profession. I feel this is a key issue as many people do not use the services of professional lawyers because of their astonishing fees, this is clearly shown with people diverting to free legal advice which is as good as someone who gave it to them was professional. I feel this is key objective; otherwise there might be a loss in that there might be a part in the legal profession that requires only lay people for lawyers, and to stop this happening the fine line has to be broken and unified. This is not only in cost but also in

the training, where one lacks the other provides and vica versa and if you to do this, you would have to bring a fee which is chargeable to all people of the nation and that they can afford it and also that the future lawyers do not became over nation 58 Source: http://www.doksinet isled and still get some kind of income. Another thing that would need to be changed it the training, in the fact that it needs to offer better services for the ones that are studying in law and that they can get the best education in law they can get and so this country can have an elite set of lawyers. There should also be a system where if there is an incapacity that the lawyers are not fulfilling the needs of their clients that they should be removed from the legal system as a whole as it could be a start of them be lazy and this cannot be when dealing with justice. (http://www.lawteachernet/english-legal-system/essays/becoming-a-solicitor-or-a-barrister-lawessaysphp) What is public access These

terms are taken from the following text. Find their one-word equivalents tell sy to do sg an opinion that you give sy the action you must take in order to enforce your rights advantages or useful effects pay sy to work for you the chance or right to use or have sg lawyers who defend sy in a court of law statement about what should be done in a particular situation believe that you can rely on sy a person who has special knowledge or skill payment for sy’s work a person who gives guidance to sy Public Access enables members of the public and businesses to instruct a barrister directly to provide legal advice or representation in court. Rather than having to instruct a solicitor to appoint a barrister for you, Public Access allows the public or businesses to contract

with (instruct) a barrister directly. A solicitor is not involved at any stage. The barrister will accept your instructions to provide legal advice or to represent you in court. You can then be advised and guided through the whole legal procedure by the barrister rather than by a solicitor. The potential benefits of Public Access are very significant: (1) It is designed so that you can get legal advice from a barrister without ever having to employ a solicitor. This means that you only have to pay for one legal advisor rather than two, potentially producing significant costs savings; (2) You get direct access to specialist legal advisors and advocates; (3) Barristers regularly do work for a flat fee, providing you with certainty about how much work will cost. No win, no fee agreements are also available (4) Under the watchful guidance of the barrister, you do some of the basic work a solicitor would do, saving you the cost of paying for what you can do yourself; 59 Source:

http://www.doksinet (5) If for any reason you do need a solicitor, then your barrister will tell you. Which means you only instruct a solicitor when you need to. Further, the barrister can recommend you a solicitor. It should be a recommendation you can trust because it comes from an expert in that area of law, with years of experience of different solicitors in the field. And note, the barrister cannot receive any remuneration for his recommendation. In short, by allowing you to speak directly to the specialist legal advisor and advocate without the cost of a solicitor, you should be more able to afford the legal advice you need. (Based on: http://www.findabarristercouk/more infoasp?current id=53) Below is a sample Instructions to Counsel document - this should give you a general idea of what an Instructions to Counsel document looks like and the type of issues discussed within. IN THE MILTON KEYNES COUNTY COURT CASE NO MK06E06852 BETWEEN: SAMANTHA KNIGHT Claimant -vMICHAEL BENTLEY

Defendant INSTRUCTIONS TO COUNSEL FOR HEARING ON 30th JULY 2006 Counsel has herewith copies of the following documents: 1. Claim Form dated 25th October 2005 2. Particulars of Claim, with attached Schedule of Loss dated 26th October 2005 3. Acknowledgment of service 4. Defence and Counterclaim dated 15th November 2005 5. Claimant’s Reply to the Defence and Defence to the Counterclaim dated 27th November 2005 6. Claimant’s and Defendant’s allocation questionnaires 7. Order of DJ Bridge dated 12th December 2005 8. Order of DJ Hall dated 26th February 2006 9. Witness statement of the Claimant, with exhibits, dated 25th May 2006 10. Witness statement of the Defendant, with exhibits, dated 27th May 2006 11. Witness statement of Mr Jones dated 24th May 2006 12. Relevant correspondence Counsel is instructed on behalf of the Claimant, Samantha Knight, in connection with an accident which occurred on the A40 in West

London on 25th April 2005 at about 9:15 am. 60 Source: http://www.doksinet From the pleadings Counsel will see that it is common ground between the parties that there was an accident between the Claimant and the Defendant on this road at this time. It is further accepted that the Claimant was driving a Vauxhall Vectra and the Defendant was driving a white transit van. As Counsel will see, it is the Claimant’s case that she was driving along the A40 in her Vauxhall Vectra 2.0L with her two children in the back when the Defendant pulled out in front of her from a side road to her left. The Defendant did not stop at the give way line as he should have done; he just drove straight out onto the A40 giving the Claimant no time to stop or avoid hitting the side of the Defendant’s van. It is the Defendant’s position that he had driven up to the junction and had waited for a clear gap in the traffic on the A40. He says he had checked both ways and was pulling out when the Claimant

suddenly came speeding down the A40 and into collision with the Defendant’s van. The Defendant has provided a statement from a Mr. Jones, who says that he saw the accident from the pavement. Mr Jones says the Claimant was going too fast The Claimant denies she was driving too fast; she estimates she was travelling at no more than 25 mph. Counsel is asked to note: (1) looking at the addresses in the witness statements, Mr. Jones is the Defendant’s next door neighbour- given the accident was at least 5 miles from where they both live, this seems a bit of a co-incidence; and (2) I did not see anybody else walking around on the pavement where the accident took place. Counsel is referred to the particulars of claim and the schedule of loss which sets out the Claimant’s claim for a cut to her hand and a sore neck suffered as a result of the accident. The Claimant visited her doctor and a copy of the GP’s letter is attached to the particulars of claim. The Claimant’s car has been

repaired and the invoice dated 5th May 2005 was paid a week later. The Defendant claims for the repairs to his van however he has only provided a copy of an estimate for the damage and not an invoice. This is despite repeated requests by the Claimant for proper documentation – see the correspondence. Counsel is instructed to attend Milton Keynes County Court on 30th July 2006 at 2:00 pm to represent the best interests of the Claimant at trial. Counsel is asked to attend at 1:15 pm so that Counsel and the Claimant may have a conference to discuss the case beforehand. If Counsel has any queries, then please feel free to contact Samantha Knight on 0208 123 4567. Dated (http://www.findabarristercouk/more infoasp?current id=99) Underline in the text the English equivalents of the following words and expressions: kereset részletes ismertetése viszontkereset tanúvallomás bűnjelek, tárgyi bizonyítékok periratok toldalék, kiegészítés, melléklet számla tárgyalás 61 Source:

http://www.doksinet Take the role of one of the following characters: Claimant, Defendant or Witness, and tell the case from your point of view. How would you decide, if you were the judge? Grammar: Conditional Zero Conditional: certainty Zero conditional is used when the result will always happen. The if in this conditional can usually be replaced by when without changing the meaning. Example: If you commit a crime, you are penalised. First Conditional: real possibility We are thinking about a particular condition or situation in the future, and the result of this condition. There is a real possibility that this condition will happen Example: If you break into that house, the police will catch you. Second Conditional: unreal possibility or dream The second conditional is like the first conditional. We are thinking about a particular condition in the future, and the result of this condition. But there is not a real possibility that this condition will happen. Example: If I won the

scholarship, I would study at the University of Reading. Third Conditional: no possibility With the third conditional we talk about the past. We talk about a condition in the past that did not happen. That is why there is no possibility for this condition to happen If I had been studying harder, I would have become a barrister. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences. Use Type 1 Conditional 0. If you don’t study (not study) hard, you won’t get (not get) a good job 1. If you(become) a Queen’s Counsel, you (get) higher paid cases 2. If you (not find) a permanent place in Chambers, you (have) to squat 3. Unless you (attend) 12 dinners at your Inn, you (not be) called to the Bar. 4. My solicitor (instruct) a barrister if I (decide) to appeal to the High Court. 5. You (pay) a lot of money unless we (settle) this matter out of court Conditional Type 2 What would happen in the following situations? Finish the sentences. 62 Source: http://www.doksinet 1. If a judge broke the law,

2. If you wanted to become a magistrate, 2. If the defendant was innocent, 3. If my client lost the case, 4. If the prosecutor asked for the death penalty, 5. If the jury returned a guilty verdict, 6. If the defendant did not turn up for trial, Conditional Type 3 What would have happened if the phone had not rung? Write as many sentences as you can based on the text in Type 3 Conditional. A judge in Niagara Falls was hearing a domestic violence case when a mobile phone started ringing in the courtroom. The judge threatened to jail the entire court unless the phone was handed over to him. As nothing happened, he became terribly mad and ordered the doors of the court to be locked. He also instructed the officers to search for the phone However, the officers failed to find the offending item and the judge called each person present in the room up to his bench and asked them if they knew whose phone it was. When each said they had no idea, he sent each in turn to jail for contempt of

court. All 46 of them The judge’s actions caused great upheaval and extra officers had to be drafted into the court to control the crowd. Fourteen people could not post bail and were shackled in irons and sent to the country jail. The judge calmed down later that afternoon and released all 46, but the commission ruled that he should be removed from his job for this unprecedented abuse of judicial power. (Based on http://www.guardiancouk/world/2007/nov/28/usa) 63 Source: http://www.doksinet Unit 4 – List of Terms abolish access acknowledge acknowledgment advice advise adviser/advisor advisory advocacy advocate allocate allocation allow for aspire attorney barrister benefit • benefit from chamber claim claimant clerk • clerk to the justices client co-incidence contract • enter into / conclude a contract corporation counsel • Queen’s Counsel counselling counsellor counterclaim crucial ige eltöröl, hatályon kívül helyez, érvénytelenít (törvényt v.

jogszabályt) fn hozzáférés ige (a) beismer, elfogad, elismer (b) tudomásul vesz, megerősít fn tudomásulvétel fn tanács, szakvélemény ige (a) tájékoztat (b) tanácsol fn tanácsadó mn tanácsadó fn (a) ügyvédi foglalkozás; (b) ügy pártolása, bíróság előtti képviselete fn Skóciában barrister, US lawyer, ügyvéd, bíróságon is képviseleti joggal rendelkező ügyvéd ige kiutal, szétoszt, eloszt fn kiutalás, szétosztás, elosztás ige (a) figyelembe vesz, tekintettel van, engedményt tesz (b) engedélyt ad, hozzájárul ige törekszik, nagyra vágyik fn (a) ügyvéd, jogtanácsos (b) US jogász fn (UK) ügyvéd, aki felsőbb bíróságok előtt is eljárhat fn (a) vminek a java, haszon (b) segély, juttatás ige hasznot húz vmiből fn (a) (tanács)terem (b) kamara, országgyűlés háza 1 fn (a) követelés, igény (b) keresetlevél, kereseti kérelem 2 ige (a) igényt bíróságon előad (b) pénzt követel (c) igényel fn (a) igénylő, igényjogosult

(b) felperes fn hivatalnok, alkalmazott fn bírósági fogalmazó fn (a) ügyfél (b) képviselt fn (a) egybeesés, összetalálkozás (b) véletlen egybeesés fn szerződés ige szerződést köt fn (a) társaság, vállalat, (US) bejegyzett gazdasági társaság (b) bejegyzett testület 1 fn (a) tanács (b) ügyvéd, jogtanácsos, perbeli képviselő 2 ige javasol, tanácsol fn királyi tanácsos (némely rangidős barrister kinevezés útján elnyert tiszteletbeli címe) fn tanácsadás fn (a) tanácsadó (b) (US) ügyvéd, jogtanácsos, követségi tanácsos 1 fn viszontkereset, ellenkérelem 2 ige viszontkeresetet / ellenkérelmet nyújt be mn döntő, kritikus 64 Source: http://www.doksinet divert draft employ employee employer employment enable engage entitle entitlement evidence exhibit expert fee • fee-earner forbid fulfil herewith hire incapable incapacity inquiry instruct • instruct a solicitor • instruct a barrister instructions invoice involve irregular issue

judge judgement jurisdiction jury justice • administer justice lawyer lay legal executive litigant litigation negotiate negotiation neutral ige eltérít, elterel 1 fn (a) vázlat, terv, piszkozat, tervezet (b) váltó 2 ige megszerkeszt, megír, megtervez (okiratot) ige alkalmaz, foglalkoztat fn alkalmazott, munkavállaló fn munkáltató, munkaadó fn alkalmazás, foglalkoztatás ige (a) lehetővé tesz (b) képessé, alkalmassá tesz (c) feljogosít ige (a) eljegyez (b) felfogad, alkalmaz, kötelez, szerződtet ige feljogosít fn (a) jogosultság (b) fel- vagy meghatalmazás fn (a) nyilvánvalóság (b) bizonyíték, bizonyítás (c) tanúvallomáson alapuló bizonyíték 1 fn tárgyi bizonyíték 2 ige szemlére tesz, tanú elé tár 1 mn ügyes, jártas, szakértő, szakszerű 2 fn szakértő, szakember fn díj fn ügyvédi irodában alkalmazottként dolgozó ügyvéd ige megtilt, eltilt ige teljesít (kötelezettséget, szerződést) ksz ezennel ige bérel mn képtelen,

cselekvőképtelen fn cselekvőképtelenség fn vizsgálat, nyomozás ige utasít, irányít ige ügyvédet megbíz, információval ellát ige ügyvédet tájékoztat fn kioktatás, utasítás, rendelkezés fn számla ige (a) belekever (b) magába foglal, vele jár mn (a) szabálytalan, szabályellenes (b) rendellenes 1 fn kérdés, ügy, vitapont 2 ige kibocsát 1 fn bíró 2 ige dönt fn döntés, határozat, ítélet fn hatáskör, joghatóság fn esküdtszék fn (a) igazság (b) (~ of the peace) laikus bíró, helyi bíró, magisztrátus ige igazságot szolgáltat fn ügyvéd, jogász mn laikus fn jogi végrehajtó, ügyintéző, előadó fn peres fél fn pereskedés ige tárgyal fn tárgyalás mn semleges, közömbös 65 Source: http://www.doksinet objective on somebody’s behalf particulars of claim patent • letter patent plead • plead guilty or not guilty pleadings practice practise precedent preparatory procedure prohibit prohibition pupillage qualification qualify

recommend recommendation remuneration require requirement restrict restriction review right of audience roll schedule seek self-employed solicitor • Solicitor-General substantial trial trust try undertake unification fn cél ige vki nevében, érdekében (pl. eljár) fn a kereset részletes ismertetése, kb. kereseti kérelem fn szabadalom fn uralkodói kiváltságlevél ige (a) képvisel, véd, eljár (ügyben) (b) perbeszédet tart ige bűnösnek vagy nem bűnösnek vallja magát fn perbeszéd fn gyakorlat, praxis, praktizálás ige gyakorol, praktizál fn precedens mn előkészítő, előzetes fn eljárás ige megtilt fn tiltás fn ügyvédbojtárkodás fn képzettség, képesítés ige (a) vkit valamaire képesít, vkit vmirealkalmassá tesz (b) feljogosít ige ajánl, javasol, tanácsol fn (a) ajánlás (b) javaslat fn (a) díjazás (b) díj, jutalom ige (a) kíván, követel (b) igényel fn követelmény, kívánalom, előfeltétel ige korlátoz, szigorít fn korlátozás,

szigorítás fn felülvizsgálat fn (a fél vagy jogi képviselője) fellépési joga a bíróság előtt fn lista 1 fn (a) órarend, időbeosztás (b) toldalék, kiegészítés (c) jegyzék, lista, táblázat 2 ige (a) jegyzékbe, táblázatba foglal (b) beütemez (c) toldalékkal (kiegészítő jegyzékkel) ellát (törvényt, szabályzatot) ige (a) kér, követel (b) keres, kutat mn önálló, független, magánszektorhoz tartozó fn (Anglia, Wales) ügyvéd fn az Alsóház tagja, az Attorney General (legfőbb államügyész) helyettese mn jelentős, tetemes fn tárgyalás 1 fn (a) bizalom (b) alapítvány, célvagyon (c) valakinek a javára rendelt vagyontömeg, amelyet más e személy érdekében kezel, (d) őrizet, gondnokság 2 ige vki gondnokságára bíz vmit, vkire rábíz vmit ige tárgyal (ügyet), bíróság elé állít ige elvállal, elvégez, kötelezettséget vállal fn (a) egyesítés (b) egyesülés, unió 66 Source: http://www.doksinet unify vice versa witness

• witness statement ige (a) egyesít (b) egységessé tesz lat fordított helyzet, fordítva 1 fn tanú 2 ige tanúskodik fn tanúvallomás 67 Source: http://www.doksinet UNIT 5 The legal profession: Judges and magistrates Judicial roles In the UK there are many different types of judges sitting in courts or tribunals, each hearing different types of cases, and with different powers to use when deciding the outcome of a case. Judges, magistrates and tribunal members sit in three main jurisdictions - civil, criminal and family. Read: http://www.judiciarygovuk/you-and-the-judiciary/to find more deatils on judges sitting in different courts. Then have a look at the table below, choose one of the members of the judiciary and give a short presentation about him or her to your fellow-students. Judicial breakdown Appointment name Male Female SOURCE: LORDS CONSTITUTION COMMITTEE Justices of the Supreme Court 10 1 Heads of Division 5 0 Lords Justices of Appeal 33 4 High Court Judges

91 17 Judge Advocates 7 1 Deputy Judge Advocates 4 1 Masters, Registrars, Costs Judges and District Judges (Principal Registry of the Family 34 14 Division) Deputy Masters, Deputy Registrars, Deputy Costs Judges and Deputy District Judges 46 28 (PRFD) Circuit Judges 559 106 Recorders 1,020 201 District Judges (County Courts) 331 113 Deputy District Judges (County Courts) 529 259 District Judges (Magistrates’ Courts) 99 38 Deputy District Judges (Magistrates’ Courts) 102 41 TOTAL 2,870 824 % % black, Total Female min, ethnic judges 9.1 0 10.8 15.7 12.5 20 0 0 0 4.5 0 0 11 5 37 108 8 5 29.2 2.9 48 37.8 7.1 74 15.9 16.5 25.5 32.9 27.7 28.7 22.3 2.5 6.5 5.1 6.2 3.9 6.4 5.1 665 1,221 444 788 137 143 3,69 (http://www.guardiancouk/news/datablog/2012/mar/28/judges-ethnic-sex-diversity-judiciary) Traditions of the courts Some parts of the proceedings in court date back many centuries. Find synonyms for the following expressions from the text below: 68 Source:

http://www.doksinet governing equity that is why bending seat/court penal judgement nullification penalty nationals faithfulness onlookers The Royal Coat of Arms The Royal Coat of Arms came into being in 1399 under King Henry IV. It is used by the reigning monarch The Royal Arms appear in every courtroom in England and Wales (with the exception of the magistrates’ court in the City of London), demonstrating that justice comes from the monarch, and a law court is part of the Royal Court (hence its name). Judges and magistrates are therefore officially representatives of the Crown. The presence of the Royal Arms explains why lawyers and court officials bow to the judge or magistrates’ bench when they enter the room. They arent bowing to the judge - they are bowing to the coat

of arms, to show respect for the Queens justice. Gavels Although theyre often seen in cartoons and TV programmes and mentioned in almost everything else involving judges, the one place you wont see a gavel is an English or Welsh courtroom - they are not used there and have never been used in the criminal courts. The black cap The black cap - based on court headgear in Tudor times - was traditionally put on by judges passing sentence of death. 69 Source: http://www.doksinet Since the permanent abolition of capital punishment in 1969, there has been no need for the cap to be worn. High Court judges still carry the black cap, but only on an occasion where they are wearing full ceremonial dress. Red ribbons Red or pink tape was once used to tie up official papers - indeed, thats where the term "red tape" to describe excessive bureaucracy comes from. The tape is still used by the legal profession for briefs (the documents outlining a case) from private citizens. White tape is

used for briefs from the Crown. Oaths Judges, magistrates and tribunal members take two oaths when they are sworn in. The first is the oath of allegiance to the reigning monarch, and the second the judicial oath; these are collectively referred to as the judicial oath. Witnesses giving evidence in court also take an oath, which can be religious (different versions exist for members of different faiths) or secular – where the witness simply affirms that they will tell the truth. Oaths were used at least as far back as Anglo-Saxon and Roman times. Magistrates Based on the text below, make a short outline about magistrates in England. Follow the logic of the text, and fill in the table. 70 Source: http://www.doksinet Court Number of magistrates sitting Education and training Time spent in court Activity Appointment Retirement Salary Magistrates are trained, unpaid members of their local community, who work part-time and deal with less serious criminal cases, such as minor theft,

criminal damage, public disorder and motoring offences. All magistrates sit in adult criminal courts as panels of three, mixed in gender, age and ethnicity whenever possible to bring a broad experience of life to the bench. All three members of the panel have equal decision-making powers but only one member, the chairman, speaks in court and presides over proceedings. A qualified legal adviser is available to the panel at all times. Magistrates do not require legal training. However, all magistrates must undertake a compulsory programme of practical training which prepares them to sit in court. Each magistrate should sit for at least 26 half-days each year. Magistrates deal with over 95% of all criminal cases, either in the adult court, or in the youth court. Magistrates hear less serious criminal cases, such as minor theft, criminal damage, public disorder and motoring offences. They commit serious cases such as rape and murder to the higher courts, consider bail applications, deal

with fine enforcement and grant search warrant and right of entry applications. Magistrates cannot normally order sentences of imprisonment that exceed 6 months (or 12 months for consecutive sentences) or fines exceeding £5,000. Magistrates also decide many civil matters, particularly in relation to family work. When sitting in the Family Proceedings Court, magistrates deal with a range of issues affecting families and children. Magistrates’ civil jurisdiction also involves the enforcement of financial penalties and orders such as those in respect of non-payment of council tax. They deal with: Criminal cases All criminal cases begin in a magistrates’ court. Magistrates pass the most serious crimes (eg murder, rape and robbery) to the Crown Court. Magistrates decide if the defendant should be: • kept in custody - eg a police or court cell • let out on strict conditions - eg to keep away from named places or people Magistrates deal with crimes like: 71 Source:

http://www.doksinet • • • • minor assaults motoring offences theft handling stolen goods Magistrates can give punishments such as: • fines • unpaid work in the community • prison for up to 6 months (or up to 12 months for more than 1 crime) Civil and family cases Magistrates also hear some civil and family cases involving: • unpaid Council Tax • TV licence evasion • child custody and adoption • taking children into care Only experienced magistrates who have had special training can hear family cases. The Lord Chancellor appoints magistrates on the advice of local advisory committees. When applying to become a magistrate an application form must be filled in, references are taken up and at least one, usually two interviews are held before a decision is made. Following the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 transitional arrangements for the appointment of magistrates have been put in place. In this interim period recommendations on the appointment of magistrates

continue to be made by local advisory committees. These are then passed to the Lord Chief Justice for approval, before being submitted to the Lord Chancellor to make the appointment. Local advisory committees try to meet the needs of local benches, in terms of the numbers required with the aim of maintaining a balance of gender, ethnic origin, geographical spread, occupation, age and social background. The retirement age for magistrates is 70. Magistrates are unpaid but may claim expenses and an allowance for loss of earnings. (http://www.judiciarygovuk/about-the-judiciary/the-judiciary-in-detail/judicial+roles/magistrates https://www.govuk/become-magistrate/apply-to-be-a-magistrate) Tribunal Judges and Chairmen Translate the following text into Hungarian. What do you think, the solution is, when there is no Hungarian equivalent to a word or expression? Tribunal judges are the legally qualified people who make the tribunals decision, sometimes alone and sometimes with the assistance

of other panel members, who may not be legally qualified but will be there for their own expertise. Tribunals are specialist judicial bodies which decide disputes in a particular area of law. Most tribunal jurisdictions are part of a structure created by the Courts and Enforcement Act 2007. Tribunals decide a wide range of cases ranging from workplace disputes between employers and employees; appeals against decisions of Government departments (including social security benefits; immigration and asylum; and tax credits). They hear about a million cases each year, more than any other part of the justice system. The geographical jurisdiction of tribunals varies - some extend to Scotland and/or Northern Ireland, as well as England and Wales. 72 Source: http://www.doksinet Tribunal hearings take place in a variety of settings including specific tribunal hearing rooms or informal court rooms. Most tribunal appointments are held on a fee-paid basis, but there are around 500 salaried

tribunal judges. Most tribunal appointments are made through the Judicial Appointments Commission, and must meet the statutory qualification necessary for the particular tribunal. Their retirement age is 70. (http://www.judiciarygovuk/NR/exeres/F78C5446-AF98-4725-A607-46652537DD4D) The Hungarian judiciary The following statements are based on the principles concernig judges in Hungary. Read the extract from the Act on princeciples and decide if they are true (T) or false (F). 1. Judges and Members of Parliament have equal rights 2. A two-thirds majority of all the MP’s votes is needed to lift the immunity of the President of the NJO. 3. The Speaker of the House of Parliament is responsible for taking steps in immunity cases 4. If a judge breaches immunity, the President of the Republic has to propose the necessary measures. 5. Lay judges are not liable for revealing top secrets ACT CLXII OF 2011 ON THE LEGAL STATUS AND REMUNERATION OF JUDGES Service of Judges

1. Principles Section 1 (1) Judges shall be independent in their administration of justice. (2) Judges shall serve as members of the judicial structure. Section 2 (1) Judges shall be entitled to the same immunity as Members of Parliament. (2) To lift the immunity of the President of the Curia and the President of the National Judicial Office (hereinafter: NJO), Parliament requires a decision with a two-thirds majority of the votes of the Members of Parliament present, and the necessary measures shall be taken by the Speaker of the House concerning any breach of immunity. (3) To lift the immunity of judges, the President of the Republic shall make a decision based on a proposal by the President of the NJO. In the event of a breach of immunity, the necessary measures shall be taken by the President of the Republic based on a proposal by the President of the NJO. (4) Lay judges shall be entitled to immunity in terms of activities related to their participation in the administration of

justice. During and after their terms of office, lay judges shall not be liable before courts or other authorities for their participation in the administration of justice, and for facts and opinions they disclosed during their terms of office. This immunity shall not apply to abuse of information classified as topsecret or secret, to insults, slander, defamation, and to the civil liability of lay judges. Immunity shall be granted for insults against persons exercising official authority or politically exposed persons and for slander and defamation in the event the lay judge was not aware that the information was substantially false. (5) The provisions in Paragraph (3) shall be applied to waive the immunity of the lay judge and to take appropriate measures in cases where immunity is breached. 73 Source: http://www.doksinet Find the translation of the expressions underlined in the Act in the English version below. 2. A bírói szolgálati viszony létrejötte 3. § (1) A bíró

szolgálati viszonya kinevezéssel jön létre (2) A bírót a köztársasági elnök nevezi ki (1). (3) Kinevezésre kerül sor, ha a) a pályázati eljárás során olyan személy nyeri el a pályázatot, aki nem áll bírói szolgálati viszonyban (2); b) a törvény rendelkezései szerint (3) pályázat kiírása nélkül olyan személyt kell kinevezni, aki nem áll bírói szolgálati viszonyban; c) a határozott időre kinevezett bíró határozatlan idejű kinevezést (4) kap; d) a katonai bíró katonai bírói tisztségének megszüntetésével egyidejűleg a törvényben meghatározott feltételek fennállása esetén (5) bírói kinevezést kap. (4) Ha a köztársasági elnök által korábban felmentett bírót a munkaügyi jogvita alapján (6) bírói tisztségébe vissza kell helyezni, a köztársasági elnök a felmentést megelőző kinevezés szerinti határozott vagy határozatlan idejű kinevezést ad. (5) A kinevezésre vonatkozó javaslat és a kinevezési okirat

tartalmazza a bírói szolgálati viszony kezdetét, valamint határozott idejű kinevezés esetén a bírói szolgálati viszony időtartamát (7), határozatlan idejű kinevezés esetén az erre való utalást. 2. Service of Judges Section 3 (1) Judges shall be appointed to serve. (2) Judges shall be appointed by the President of the Republic. (3) An appointment shall be made if a) a person who does not serve as a judge wins the call for the submission of applications; b) under the Act, a person must be appointed, without a call for the submission of applications, who does not already serve as a judge; c) a judge appointed for a fixed period must be appointed for another fixed period or for an indefinite duration; d) a military judge shall be appointed as judge upon the termination of his or her position as military judge, provided by the conditions set forth in the Act prevail. (4) If a judge formerly removed from office by the President of the Republic must be returned to office

following a labour dispute, the President of the Republic shall make an appointment for a fixed period or for an indefiniteduration as per the appointment preceding the removal. (5) The appointment proposal and the instrument of appointment shall contain the starting date of the judges service and the term of office in the case of an appointment for a fixed period, or reference to an appointment for an indefinite duration. How would you translate the underlined terms in the text below? Choose from the following alternatives. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. a) have Hungarian nationality b) Hungarian citizens a) have proper capacity b) capable to act a) have a legal diploma b) have university degree in law a) have passed the professional law examination b) have taken the special legal exam a) agree to issue a declaration of property b) give a declaration of property a) public notary b) notary (public) a) legal counsel b) legal council a) common servant b) civil servant 74 Source:

http://www.doksinet 9. a) constitutional judge b) constitutional court judge 10. a) ruled at one of the bodies of the European Union b) administered justice at any body of the European Union 11. a) suitable to hold judicial office b) suitable for practising the legal profession 12. a) for committing an offence b) because of committing crime 3. A bírói kinevezés feltételei 4. § (1) Magyarországon bíróvá az a harmincadik életévét betöltött személy nevezhető ki, aki a) magyar állampolgár (1), b) cselekvőképes (2), c) egyetemi jogi végzettséggel rendelkezik (3), d) a jogi szakvizsgát letette (4), e) vállalja, hogy e törvény rendelkezéseinek megfelelően vagyonnyilatkozatot tesz (5), f) legalább egy évig fa) bírósági titkárként, alügyészként, ügyvédként, közjegyzőként (6), jogtanácsosként (7) dolgozott, fb) kormánytisztviselőként, illetve köztisztviselőként (8) központi közigazgatási szervnél közigazgatási, illetve jogi

szakvizsgához kötött munkakörben dolgozott, fc) korábban alkotmánybíróként (9), bíróként, katonai bíróként, ügyészként működött, fd) nemzetközi szervezetnél vagy az Európai Unió valamely szervénél ítélkezett (10), vagy az igazságszolgáltatással összefüggő tevékenységet folytatott, g) a pályaalkalmassági vizsgálat eredménye alapján a bírói hivatás gyakorlására alkalmas (11). (2) Nem nevezhető ki bíróvá az a személy, a) aki büntetett előéletű, b) aki egyetemi jogi végzettséghez kötött foglalkozástól eltiltás hatálya alatt áll, c) aki büntetlen előéletű, de a bíróság bűncselekmény elkövetése miatt (12) büntetőjogi felelősségét jogerős ítéletben megállapította Grammar: Indirect Speech – Reporting statements When the introductory verb is in a present, present perfect or future tense, we can report the direct speech without any change of tense: I’m a barrister. He says he is a barrister. But

indirect speech is usually introduced by a verb in the past tense. Then verbs in the direct speech have to be changed into a corresponding past tense. Fill in the missing forms. Simple Present ‘I am especially interested in criminal law,’ she said. Present Continuous He said, ‘I am preparing for my final exams at present’. Present Perfect Simple Past She said she especially interested in criminal law. Past Continuous He said he for his final exams at the time. Past Perfect 75 Source: http://www.doksinet He said, ‘I have never written a CV before’. Present Perfect Continuous ‘I have been learning English for seven years’, he said. Simple Past He said, ‘I graduated from Oxford University’. Future (will) He said, ‘I will be thirty next month’. He said he a CV before. Past Perfect Continuous He said he English for seven years. Past Perfect He said he from Oxford University. would He said he thirty the following month. would be ing He said he a case in

court the next day/following day. Conditional He said he to work for an international law firm. Future Continuous (will be ing) He said, ‘I will be pleading a case in court tomorrow’. Conditional ‘I would like to work for an international law firm,’ he said. Past tenses sometimes remain unchanged, e.g in time clauses He said, ‘When I was studying at law school I wrote a lot of tests’. He said that when he was studying at law school he wrote/had written a lot of tests. or if the past tense describes a state of affairs which still exists at the time of reporting He said, ‘I applied to Oxford University because it was famous’. He said he had applied to Oxford University because it was famous. Other changes If you have a look at the above examples, apart from the change in the verb form, what other changes can you notice? a) Expressions of time and place, pronouns How do they change? Write the missing forms. Direct Indirect today yesterday the day before yesterday

tomorrow the day after tomorrow next week/year last week/year a year ago this here that day 76 Source: http://www.doksinet b) Auxiliaries Report the sentences. should/ought to You should/ought to tell the truth, his lawyer said. a) obligation His lawyer said. b) advice may/might a) probability: He said, ‘You may/might get the job’ b) request: He said, ‘You may/might give me a call tomorrow’ can/could a) ability: He said, ‘I can/could win this case for you’ b) permission: ‘If I pay my fine, I can walk out of prison,’ he said ‘If I paid my fine, I could walk out of prison today,’ he said must He said, ‘You must start at once’ He said that he was to/had to/would have to start at once. Is there any difference between the three possible versions? Report the following sentences. 0. I would like to apply for a training contract starting in 2011 She said she would like to apply for a training contract starting in 2011. 1. I first became interested in law after

talking to a local solicitor at a school careers fair She said 2. I was able to obtain a short work placement at his firm before beginning my studies at Kent. . 3. I plan to take modules in International Business Transactions and Banking Law in my final year. . 4. I am therefore applying to commercial firms for training contracts . 5. I am particularly interested in medium-sized firms . 6. My non-law work experience has also been helpful in developing the skills that will be useful in a solicitors career. . 7. I will be working at Browns until the end of August . 8. I would be available for interview at any time before the start of term on 24th September . 77 Source: http://www.doksinet Unit 5 – List of Terms abolish abolition administration administrative adopt adoption advocate • Judge AdvocateGeneral allegation allege allegiance • oath of allegiance allowance appeal appellant application apply appoint appointment assault asylum bail • release on bail bench brief

bureaucracy capital punishment chairman circuit • Circuit Judge coat of arms ige eltöröl, hatályon kívül helyez, illetve érvénytelenít (törvényt v. jogszabályt) fn vminek az eltörlése, megsemmisítése fn (a) irányítás, adminisztráció (b) kezelés, igazgatás, (ügy)intézés mn közigazgatási, vezetési ige (a) örökbe fogad; (b) átvesz, elfogad vmit, egyetért vmvel, (törvényt, határozatot, költségvetést) megszavaz fn (a) örökbefogadás; (b) törvény megszavazása, elfogadása fn Skóciában barrister, (US) lawyer, ügyvéd, bíróságon is képviseleti joggal rendelkező ügyvéd kormány által kinevezett katonai, jogi tanácsadó fn bizonyítandó állítás ige (bizonyítandóan) állítja vminek az igaz voltát (általában bizonyítási eljárásban) fn (a) (állampolgári, alattvalói) hűség, engedelmesség (b) eskü, melyet a képviselők tesznek, mielőtt elfoglalják helyüket az angol alsóházban fn (állampolgári) hűségeskü fn

járadék, tartásdíj, juttatás 1 fn (a) fellebbezés (bírósági határozat esetén); (b) felülvizsgálati kérelem közigazgatási határozat esetén 2 ige fellebbez, felülvizsgálati kérelmet előterjeszt fn fellebbező fn (a) kérvényezés; (b) kérvény a bíróság határozathozatalára ige (a) írásban kér (b) vonatkozik, alkalmaz ige kinevez fn (a) bejelentett találkozó; (b) kinevezés 1 fn (a) testi sértéssel, támadással való fenyegetés, veszélyeztetés, (b) testi sértés, bántalmazás, támadás 2 ige megtámad, bántalmaz fn (a) elmegyógyintézet, menhely (b) menedék(jog) fn óvadék fn ideiglenes szabadlábra helyezés óvadék ellenében fn bírói pulpitus fn ügyvédi tényvázlat (melyet a solicitor készít a barrister számára) fn (a) államigazgatási hivatali személyzet, hivatali gépezet (b) bürokrácia fn halálbüntetés fn (a) (levezető)elnök (b) társaság vezetőségi ülésén elnöklő személy fn (a) körzet (b) egy a hat jogi

kerület közül Angliában és Walesben fn a Crown Court v. County Court bírája fn címer 78 Source: http://www.doksinet commit committee advisory committee compulsory consecutive • consecutive sentences council • council tax court • County Court • Court of Appeal • Court of Chancery • Crown Court courtroom custody damage • criminal damage defendant definite deprive (of) deputy disciplinary discipline disorder • public disorder dispute distribute distribution earnings employee employer enforce enforcement equity ethnicity evade evaluate evaluation evasion • tax evasion evidence • give evidence exceed expenses expert expertise fill in ige (a) elítél (b) bűncselekményt elkövet fn (a) bizottság (b) parlamenti bizottság fn tanácsadó bizottság/testület mn kötelező mn folyamatos, egymást követő fn egymást követő/folyamatos büntetések fn tanács (testület) fn önkormányzati adó fn (a) királyi udvar (b) bíróság fn megyei bíróság, (GB)

elsőfokú polgári bíróság fn fellebviteli bíróság fn (GB) kancelláriai törvényszék fn (GB) büntetőjogi bíróság fn bírósági tárgyalóterem fn (a) felügyelet, megőrzés (b) őrizetbe vétel, letartóztatás 1 fn kár 2 ige kárt okoz fn bűncselekménynek minősülő súlyos károkozás fn (a) alperes (b) vádlott mn meghatározott, pontosan körülírt, bizonyos, biztos ige megfoszt vmitől fn helyettes mn fegyelmi 1 fn (a) fegyelem (b) tudományág 2 ige megfegyelmez fn zűrzavar fn rendzavarás, zavargás 1 fn vita, per, veszekedés 2 ige (a) vitat (b) megvitat ige (a) feloszt (b) terjeszt fn (a) felosztás, megoszlás (b) terjesztés, forgalmazás fn kereset, jövedelem fn alkalmazott, munkavállaló fn munkáltató, munkaadó ige kikényszerít, végrehajt fn kikényszerítés, végrehajtás, alkalmazás fn (a) méltányosság (b) törzsrészvény fn nemzetiségi hovatartozás ige kikerül, kijátszik vmit ige felbecsül, értékel fn felbecsülés,

értékelés fn kikerülés, kitérés fn adócsalás fn (a) nyilvánvalóság (b) bizonyíték, bizonyítás (c) tanúvallomáson alapuló bizonyíték ige tanúskodik, tanúvallomást tesz ige meghalad, felülmúl fn kiadások, költségek 1 mn ügyes, jártas, tapasztalt 2 fn szakértő, szakember fn (a) szakvélemény (b) szakértelem ige (a) betölt, betemet (b) kitölt (c) helyettesít 79 Source: http://www.doksinet gavel gender govern • governing body government handling handling stolen goods headgear hear hearing hence immigrant immigrate immigration indefinite inspect interim interim report interview issue jeopardize jeopardy judge judgement • final judgement judicial • judicial sitting jurisdiction justice • administer justice legal adviser licence litigant Lord Chancellor magistrate • Magistrates’ Court measure merit • merits of the case misconduct murder national nullification nullify fn (elnöki) kalapács fn nem ige kormányoz, irányít fn kormányzó

testület fn vezetés, kormány(zat) fn kezelés, bánás fn orgazdaság fn fejfedő, fejrevaló ige tárgyal, bizonyítást meghallgat fn tárgyalás, meghallgatás hsz (a) innen, ezentúl (b) ennélfogva, ezért, ebből eredően fn bevándorló ige bevándorol fn bevándorlás mn határozatlan ige átvizsgál, felülvizsgál, ellenőriz mn közbenső, ideiglenes fn előzetes jelentés fn kihallgatás, interjú 1 fn kérdés, ügy, vitapont 2 ige kibocsát ige veszélyeztet fn veszély 1 fn bíró 2 ige dönt fn döntés, határozat, ítélet fn jogerős ítélet mn bírói, bírósági fn bírósági ülés fn hatáskör, joghatóság fn (a) igazság (b) (~ of the peace) laikus bíró, helyi bíró, magisztrátus ige igazságot szolgáltat fn jogi tanácsadó fn (hatósági) engedély fn peres fél fn brit igazságügyminiszter, a kabinet tagja fn laikus, fizetetlen bíró fn laikus bíróság 1 fn (a) mérték) (b) intézkedés 2 ige megmér, vmilyen méretűnek lenni fn érdem fn

peres ügy lényegi kérdései, fő pontjai fn kötelességmulasztás, kötelezettségszegés, helytelen viselkedés fn szándékos emberölés, gyilkosság 1 mn nemzeti 2 fn belföldi, állampolgár, honos fn érvénytelenítés, megsemmisítés, hatályon kívül helyezés, semmisségi eljárás ige érvénytelenít, megsemmisít, hatályon kívül helyez 80 Source: http://www.doksinet oath offence • motoring offence onlooker panel pass sentence penal • penal code penalty financial penalty power preside (over) • presiding judge prison prisoner procedural procedure proceedings/legal proceedings rape recorder reign retire retirement rob robbery search • search warrant secular sit sitting • sittings social security stipulate stipulation submission submit substantive • substantive law supervise • supervision order swear (swore, sworn) in tax fn eskü fn bűncselekmény, szabálysértés fn gépjárművel elkövetett közlekedési bűncselekmény fn néző, szemlélő fn

(a) bizottság (b) esküdtek névjegyzéke ige elítél vkit, büntetést kiszab vkire mn büntető fn büntető törvénykönyv fn büntetés, szankció, kötbér fn pénzbüntetés fn (a) hatalom, képesség (b) felhatalmazás, meghatalmazás, jogkör, hatáskör ige elnököl fn elnöklő bíró fn (a) fogház (b) börtön fn fogoly, rab mn eljárási fn eljárás fn per 1 fn erőszakos nemi közösülés 2 ige erőszakos nemi közösülést elkövet fn félállású bíró a Crown Court-on 1 fn uralkodás 2 ige uralkodik ige (a) nyugdíjba vonul (b) visszavonul fn (a) nyugdíjba vonulás (b) esküdtszék ítélethozatalra való visszavonulása ige rabol fn rablás 1 fn kutatás, vizsgálat, nyomozás; 2 ige kutat, keres fn házkutatási engedély/parancs mn (a) igen régi, öreg (b) világi, laikus ige ülésezik fn ülés fn törvénykezési ülésszak fn szociális biztonság, társadalombiztosítás ige szerződésben kiköt fn szerződéses kikötés, feltétel fn vitatás,

állítás, kijelentés, beadvány ige (a) benyújt, előterjeszt (b) vitat, állít, kijelent (c) elismer, behódol mn tényleges, lényegi fn anyagi jog ige (a) felügyel, szemmel tart, ellenőriz, felülvizsgál (b) igazgat, vezet fn fiatalkorú bűnelkövető pártfogói felügyelet alá helyezése ige felesküszik, esküt tesz vmire fn adó fn adójóváírás, adókedvezmény 81 Source: http://www.doksinet • tax credit theft • petty theft thief tribunal violate violation witness fn lopás fn jelentéktelen/ kis értékre elkövetett lopás fn tolvaj fn bíróság ige megszeg fn szabályszegés 1 fn tanú 2 ige tanúskodik 82 Source: http://www.doksinet UNIT 6 Finding a job as a lawyer What is a lawyer like? Being a lawyer is an honour but it is also hard work. Lawyers deal with clients, handle legal cases, draft documents, appear in courts etc. Nevertheless the public has a perception of lawyers as dishonest, arrogant, greedy and ruthless creatures. Read the following

extract and the joke and pictures below. Is there any truth in them? Advisor to the Universe Lawyers believe they are equipped to offer advice to anyone. This belief is founded on several notions: that they are more intelligent than the rest of us; that law is civilizations supreme system of order; and that "learning to think like a lawyer" has equipped them with the finest possible tools to analyze human affairs, both big and small. The belief is ill-proven, because until theyve given up thinking like lawyers, they dont do well in other fields (with the unfortunate exception of politics). Aside from the peculiar belief that law describes reality, lawyers are simply not well-rounded people. They work long hours, and they spend their limited free time thinking about law. As a consequence, their expertise is in law, and only in law Beyond that their knowledge consists of what the customers have told them in their office, but this is disorganized data; they rarely think it out.

For business advice, try friends in business; for personal advice, try your grandmother. (http://www.dancingwithlawyerscom/book/04-how-lawyers-behaveshtml) Lawyer jokes 83 Source: http://www.doksinet Q: Whats the difference between a lawyer and a liar? A: The pronunciation. Q: Whats the difference between a lawyer and a vampire? A: A vampire only sucks blood at night. Q: Whats the difference between a female lawyer and a pitbull? A: Lipstick. Q: How many lawyers does it take to change a lightbulb? A: How many can you afford? Q: When attorneys die, why do they bury them 600 feet underground? A: Because deep down, theyre really nice guys. Q: What do honest lawyers and UFOs have in common? A: You always hear about them, but you never see them. Q: Whats the difference between God and an attorney? A: God doesnt think hes an attorney. What skills and qualities are required for a good lawyer? Consider the following expressions and add your own attributives. good communicator, negotiating

skills, analysing skills, listening skills, problem-solving skills, investigating skills, persuading skills, decision-making skills, verbal skills, teamplayer, well-organized, innovative, sociable, drafting skills, good at sports, sensitive, common sense, ambitious, funny, hard-working, courageous, friendly, polite, good manners, arrogant, formal, modest, interesting, intelligent, music-loving, enthusiastic, elegant, non-smoker, tall, sportsman-like figure, cheerful, awe-inspiring, understanding, emotional, proud . Applying for a job When you decide to apply for a job, generally you have to go through the following stages: 1. Write a cover/motivation letter 2. Write a Curriculum Vitae (CV) 3. Take part in a job interview Cover letter If you want to find a job, first you have to send your CV accompanied by a cover letter, in which you explain what job you are applying for, why you are applying for the specific job and why you think that you would be the right person for the job. You can

find a lot of good advice on the internet, which may help you to write a ‘perfect’ cover letter. Eg have a look at the following sites: http://www.jobsacuk/careers-advice/jobseeking-tips/1055/applying-for-a-job http://jobsearch.aboutcom/od/unitedkingdom/a/applyforukjobshtm 84 Source: http://www.doksinet Read the sample cover letter below and fill in the missing words in the text. training contract, assisting, advertisement, developing, interest, medium-sized, undergraduate, clients, gained, available, enclose . Cover Letter 16 Apple Road Manchester M23 5HJ United Kingdom Mr. J Black Recruitment Partner Thompson& Co. Solicitors 22 Oxford Street 2008 Manchester M1 5EL 5th September Dear Mr. Black Further to your in the Guardian, I would like to apply for a . starting in 2009 and my curriculum vitae. I am an law student at the University of Manchester. I developed a strong in property law during my studies, which was confirmed by a vacation placement at Brown & Brown

last summer, where I . experience in the real estate department I plan to take modules in Real Estate and Banking Law in my final year. I am therefore applying to real estate firms for training contracts and am particularly interested in Thompson & Co. as a firm with a wide-ranging real estate practice and a variety of . My non-law work experience has also been helpful in . the skills that will be useful in a solicitors career, in particular at Vodafone where, as a sales assistant, I gained a great deal of experience in . clients with their problems I learned to be both efficient and diplomatic and to handle a number of different tasks at the same time. I would be . for interview at any time before the start of term on 24th September I look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely Susan Smith Answer the questions. 1. What job is she applying for? 2. What can we learn about Susan’s legal career from this letter? 3. Has she got any work experience outside the field of law? 4.

What should one write about in - the introduction part of a cover letter? - the main body of the letter? - the ending part? 85 Source: http://www.doksinet Writing task Choose one of the advertisements below, and write a cover letter applying for the job. Here are some useful phrases to use in your cover letter. Remember the formal requirements of official letters. Paragraph 1 I noted with interest your advertisement for a in today’s edition of . I am writing in response to your advertisement in . for the position of I would like to apply for the vacancy advertised in . With reference to your advertisement in . I am interested in applying for the post of Please find enclosed a copy of my CV. Paragraph 2 As you will see from my CV . I have enclosed a copy of my VC, from which you will see . I am currently studying at After graduating from . I Since leaving university, I have . On leaving school, I . Having gained a degree, I While I was working at . During my employment at .

I am currently employed as . Paragraph 3 This post interests me because . I would welcome the chance to gain more experience of I have extensive experience of I would be grateful for the opportunity to improve my. skills Paragraph 4 If you consider that my experience and qualifications are suitable . I am available for interview any afternoon and would be pleased to discuss the post in person. I will be available for interview from . to I can arrange to attend an interview whenever convenient for you. (From Hornby, A. S Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, 7th Edition, 2005) JUNIOR CARE LAWYER – OXFORDSHIRE Job Type: Permanent Location: Oxfordshire, Oxfordshire Start Date: ASAP Duration: Permanent job Salary: Excellent Ref No: 263772-CW15558E Date Advertised: 22 Jul 2013 86 Source: http://www.doksinet JUNIOR CARE LAWYER - OXFORDSHIRE The Firm Our client is a multi-office firm with six partners, offering an innovative approach to the law in order to

achieve the optimum outcome for their clients in a wide spectrum of legal issues. Serving businesses and individuals throughout the Thames Valley, they aim to provide honest advice, tailored to clients` needs. Drawing on a wealth of experience they have grown steadily since inception and continue to develop strong working relationships with clients and fellow professionals. Due to an increasing caseload they are now looking to add to their team The Role This is an exciting opportunity for a driven and committed Junior Lawyer to join our clients` busy Child Care team. Managing a varied and challenging caseload of public law Children Act matters, the successful candidate will become part of an experienced team providing quality advice and representation to parents and children involved in care proceedings. Please quote ref. CW15558 when applying The Candidate You must be a qualified Solicitor or Legal Executive from NQ - 2 years` PQE. You must have solid Child Care experience. You will

have excellent technical and interpersonal skills across all levels. You will be flexible, professional and IT literate. You will be a team player. JUNIOR CARE LAWYER - OXFORDSHIRE PLEASE CHECK YOUR EMAIL (INCLUDING SPAM FOLDER) FOR CONFIRMATION WE HAVE RECEIVED YOUR APPLICATION. Law Staff Legal Recruitment Limited [URL removed] are a recruitment agency, all vacancy descriptions are of general content and no responsibility is taken for salary or PQE differences. We aim to build long-term relationships with all our clients and candidates, treating them as individuals with unique needs, aspirations and goals. PLEASE NOTE WE ARE UNABLE TO PROCESS YOUR APPLICATION UNTIL YOU HAVE SENT TO US YOUR IDENTIFICATION AND WE HAVE CHECKED YOUR RIGHTS TO WORK. In accordance with The Conduct of Agencies and Businesses Regulations Act of 2003, we require all candidates applying for a position to provide via email, fax or post, a copy of photographic identity and proof of address. Please also note that

all communication including telephone calls with Law Staff Legal Recruitment is recorded and monitored. To view our candidate registration terms please go to our web site. As part of our candidate registration and care process we at Law Staff aim to respond to all successful applications within 7 working days. If you have not been contacted within this timescale your application has been unsuccessful on this occasion and we thank you for your interest. 87 Source: http://www.doksinet Email apply.a4lg28lemgz@law-staffaptrackco Tel 0845 230 1664 Fax 0870 350 1664 Address: Please see our website for details (http://www.jobsitecouk/job/junior-care-lawyer-oxfordshire-946647285?src=search&tmpl=lin) Private Client Lawyer Job Type: Permanent Location: Surrey Start Date: ASAP Duration: Salary: Neg Ref No: 268055-RB5078 068621 Date Advertised: 25 Jul 2013 JOB TITLE:Private Client Lawyer PQE REQUIRED:2 - 5 Years PQE LOCATION: Surrey (Commutable from: West Sussex, Hampshire, London )

SALARY:Attractive THE ROLE: An opportunity has arisen to join a friendly and established team in Surrey. You will be handling your own caseload of private client matters including wills, probate tax & trusts. This is a real career opportunity for an ambitious and hard working individual. THE CANDIDATE: With a minimum of 2 years PQE, you will have experience of a wide and varied private client caseload to include, wills, probate and tax and trusts matters. The firm are looking for individuals who possess the ability to build on an existing caseload of local clients. You will also have experience of supervising junior members of a team. THE FIRM: This is a really great place to work and forge a long standing legal career. Their Wills, estates & tax planning department is recognised as one of the leading practices in the area, providing specialist advice in wills, estate planning and estate administration. It is a great opportunity to join a firm which prides themselves on

delivering a personal service. The firm can offer a competitive remuneration and benefits package. Contact Details: If you would like further information or would be interested to apply for this vacancy, please contact Rachel Barnett at eNL on 0207 183 8586 or email rachel.barnett@enllegalcouk As part of our candidate care process we aim to respond to all applications within 7 working days. If you have not been contacted within this timescale your application has been unsuccessful on this occasion. Please go to [URL removed] to register your interest for similar 88 Source: http://www.doksinet positions. eNL follow strict best practice recruitment guidelines monitored by the Recruitment and Employment Confederation (REC). Please note our advertisements use PQE/salary levels purely as a guide. However we are happy to consider applications from all candidates who are able to demonstrate the skills necessary to fulfil the role.

(http://www.jobsitecouk/job/private-client-lawyer-946614861?src=search&tmpl=lin) Curriculum Vitae Read the following set of advice and write a CV tailored to the job chosen in the previous exercise. Use the European Curriculum format below 10 tips on writing a successful CV Top tips on writing a successful CV: get the basics right and stick to no more than two pages of A4. Photograph: Max Oppenheim/Getty Images When it comes to applying for a new job, your CV could be just the ticket to get you that initial foot in the door and secure an interview – but how do you ensure your CV is added to the interview pile rather than thrown straight in the bin? Putting together a successful CV is easy once you know how. Its a case of taking all your skills and experience and tailoring them to the job youre applying for. But what if you dont meet the right criteria? Well, Ive put together the following tips to help you get started in creating a successful CV and securing your first (or next)

arts job. Get the basics right There is no right or wrong way to write a CV but there are some common sections you should cover. These include: personal and contact information; education and qualifications; work history and/or experience; relevant skills to the job in question; own interests, achievements or hobbies; and some references. Presentation is key A successful CV is always carefully and clearly presented, and printed on clean, crisp white paper. The layout should always be clean and well structured and CVs should never be crumpled or folded, so use an A4 envelope to post your applications. Always remember the CV hotspot – the upper middle area of the first page is where the recruiters eye will naturally fall, so make sure you include your most important information there. Stick to no more than two pages of A4 A good CV is clear, concise and makes every point necessary without waffling. You dont need pages and pages of paper – you just keep things short and sweet. A CV is

a reassurance to a potential employer, its a chance to tick the right boxes. And if everything is satisfied, theres a better chance of a job interview. Also, employers receive dozens of CVs all the time so its unlikely theyll read each one cover to cover. Most will make a judgment about a CV within sections, so stick to a maximum of two pages of A4 paper. 89 Source: http://www.doksinet Understand the job description The clues are in the job application, so read the details from start to finish. Take notes and create bullet points, highlighting everything you can satisfy and all the bits you cant. With the areas where youre lacking, fill in the blanks by adapting the skills you do have. For example, if the job in question requires someone with sales experience, theres nothing stopping you from using any retail work youve undertaken – even if it was something to help pay the bills through university. It will demonstrate the skills you do have and show how theyre transferable. Tailor

the CV to the role When youve established what the job entails and how you can match each requirement, create a CV specifically for that role. Remember, there is no such thing as a generic CV Every CV you send to a potential employer should be tailored to that role so dont be lazy and hope that a general CV will work because it wont. Create a unique CV for every job you apply for. You dont have to re-write the whole thing, just adapt the details so theyre relevant. Making the most of skills Under the skills section of your CV dont forget to mention key skills that can help you to stand out from the crowd. These could include: communication skills; computer skills; team working; problem solving or even speaking a foreign language. Skills can come out of the most unlikely places, so really think about what youve done to grow your own skills, even if you take examples from being in a local sports team or joining a voluntary group – its all relevant. Making the most of interests Under

interests, highlight the things that show off skills youve gained and employers look for. Describe any examples of positions of responsibility, working in a team or anything that shows you can use your own initiative. For example, if you ran your universitys newspaper or if you started a weekend league football team that became a success. Include anything that shows how diverse, interested and skilled you are. Dont include passive interests like watching TV, solitary hobbies that can be perceived as you lacking in people skills. Make yourself sound really interesting Making the most of experience Use assertive and positive language under the work history and experience sections, such as "developed", "organised" or "achieved". Try to relate the skills you have learned to the job role youre applying for. For example: "The work experience involved working in a team," or "This position involved planning, organisation and leadership as I was

responsible for a team of people". Really get to grips with the valuable skills and experience you have gained from past work positions, even if it was just working in a restaurant – every little helps. Including references References should be from someone who has employed you in the past and can vouch for your skills and experience. If youve never worked before, youre OK to use a teacher or tutor as a referee. Try to include two if you can Keep your CV updated Its crucial to review your CV on a regular basis and add any new skills or experience thats missing. For example, if youve just done some volunteering or worked on a new project, make sure theyre on there – potential employers are always impressed with candidates who go the extra mile to boost their own skills and experience. (http://www.guardiancouk/culture-professionals-network/culture-professionalsblog/2012/mar/15/cv-tips-first-arts-job) 90 Source: http://www.doksinet EUROPEAN CURRICULUM VITAE FORMAT PERSONAL

INFORMATION Name Address [ SURNAME, other name(s) ] [ House number, street name, postcode, city, country ] Telephone Fax E-mail Nationality Date of birth [ Day, month, year ] WORK EXPERIENCE • Dates (from – to) • Name and address of employer • Type of business or sector • Occupation or position held • Main activities and responsibilities [ Add separate entries for each relevant post occupied, starting with the most recent. ] EDUCATION AND TRAINING • Dates (from – to) • Name and type of organisation providing education and training • Principal subjects/occupational skills covered • Title of qualification awarded • Level in national classification (if appropriate) [ Add separate entries for each relevant course you have completed, starting with the most recent. ] PERSONAL SKILLS AND COMPETENCES Acquired in the course of life and career but not necessarily covered by formal certificates and diplomas. MOTHER TONGUE [ Specify mother tongue ] OTHER

LANGUAGES 91 Source: http://www.doksinet • Reading skills • Writing skills • Verbal skills [ Specify language ] [ Indicate level: excellent, good, basic. ] [ Indicate level: excellent, good, basic. ] [ Indicate level: excellent, good, basic. ] SOCIAL SKILLS [ Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. ] AND COMPETENCES Living and working with other people, in multicultural environments, in positions where communication is important and situations where teamwork is essential (for example culture and sports), etc. ORGANISATIONAL SKILLS [ Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. ] AND COMPETENCES Coordination and administration of people, projects and budgets; at work, in voluntary work (for example culture and sports) and at home, etc. TECHNICAL SKILLS [ Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. ] AND COMPETENCES With computers, specific kinds of equipment, machinery, etc. ARTISTIC SKILLS [

Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. ] AND COMPETENCES Music, writing, design, etc. OTHER SKILLS [ Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. ] AND COMPETENCES Competences not mentioned above. DRIVING LICENCE(S) ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ANNEXES [ Include here any other information that may be relevant, for example contact persons, references, etc. ] [ List any attached annexes. ] Job interview If the employer likes your CV and cover letter, you may be one of the successful candidates who are invited to an interview. In order to increase your chances of getting the job, it is worth thinking over a few things before you actually appear at the interview. Make a list of dos and don’ts. You may consider the following: - how to prepare for the interview - dressing up 92 Source: http://www.doksinet - getting to the scene of the interview behaviour at the interview how to answer

questions Listen to the most common interview mistakes and compare them with your list. http://jobsearch.aboutcom/od/interview-mistakes/ss/most-common-interview-mistakeshtm Typical interview questions Presumably you are asked some of the following questions. Choose 5 of the questions and be prepared to tell your answers in class. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Why do you want to work for us? Why should we hire you? What do you know about our organization? How have you spent your summers? How do you spend your free time? What experience have you had in organizing or directing clubs and/ or activities? Tell me about yourself. Describe yourself in one word. What are your future career plans? Why did you choose law? What courses have you liked best? Least? What qualifications do you have that make you feel you will be successful in your area of interest? What have you learned

from some of the jobs you have held? What type of people do you feel you work with best? What type of people would you have trouble working with? What is your greatest personal asset? Your greatest weakness? Do you like routine work? What constitutes "security" in your mind? What fields interest you other than the one you are in? What do you really feel are things that help a person become successful? What constitutes "success" in your mind? What kinds of things give you the most satisfaction in your work? Whats the worst question you can think of to ask me? What do you enjoy doing the most? Why do you want to be a lawyer? Why did you go to law school? How do you like law school? How are you doing in school? What are your grades? Why are you interested in this firm? What type of law do you want to do? What classes are you taking? What are your ultimate career goals? Where do you see yourself in five years? Ten? Twenty? What is your greatest strength? 93 Source:

http://www.doksinet • • What is your greatest weakness? What one thing have you done that youre the proudest of? (http://www.lawberkeleyedu/1149htm) Bizarre interview questions Sometimes it is not easy to prepare for questions. With a partner role-play the following interview questions. After having finished, have a look at the real purpose of the questions and also the suggested answers on: http://www.bbccouk/news/business-22844117 How do you fit a giraffe in a fridge? Would you rather fight a horse-sized duck, or 100 duck-sized horses? How many ways can you get a needle out of a haystack? 94 Source: http://www.doksinet If you were to win £1 million, what would you do with the money? How would you explain Facebook to your grandma? How to prepare for an interview Nowadays more and more students apply for scholarships. The following article intends to give practical advice to students, how to behave before, during and after an interview. Read the article and make an

outline of the process in about 200 words in Hungarian. . If youre after a job, an interview is normally expected if your application awakens the employers interest. In the case of scholarship applications, if interviews are part of the application process, then this is normally stated in the application details you receive together with your application form. The part below deals with what you should do if you receive an invitation to an interview, both before, during and after it. Before the interview Preparation before an interview IS A MUST. Before stepping in the interview room, you should document in detail about the program you are applying to, the kind of question you expect to be asked, how much the interview will last, etc. While an interview is clearly a testing situation, and you should be prepared accordingly, youre not facing the Inquisition there. The goal of a Western-style interview is to put you in the best possible light. The interviewer wants to get an impression

about what kind of person you are, to complete the image s/he has from the application documents with things that 95 Source: http://www.doksinet cannot be put on paper. Therefore, you should expect a formal, but relaxed atmosphere, in which you will do most of the talking. First, try to read as much as possible about the company/scholarship program you have applied to. If you havent done this yet, this is a proper time If its a company, find out exactly what they do, how successful they are, what their market position is, what they and others think about their corporate culture, what somebody with your job does there, how a usual day looks like. If its a scholarship, look at what subjects youll study, how many will they be, how much freedom you have in choosing the subjects, how your work will be assessed, professors, the size of the department, student/faculty ratio, accommodation, extracurricular activities, cultural life. In short, try to get an as exact as possible image about

what youll do if you get the scholarship/job. Write down whatever is of interest to you, what is not clear, or what youd like to find out more about. During the actual interview, theres almost always a time when its your turn to ask questions and youll want to have some useful questions to ask. Second, re-read the announcement. Examine the requirements, think of reasons and examples that prove you can meet those requirements. Very probably, youll be asked questions about that during the interview. Attention: dont exaggerate, youll seem overqualified, and dont lie: it may sound paranoid, but you never know how "they" will be able to double check what you say. Look at the job/scholarship description: what recommends you for that thing? Thats another probable question. In some interviews, the question will be even more direct: why are you the best for that place? Youd better have some answer here. And be convinced you are the best: it will show during the interview, and help

increase your chances. Attention: theres always a thin line between self-confidence (the good thing) and arrogance (should we say, obviously, a bad thing). Third, try to find out how much the interview will last, whos gonna be your interviewer, even, if possible, what topics are of most interest to him/her and will show up during the discussion. Of course, that is easier to do if you get the invitation by phone, but theres always a second option: do some digging in their website, some useful material may show up, or get in contact with per sons who have been through the interview before you. Fourth, there are a few common questions which show up in almost any interview. Prepare answers for them and ask a second opinion on those answers from a friend. () When youre done with allthis answer finding, have a rehearsal or two. Get a friend who will play the interviewer and ask you questions. Do this in an atmosphere as interview-like as possible and, of course, in the language in which the

interview will take place. Here are some hints on how to answer the questions above: 1. Link the requirements of the position to your background, showing how your previous experience and knowledge will help you manage this task successfully. Interviewers look for a clear progress from one task to the other, in your past, in order to show growth potential. Be sure you can prove that with examples 2 Enumerate those of your qualities relevant for the job/scholarship you want to get. 3 While the downsides have to look like downsides, show they have some kind of potential of turning into something positive that can become and advantage in some sense. Heres an example: stubbornness is something bad, perseverance is something good, but can you tell the exact difference? Guerrilla troops on the side of war winners are partisans, those on the side of the losers are terrorists. This kind of game should you play with your minuses and their potential of turning into something positive. 4 In

general what makes you good is your background and particular interests and knowledge, all of which match exactly the requirements of the job/program. Even more, your personal characteristics and your pleasant way of being make you a more valuable candidate. This is the message you have to get across During the interview 96 Source: http://www.doksinet The evening before the interview travel to the actual place of the interview, especially if this is not a route you know well. See what transportation you need and how much time is necessary - add some more if youll have to travel during rush hour. One of the worst things you can do at an interview is to be late. Arrive a few minutes earlier and wait outside, rather than later. Still, punctuality will look best On the day of the interview, bring with you a copy of all your application documents (not recommendations, of course), and an updated CV. The interviewer will very probably not accept new documents and have its own copy of

those files, but you never know when an extra copy is needed during the discussion. Dress formally. Even if youre one of those lucky programmers about whom nobody really cares how they dress when go to work, still wear a suit during the interview, or at least matching trousers and blazer, and of course, a shirt and a tie. Have your mom or room mate check they go fine with each other. In many cases, the interviewer will be less formally dressed than you. Never mind, youre the one expected to make a good impression, s/hes trying to look relaxed and not stress you. If you feel/think you look too stiff, unbutton your blazer during the interview, but mind your appearance and position on the chair all the time. The discussion will usually start with some informal chit-chat, meant to warm the atmosphere and to make you look less stressed. Smile when you enter and while saluting Enter the game of chit-chat, while remaining polite and relaxed. The serious questions will start arriving soon.

Towards the end of the interview, you will probably be asked if you have any questions of yourself. Remember, you have those prepared already At the very end, as the last question you have, ask for feedback on your performance. Not only because it looks damn good in the eyes of the interviewer, but also because you wanna know what you did fine and what not, and what could you could do better next time. Dont expect any hint towards a decision in your case. You will never get one, if you have to deal with a professional interviewer. S/he has some other interviewers to conduct and review before reaching a decision. Never mind what you think about your performance, stay polite, relaxed and self-confident until you walk out the door. Your impressions dont necessarily coincide with those of the person taking the interview and therefore you should play your chances until the very end. After the interview If you have the e-mail or mail contact of the interviewer, write a "thank you"

note. Thats a good occasion to: 1. Thank the interviewer for his/her time and the interesting discussion you had 2. Make him/her remember you better than the other 20 people s/he met that day 3. Outline those things that, even though mentioned during the interview, did not make it to the front line of the discussion, but are still an advantage for your application. This is a bad moment, however, for bringing in new arguments: it will make you look unfair. 4. Remember the most important elements that make your application so valuable You should do that on the day of the interview, and in not more than 3-4 paragraphs. The interview would not be such a stressful event, should you have the occasion to go through, say, 200 of them. Since this is not the case, intensive preparation will have to do So do it carefully, it might be this interview that will get your future started. (http://www.eastchancecom/howto/interviewasp) 97 Source: http://www.doksinet Grammar: Reported Speech: Commands

What should and shouldn’t you do when you write a CV? What advice did you receive at the careers lecture organized for students? Transform the sentences into Indirect Speech based on the example. You may use various verbs for reporting: tell, warn, remind, encourage, request, urge, ask, advise 0. Tailor your CV for the job you are applying for The lecturer advised us to tailor our CVs for the jobs we were applying for. Do not lie about yourself. He warned us not to lie about ourselves 1. Allow yourself time to prepare your CV 2. Focus on your strengths 3. Try to keep it to a maximum of two pages 4. State your skills and objectives briefly at the start 5. Always list your most recent work first and work backwards 6. Describe your experience briefly and concisely 7. Highlight successes 8. Do not mention any weaknesses 9. Discuss only relevant interests 10. Do not use fancy typefaces 11. Keep your CV clean 12. Use high quality paper 13. Do not send your CV or covering letters out

unchecked 14. Use your word processors spell-check Indirect questions Read about this person telling about the questions he was asked at his job interview. Then write the original questions. Well, it’s a wonder I got the job. I think I was asked the trickiest questions one could imagine The interviewer first asked me what my greatest weakness was. Then he wanted to know why I had left my previous employer. But this was only the beginning He also wanted to know what I would do if I didn’t get the job. He wondered what sort of salary I was expecting He asked if I was willing to do after-hour work. He wondered how my ex-boss would describe me. He asked what the biggest work mistake I had made was He wanted to know how I dealt with difficult colleagues. In the end he inquired what questions I had for them By then I was so embarrassed, I had none. 98 Source: http://www.doksinet 10.2 Types of indirect questions and the necessary changes a. Interrogative form Affirmative form b.

Change in the tenses as with indirect statements Direct question: He said, ‘Why is Tom applying for this job?’ Indirect question: He asked why Tom was applying for that job. Questions with a question word ‘When could you take up employment?’ he wondered. He wondered when I could take up employment. Questions without a question word ‘Have you worked for a law firm before?’ he asked. He asked if/whether I had worked for a law firm before. 10.3 Indirect statements, commands and questions Use indirect speech to finish the sentences. Speaking about a job interview I went to a job interview last Wednesday. The interviewer looked rather friendly We had the following conversation. - Good morning! We greeted each other. - Good morning! -Take a seat, please. The interviewer asked -Thank you. I thanked him. -Well, Mr. Brown, the firm was quite impressed by your CV. He said the firm . -Would you mind if I asked you a few questions? He wondered. - No, not at all. I said. -

So, how would you describe yourself? He wanted I said. and added . - I’m ambitious and hard-working and I love helping people with their problems. - Why do you want to work for this firm? He asked 99 Source: http://www.doksinet Because I think this firm could provide me with the experience I will need in my future career. I answered. - Oh, I see. And what are your long-term goals? He also wanted to know. - I’m planning to set up my own independent practice and specialize in conveyancing. I said . - How many foreign languages do you speak? He asked - I speak English and German fluently. I answered . - How long have you been learning English? He wanted to know. - I took it up four years ago. I said . - Thank you. We will call you in a week’s time. He thanked me for the interview and said . -Do not hesitate to contact us if you have any further questions. He told . 100 Source: http://www.doksinet Unit 6 – List of Terms achieve achievement adapt

administration advantage advertise advertisement advice advise adviser/advisor affair afford announcement application apply consequence assertive assess assessment asset assist attorney • Attorney-General available awe-inspiring benefit • benefit from candidate caseload challenge challenging client clue committed concise confirm confirmation consider consideration ige (a) megvalósít, valóra vált (b) eléri a célt, teljesít fn (a) véghezvitel, teljesítés (b) eredmény, vívmány ige (a) alkalmaz, hozzáilleszt (b) átalakít, átdolgoz c) alkalmazkodik fn (a) intézés, vezetés, igazgatás (b) gondnokság c) vezető testület fn (a) előny, fölény (b) nyereség, haszon ige hirdet, közzétesz fn reklám, hirdetés fn tanács ige tanácsot ad, ajánl fn tanácsadó fn ügy, dolog, eset ige (a) (anyagilag) elbír, megengedhet magának (b) nyújt, ad fn (a) kihirdetés, bejelentés (b) közlemény, hirdetmény fn (a) kérvényezés, kérelem; (b) kérelem a bíróság

határozathozatalára ige (a) kér, folyamodik (b) vonatkozik, alkalmaz fn (a) következmény, végeredmény (b) következtetés (c) fontosság, jelentőség mn (a) önző (b) öntudatos, magabiztos (c) állító, bizonyítgató ige (a) megállapít (kárt, értéket) (b) felbecsül (c) (ki)értékel fn értékelés, felbecsülés fn vagyon, tőke, eszköz ige segít, támogat fn (a) ügyvéd, jogtanácsos (b) (US) jogász fn (GB) legfőbb államügyész; (US) állami v. szövetségi igazságügyi miniszter mn rendelkezésre álló mn (a) félelmetes, döbbenetes (b) áhitatot, csodálatot, tiszteletet keltő fn (a) vminek a java, haszon (b) segély, juttatás ige hasznot húz vmiből fn pályázó, jelölt fn folyamatban lévő ügyek, esetek 1 fn kifogás, ellenvetés 2 ige kifogást tesz, ellenez mn kihívó, erőpróbát jelentő fn (a) ügyfél (b) képviselt fn nyom, kiindulási pont mn (a) elkötelezett (b) vmilyen célra lekötött (pénz) (c) vmi mellett kiálló mn (a)

tömör, velős (b) időben szűkre szabott ige megerősít, visszaigazol fn (a) megerősítés, jóváhagyás (b) igazolás ige (a) megfontol, figyelembe vesz (b) hisz, tart vminek fn (a) megfontolás, figyelembevétel (b) ellenszolgáltatás, ellenérték 101 Source: http://www.doksinet constitute corporate corporation cover/motivation letter crucial current currently Curriculum Vitae (CV) customer deliver draft employ employee employer employment enclose enclosure ensure entail enumerate estate exaggerate examine examination extracurricular • extracurricular activity firm further to gain goal grade honest honour identify identification identity improve increase initial innovation innovative intend intent/intention ige alkot mn szervezetet alkotó, testületi, társasági fn (a) társaság, vállalat, (US) bejegyzett gazdasági társaság (b) bejegyzett testület fn kísérőlevél, motivációs levél mn döntő, kritikus mn folyó, folyamatban lévő hsz jelenleg fn

önéletrajz fn vevő, vásárló, fogyasztó ige (a) szállít, kézbesít (b) mond, tart (beszédet) 1 fn (a) vázlat, terv, piszkozat, tervezet (b) váltó 2 ige megszerkeszt, megír, megtervez (okiratot) ige alkalmaz, foglalkoztat fn alkalmazott, munkavállaló fn munkáltató, munkaadó fn alkalmazás, foglalkoztatás ige (a) körülkerít (b) csatol, mellékel fn (a) elkerített terület (b) melléklet, csatolmány ige biztosít ige (a) ró, ráró vkire vmit (b) együttjár, velejár ige pontonként felsorol fn (a) (föld)birtok, földtulajdon (b) hagyaték ige eltúloz, túlzásba visz, felnagyít, súlyosbít ige (a) megvizsgál (b) vizsgáztat (c) kihallgat, kikérdez (tanút, vádlottat) fn (a) vizsgálat (b) vizsga (c) kihallgatás, kikérdezés mn kötelező tananyagon kívüli fn iskolán, tanórán kívüli elfoglaltság 1 fn cég, iroda, vállalat, vállalkozás 2 mn szilárd hsz hivatkozva vmire 1 fn (a) előny, haszon, nyereség, gyarapodás, növekedés (b)

mandátumszerzés 2 ige szerez, nyer fn cél fn fok, rang mn őszinte, egyenes, becsületes fn (a) becsület (b) becsületesség (c) megtiszteltetés (d) kitüntetés ige azonosít fn azonosítás fn (a) kilét, személyazonosság (b) azonosság ige (a) javít, jobbá tesz (b) javul, növekszik 1 fn növekedés, emelkedés 2 ige nő, emelkedik 1 mn kezdeti, kiinduló, alap- 2 ige láttamoz, kézjeggyel ellát fn újítás, megreformálás mn újító ige szándékozik fn szándék 102 Source: http://www.doksinet interpersonal investigate investigation issue IT (information technology) Legal Executive liar lie • tell lies negotiate negotiation notion option overqualified permanent persuade potential probate proceedings/legal proceedings progress reason reasonable reasoned reassurance recognize recommend recommendation recruitment refer reference register relevant remuneration requirement respond respondent response responsibility review scholarship security • social security

mn személyek közötti ige nyomoz, kivizsgál fn kivizsgálás 1 fn kérdés, ügy, vitapont 2 ige kibocsát fn informatika, információtechnológia fn jogi végrehajtó, ügyintéző, előadó fn hazug, hazudozó fn hazugság ige hazud(oz)ik ige tárgyal fn tárgyalás fn fogalom, képzet fn választás, választási lehetőség, szabad választás mn túlképzett mn állandó, tartós ige meggyőz mn lehetséges, helyzeti, potenciális fn (a) végrendelet érvényessége, hitelessége, (b) hagyatéki hagyatéki eljárás fn eljárás, per 1 fn haladás, fejlődés 2 ige halad 1 fn indok, magyarázat 2 ige (a) megvitat (b) következtet (c) megindokol mn ésszerű, méltányos mn indokolt fn (a) megnyugtatás, bíztatás (b) önbizalom, biztonságérzet ige (a) felismer, megismer (b) (jogilag) elismer ige (a) javasol (b) ajánl fn (a) javaslat (b) ajánlás fn toborzás, verbuválás ige (a) utal, említ (b) ügyet másnak elküld fn (a) átutalás, áttétel (b) hivatkozás, utalás

1 fn hivatalos jegyzék, lista, nyilvántartás 2 ige jegyzékbe, nyilvántartásba vesz, bejegyez(tet) mn (a) lényeges (b) összefüggő, tárgyhoz tartozó, releváns, fn (a) díjazás, jutalmazás (b) díj, jutalom fn követelmény, kívánalom, előfeltétel ige válaszol, reagál fn alperes fn felelet, válasz (főleg írásban benyújtott kérdésre) fn (a) helytállási kötelezettség (b) felelősség 1 fn felülvizsgálat 2 ige általánosan ellenőriz, felülvizsgál fn (a) tudományosság, tudományos felkészültség (b) tudományos munka, kutatás (c) ösztöndíj, alapítvány, alapítványi hely fn (a) biztosság (b) biztonság (c) biztosíték (d) értékpapír, részvény fn szociális biztonság, társadalombiztosítás 103 Source: http://www.doksinet specific specify supervise supervision supreme trust undertake unique vacancy vacate vacation verbal voluntary volunteer volunteering wealth will mn különleges, sajátos, egyedi ige részletez, meghatároz ige

(a) felügyel (b) irányít, igazgat, vezet fn (a) felügyelet, ellenőrzés mn legfelsőbb, legfőbb, legfontosabb 1 fn (a) bizalom (b) alapítvány, célvagyon (c) valakinek a javára rendelt vagyontömeg, amelyet más e személy érdekében kezel, (d) őrizet, gondnokság 2 ige vki gondnokságára bíz vmit, vkire rábíz vmit ige elvállal, elvégez, kötelezettséget vállal mn egyedülálló, egyetlen, kivételes fn üresedés, betöltendő állás ige szabaddá tesz, elhagy, lemond fn (a) (GB) törvénykezési szünet (b) (US) szabadság mn szóbeli mn önkéntes 1 fn önkéntes 2 ige önként lemond fn önként jelentkezés, ajánlkozás fn gazdagság, jólét fn (a) végrendelet (b) akarat, óhaj 104 Source: http://www.doksinet UNIT 7 Supplementary and revision exercises Legal systems Based on the following map and your previous knowledge, give a short presentation on the legal systems of the world. Adversarial and inquisitorial systems One way to divide legal system is

that of the distinction between adversarial and inquisitorial systems. Read the text below and choose the correct answer or answers There may be one or two right alternatives. A/ 1. Although there are no systems like adversarial and inquisitorial, the writer tries to describe them. 2. There used to be adversarial and inquisitorial sytems 3. There is no country, the legal system of which can be described as merely adversarial or inquisitorial. B/ 1. At present adversarial systems include some features of inquisitorial models 2. Adversarial models have been criticized because of being too bureaucratic 3. The two models have begun to merge 105 Source: http://www.doksinet C/ 1. In an inquisitorial system the prosecutor has a leading role in the procedure 2. In an adversarial system the independent, neutral judge collects the evidence 3. In an an inquisitorial system there is no trial D/ 1. A pre-trial is always held in both systems 2. Pre-trials are held to seek evidence 3. An outline

of the process is produced at the end of a pre-trial Find synonyms for the following words in paragraphs 3-5. equity accusation act although avoid barrister examination asking for damages Adversarial and inquisitorial systems: a brief overview of key features The terms “adversarial” and “inquisitorial” are used to describe models of justice systems. In reality these terms have no simple or precise meaning and no one country’s system can be described as demonstrating the “pure” version of either model. Nevertheless, we have attempted to set out the key characteristics and differences of the two models in order to give a sense of each. It is important to note that over recent years, adversarial models have begun to incorporate some of the features of inquisitorial systems. Indeed, many of the reforms in the Criminal Procedure Act 2011do have inquisitorial features to them – for example, the development of obligatory pre-trial case management processes. At the same time,

inquisitorial models (which have generally been criticised for being inefficient, overly bureaucratic and placing too little weight on the presumption of innocence) have undergone significant reforms that call on elements of adversarial models. For this reason, the key differences between the two models as we have set them out below, are in much sharper relief than is now currently the case in any system. Key characteristics of adversarial systems vs inquisitorial systems: 1. Responsibility for marshalling evidence for trial •In an adversarial model, responsibility for gathering evidence rests with the parties – police and defence – and an independent evaluation of that evidence by a neutral judge is left to the trial. •In an inquisitorial model, criminal investigation, at least in serious cases, is typically overseen by either an “independent” prosecutor or an examining magistrate (in France termed a “juge d’instruction”). The prosecutor or examining magistrate can

seek particular evidence; 106 Source: http://www.doksinet direct lines of inquiry favourable to either prosecution or defence; interview complainants, witnesses and suspects; and ultimately determine whether there is sufficient evidence to take a case to trial. 2. Relative faith in the integrity of pre-trial processes •An adversarial model is based on mistrust in the reliability of the prosecution evidence. It proceeds on the assumption that mistaken verdicts of guilt can best be avoided by allowing the defence to test and counter that evidence at the trial itself, largely in the manner in which it chooses to do so. The trial is the exclusive forum for seeking out and determining the truth – or, perhaps more accurately, for determining whether there is a reasonable doubt as to guilt. •An inquisitorial model has faith in the integrity of pre-trial processes (overseen by the prosecutor or examining magistrate) to distinguish between reliable and unreliable evidence; to detect

flaws in the prosecution case; and to identify evidence that is favourable to the defence. In many jurisdictions, this culminates in the preparation of a “dossier” for the trial court that outlines all aspects of the case and forms the basis for the trial itself. Pre-trial processes are therefore an indispensable part of the process for seeking out the truth. By the time a case reaches trial, there is a greater presumption of guilt than in an adversary model. 3. The extent of discretion •Because in an adversarial model decision making is left largely in the hands of the parties, there is a recognised prosecutorial discretion not to proceed with the case, even when there is evidence to support a criminal charge. There is also an ability, recognised in statute, for the defendant to plead guilty and avoid a trial. •In an inquisitorial model, discretion is much more limited. In some jurisdictions, “the legality principle” dictates, in theory if not in practice, that prosecution

must take place in all cases in which sufficient evidence exists of the guilt of the subject. Moreover, there was traditionally no such thing in civil law jurisdictions as a plea of guilty. Regardless of the accused’s wishes, trial processes continued, albeit on a sometimes more accelerated path. 4. The nature of the trial process •In an adversarial model all parties determine the witnesses they call and the nature of the evidence they give, and the opposing party has the right to cross-examine. The court’s role is confined to overseeing the process by which evidence is given (to ensure that it is within the rules) and then weighing up that evidence to determine whether there is a reasonable doubt. There are strict rules to prevent the admission of evidence that may prejudice or mislead the fact finder. •In an inquisitorial model, the conduct of the trial is largely in the hands of the court. With the dossier of evidence as its starting point, the trial judge determines what

witnesses to call and the order in which they are to be heard, and assumes the dominant role in questioning them. Cross examination as we know it does not exist, although the parties and their counsel are generally permitted to ask questions. There are far fewer rules of evidence and much more information available to the court at the outset. The offender’s criminal history, for example, may be read to the court before the trial begins. 5. The role of the victim •In an adversarial model, the victim is largely relegated to the role of witness. They have no recognised status in either the pre-trial investigation or the trial itself. •In an inquisitorial model, on the other hand, victims have a more recognised role. In some jurisdictions they have a formal role in the pre-trial investigative stage, including a recognised right to request particular lines of inquiry or to participate in interviews by the examining 107 Source: http://www.doksinet magistrate. At the trial itself,

they generally have independent standing Although this is partly for the purposes of claiming compensation, they are sometimes also permitted to ask questions of witnesses. (http://www.lawcomgovtnz/sites/default/files/adversarial and inquisitorial systems 2pdf) Criminal & Civil law: Comparison Based on the diagram, make a comparison between Criminal law and Civil law. 108 Source: http://www.doksinet Paralegals Translate the following entry. What do you know about the training of paralegals in Hungary? Is it easy to find a job as a legal assistant? paralegal n. a non-lawyer who performs routine tasks requiring some knowledge of the law and procedures, employed by a law office or who works free-lance as an independent for various lawyers. Usually paralegals have taken a prescribed series of courses in law and legal processes, which is much less demanding than those required for a licensed attorney. Paralegals are increasingly popular, often handling much of the paper work in

probates of estates, divorce actions, bankruptcies, investigations, analyzing depositions, preparing and answering interrogatories, procedural motions and other specialized jobs. Clients should be sure that the hourly rate charged for paralegals is much less than that for the attorneys. Cover letter for a paralegal job The cover letter below was written to apply fer a paralegal position. Fill in the letter with the missing words: graduated, degree, studies, workload, lawsuit, enquire, pressure, witnesses, trial, environment, evidence, litigation, meet, experience. There are two extra words in the list. Dear Mrs. Splitt, Re: Application for Paralegal Position I am writing to as to whether there would be an opening for a junior paralegal position in your firm. I in the top 10 percent of my class from Legalese Academy and I am looking for work with a litigation firm in New York. During my , I had the chance to spend 4 months as a coop student at

McLary LLP, working in their department, and I truly enjoyed the . While there, I assisted two senior counsels with a class action involving a pharmaceutical company. I helped during the discovery process, in the preparation of for and in the preparation of the books of documents to be presented during . I enjoy working in a fast pace and am confident I will or surpass your expectations. I have strong work ethics, am meticulous yet effective and can work under . I would appreciate the opportunity to meet with you in person to discuss my qualifications and answer any questions you may have. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours very truly, ( 109 Source: http://www.doksinet Match the following paragraphs about legal executives with their titles. 1. What is a Legal Executive? 2. Work and activities 3. Governing body 4.

Training A/ They have passed the ILEX Professional Qualification in Law in an area of legal practice to the same level as that required of solicitors, and have had at least five years experience of working under the supervision of a solicitor in legal practice or in the legal department of a private company or local / national government. B/ ILEX (Institute of Legal Executives) is the professional body that represents Legal Executives and trainee Legal Executives, it has over 22,000 members. It was established in 1963 with the support of the Law Society. C/ Legal Executives are qualified lawyers specialising in a particular area of law. They are professional lawyers, who have qualified by studying and working at the same time. They have their own recognised status and role within the legal profession, working in law firms, government departments and private companies. Their day-to-day work is similar to that of a solicitor, although the training and qualifications are different. D/

Specialising in a particular area of law, their day-to-day work is similar to that of solicitors. Legal Executives are fee earners - in private practice their work is charged directly to clients - making a direct contribution to the income of a law firm. They: • handle legal aspects of a property transfer • assist in the formation of a company • are involved in actions in the High Court or county courts • draft wills • advise clients accused of serious or petty crime, or families with matrimonial problems advise on many other matters affecting people in their domestic and business affairs. (Based on: modules/mod1/1 4 legal personnel/1 4 2 barristers solicitors/21 paral egal.htm) 110 Source: http://www.doksinet History of trial by jury in England Read about the history of the jury and answer the following questions: 1. Where does the institution of the jury originate from? 2. How was innocence and guilt decided? 3. Why was the modern form of

jury developed? The English jury has its roots in two institutions that date from before the Norman Conquest in 1066. The inquest, as a means of settling a fact, had developed in Scandinavia and the Carolingian Empire while AngloSaxon law had used a "jury of accusation" to establish the strength of the allegation against a criminal suspect. In the latter case, the jury were not triers of fact and, if the accusation was seen as posing a case to answer, guilt or innocence were established by oath, often in the form of compurgation, or trial by ordeal. During the 11th and 12th centuries, juries were sworn to decide property disputes but it was the Roman Catholic Churchs 1215 withdrawal of support for trial by ordeal that necessitated the development of the jury in its modern form. (Baker (2002) p.72-73) The first trial by jury took place in the court of Henry the II on 11 June 1168. It was a trial about the murder of an innocent civilian A man named Benedict Graymond, was tried

as the murderer. He had killed this unnamed man with a garden tool, unknown to us today. He was voted guilty by the jury at that time. No members can be traced back to this time. (Optional exercise: What happens if I am chosen for Jury Service? Read the following advice on jury service and make a summary of the text in Hungarian. What You Need to Know More than 400,000 people are randomly chosen for jury service in the UK each year – and if you’re one of them, it is more likely than not that you will have to give up at least two weeks of your life to this important civic duty. Being summoned is not a guarantee that you will end up sitting on a jury, but there are only a few circumstances under which you can be excused. You must have a strong reason, such as academic exams or a pre-booked holiday. However, most excuses will probably only lead to your jury service being deferred. You’ll only be considered ineligible if you have sat on a jury within the past two years, if you are

on bail or have been on probation within the last five years, if you have been sentenced to prison, youth custody or community service in the past ten years, if you suffer from a mental health problem. If you hold any of the following positions, you would have been exempt in the past, and whilst now exemption is no longer automatic you may well have a good case for not being selected; • Judge • Magistrate • Solicitor 111 Source: http://www.doksinet • • • • • • Barrister Religious minister MP Member of the armed forces Member of the medical profession (including chemist or vet) Police or probation officer A form to assess your eligibility will accompany the summons you receive in the post. If you don’t fit into any of the above categories, and you are aged between 18 and 70, then you must attend your local Crown Court at a given date (or you may be required at Civil Court or High Court). Upon arrival you will join several other people arbitrarily selected from

the Electoral Register. You will be instructed on how a court operates, and then 15 people will be randomly picked by court officials and shown into the courtroom. Twelve names will be called out, and if yours is one of them, you must answer “yes” and take your place in the jury box. (If you are in Scotland, you will be one of 15 jurors, not 12.) You will be sworn in once the case’s lawyers have been given the chance to challenge your selection. (They are unlikely to do so because challenges are rare) You will take an oath on the holy book of your religion, or if you do not practice religion, you will be asked to ‘affirm’ – which holds the same significance as an oath. The standard length of jury service is about two weeks. The average case lasts only a day or two, so you’ll probably be expected to sit on more than one trial. If your first case is large and complex (centring on a murder or business fraud, for example), or experiences serious delays, you might have to

spend several more weeks as a juror – or perhaps months! (The jurors on the Jubilee Line fraud trial sat for almost two years before the case collapsed in May 2005.) Your employer does not have to pay you while you are on jury duty, unless there is a clause in your contract that says otherwise. Your employer must, however, allow you time off to perform your service. Refusal will mean that he or she is in contempt of court and could face a fine or even imprisonment. You can claim for loss of earnings as long as your employer fills in a Certificate of Loss of Earnings, which you must take with you on your first day of court. If you are self-employed you should provide the court with some proof that you have lost earnings – a letter from your accountant, for instance. All jurors are given a daily subsistence allowance for food and drink and can claim travel expenses and, in some cases, parking. Jurors with children can also claim for childminding expenses. However there are caps on

what you can claim, and, for many people, this can turn jury service into a real financial burden. At present these are the caps on what you can claim back whilst on jury service. Hours Served per Day Days Served Maximum Allowance per Day Up to 4 1-10 £32.47 Up to 4 11-200 £64.95 Up to 4 201 + £114.95 Over 4 1-10 £64.95 Over 4 11-200 £129.91 Over 4 201 + £228.06 112 Source: http://www.doksinet If you are interested in the hard side of jury service, watch the film: 12 Angry Men with Henry Fonda. The film will also offer good chance to revise the legal words you have acquired during the semester. Find the words for the following definitions. Court personnel the branch of authority concerned with justice and the legal system a place where legal matters are decided the persons in a court of law who have the power to make decisions part-time judges in the Crown Court not lay

people formally chosen for a task or position a person working in court the system of rules in a society the opposite of defender a law enforcement authority accused offences counsels lay people deciding on guilt or innocence lay members of the judiciary 113 Source: http://www.doksinet Complete the following text with words taken from the previous exercise. The are perhaps the most prominent amongst those involved in running the court. The largest group of are , ordinary citizens who are not legal but are to ensure that the local community is involved in the running of the legal system. They sit as a group of three (as a bench) Magistrates sit with a legally qualified , who can advise on points of . A

case is presented by the , who takes over the case from the police who have already charged the (or accused) with specified . In the upper courts, the judges are almost all former . But many cases are also heard by – part-time barristers from private practice. The Crown Court consists of 12 persons, aged 18 to 70. Check your knowledge of the terms covered in Units 1-7. 1. a country’s body of judges 2. system of laws which evolved from the tribal and local laws in England 3. system of laws that evolved in the 8th century BC 4. the branch of law dealing with crime 5. person who institutes a criminal case 6. person who makes a claim in a civil case 7. the defendant normally pays this to the plaintiff 8. panel of 12 people who decide whether the accused committed a crime 9. lawyer who presents a case to a higher court 10. lawyer who advises clients 11. untrained lawyer who presides over the

lowest criminal court 12. person against whom a civil case is brought 13. an act passed by a law-making body 14. the control resulting from following a community’s system of law 15. ’apprenticeship’ served by trainee barristers 16. a summary of a case written by a solicitor (Based on: Brieger: Test your Professional English) 114 Source: http://www.doksinet Unit 7 – List of Terms accountant accusation accuse (of) accused act admission admit adversarial system/accusatorial system advice advise affair affirm albeit allegation allege application arbitration • arbitration court arbitrator attorney authority bail • release on bail bankrupt bankruptcy brief burden • burden of proof charge (sy with sg) claim claimant clause clerk • clerk to the justices client community service compensate compensation complainant fn könyvelő fn vád(olás) ige vádol vmivel fn vádlott fn a törvényhozó szerv által hozott törvény fn (a) bejutás, belépés; (b) beismerés,

bevallás, elismerés ige (a) beenged, felvesz vhová; (b) beismer, bevall fn akkuzatórius eljárás (vádelvű eljárás) (a szokásjogot alkalmazó országokban szokásos eljárás, melyben a felek kötelessége a bizonyítékok előteremtése) fn tanács, szakvélemény ige (a) tájékoztat (b) tanácsol fn (a) ügy, eset (b) szerelmi viszony ige állít, megerősít, helybenhagy ksz jóllehet, noha, holott, ámbár fn bizonyítandó állítás ige (bizonyítandóan) állítja vminek az igaz voltát (általában bizonyítási eljárásban) fn (a) alkalmazás (b) kérelem, kérvény a bíróság határozathozatalára fn választott bíráskodás (felek által választott harmadik személy döntése a felek vitájában) fn választott bíróság fn választott bíró fn (a) ügyvéd, jogtanácsos (b) (US) jogász fn hatáskör, hatalom, felhatalmazás fn óvadék fn ideiglenes szabadlábra helyezés óvadék ellenében mn fizetésképtelen fn fizetésképtelenség fn ügyvédi

tényvázlat (melyet a solicitor készít a barrister számára) fn teher, súly, rakomány fn bizonyítási kötelezettség, bizonyítási teher 1 fn vád 2 ige vádol vkt vmivel 1 fn (a) követelés, igény (b) keresetlevél 2 ige (a) igényt bíróságon előad (b) pénzt követel (c) igényel fn (a) igénylő, igényjogosult (b) felperes fn záradék, cikk(ely) fn hivatalnok, alkalmazott fn bírósági fogalmazó fn (a) ügyfél (b) képviselt fn közérdekű munka ige kártalanít, kárt megtérít fn (a) kártérítés, jóvátétel (b) (US) fizetés, bér fn panaszos 115 Source: http://www.doksinet complaint compurgation conduct confine contempt • contest • contested will contract • enter into / conclude a contract contractual counsel fn (a) panasz, reklamáció (b) laikus bírósághoz benyújtott panasz (c) keresetlevél fn rég a vádlott szomszédságában lakó 12 tanú esküje, mellyel megerősítik a vádlott arra vonatkozó esküjét, hogy ártatlan fn

magatartás ige elzár fn semmibevevés, megsértés (bíróságé, parlamenté) 1 fn (a) harc, küzdelem (b) verseny (c) vita, vitatkozás 2 ige (a) kétségbe von, elvitat (b) megtámad, perre visz (c) vitatkozik, verseng fn megtámadott végrendelet fn szerződés ige szerződést köt mn szerződésszerű, szerződésbe foglalt 1 fn (a) tanács (b) ügyvéd, jogtanácsos, ügyész 2 ige javasol, tanácsol; fn királyi tanácsos (némely rangidős barrister tiszteletbeli • Queen’s Counsel címe) fn tanácsadás counselling fn (a) tanácsadó (b) (US) ügyvéd, jogtanácsos counsellor fn ellenbizonyítás, keresztkérdés cross examination ige az ellenfél jogi képviselője keresztkérdéseknek cross examine alávet, kikérdez tanút fn (a) felügyelet, megőrzés (b) őrizetbe vétel, custody letartóztatás fn kárösszeg, kártérítés damages fn védelem, védekezés defence (US defense) ige (a) (meg)véd (b) védőbeszédet mond (vki érdekében) defend fn (a) alperes (b)

vádlott defendant ige elhalaszt, elnapol defer 1 fn (a) követelés (b) kereslet 2 ige követel demand fn tanúvallomás, nyilatkozat deposition ige kinyomoz, leleplez detect fn nyomozó detective fn mérlegelés discretion 1 fn vita, per, veszekedés 2 ige (a) vitat (b) megvitat dispute 1 fn válás 2 ige elválni vkitől divorce fn belügyek domestic affairs fn kétség, kétely doubt • beyond reasonable doubt hsz minden kétséget kizáróan 1 fn (a) vázlat, terv, piszkozat, tervezet (b) váltó 2 ige draft megszerkeszt, megír, megtervez (okiratot) fn választói névjegyzék electoral register fn választhatóság eligibility mn választható, befogadható eligible ige biztosít ensure fn (a) méltányosság (b) törzsrészvény equity 116 Source: http://www.doksinet evaluate evaluation evidence excuse exempt exemption fraud free-lance guilt guilty imprisonment incorporate innocence innocent inquest inquiry inquisitorial system integrity investigation judge judgement •

final judgement judiciary jurisdiction jury • jury box justice • administer justice lawsuit Legal Executive liability • limited liability liable litigation magistrate • Magistrates’ Court marshalling matrimonial matrimony merge ige felbecsül, értékel fn felbecsülés, értékelés fn (a) nyilvánvalóság (b) bizonyíték, bizonyítás (c) tanúvallomáson alapuló bizonyíték 1 fn (a) mentség, mentegetőzés (b) kifogás, ürügy 2 ige elnéz, megbocsát, menteget 1 mn mentes 2 ige mentesít fn mentesség, mentesítés, mentesülés, felmentés fn csalás, sikkasztás, szélhámosság mn (a) párton kívüli (b) szabadúszó fn bűn, bűnösség mn bűnös fn bebörtönzés, fogvatartás, szabadságvesztés ige (a) egyesít, beépít, belefoglal, átvezet (b) alapít, létesít, bejegyez (társaságot) fn ártatlanság mn ártatlan fn (a) szemle (b) halottkémi vizsgálat, halottszemle fn vizsgálat, nyomozás fn inkvizitórius eljárás (római jogot alkalmazó

országokban szokásos eljárás, ahol a vizsgáló feladata a nyomozás és a bizonyítékok előteremtése) fn teljesség, épség, sértetlenség fn kivizsgálás, vizsgálat, nyomozás 1 fn bíró 2 ige dönt fn döntés, határozat, ítélet fn jogerős ítélet fn bírói testület fn hatáskör, joghatóság fn esküdtszék fn esküdtek emelvénye fn (a) igazság (b) (~ of the peace) laikus bíró, helyi bíró, magisztrátus ige igazságot szolgáltat fn per fn jogi végrehajtó, ügyintéző, előadó fn felelősség fn korlátolt felelősség mn jogilag felelős fn pereskedés fn laikus, fizetetlen bíró fn laikus bíróság fn (a) hagyatéki osztály megállapítása (b) hagyaték örököse, kedvezményezettje által beadott kereset, melynek célja az őt megillető, de vmely hitelezőnek kifizetett pénz visszaszerzése mn házastársi fn házasság ige egyesül 117 Source: http://www.doksinet mischief mistrust motion MP/Member of Parliament murder murderer neutral

obligation obligatory offence offender paralegal permit petty crime plea • plea bargaining plead guilty prejudice preliminary • preliminary hearing • preliminary ruling presumption • presumption of innocence pretrial prevent probation • probation officer procedure proof pupillage random regardless of relegate reliability reliable robbery seek self-employed sentence (to) statute statutory fn (a) baj, hiba (b) gonoszság, rosszindulat 1 fn bizalmatlanság, gyanakvás 2 ige nem bízik, kételkedik vkiben, gyanakszik vkire fn indítvány fn képviselő, parlamenti képviselő fn szándékos emberölés, gyilkosság fn gyilkos mn semleges fn kötelezettség mn kötelező fn bűncselekmény, szabálysértés fn bűnelkövető fn nem jogvégzett alkalmazott az ügyvédi irodában 1 fn engedély 2 ige engedélyez fn kihágás fn (a) kifogás (b) vádra való felelet fn vádalku ige bűnösnek vallja magát 1 fn elfogultság, előítélet 2 ige kárt okoz, sért mn előzetes,

előkészítő fn előkészítő tárgyalás fn előzetes döntéshozatali eljárás fn feltételezés, vélelem, vélelmezés fn az ártatlanság vélelme mn tárgyalás előtti ige megakadályoz, megelőz fn (a) a szabadságvesztés végrehajtásának felfüggesztése, feltételes szabadságra bocsátás (b) próbára bocsátás (c) próbaidő fn (szabadságvesztés felfüggesztése esetén, és a feltételes szabadságra bocsátottak, illetve a próbára bocsátottak felügyeletére kirendelt) pártfogó felügyelő fn eljárás fn (a) bizonyíték (b) igazolás, tanúsítvány fn ügyvédbojtárkodás 1 mn véletlen, találomra tett, rendszertelen 2 hsz véletlenül, találomra, vaktában hsz tekintet nélkül ige (a) eltávolít, eltesz, félretesz, áthelyez (b) száműz, kiutasít, deportál (c) utal (hatóság elé) fn megbízhatóság, szavahihetőség mn megbízható, szavahihető fn rablás ige (a) kér, követel (b) keres, kutat mn önálló, független, magánszektorhoz

tartozó 1 fn büntetés, ítélet 2 ige vmire ítél fn törvény mn törvényes, törvényi 118 Source: http://www.doksinet • statutory instrument summon summons suspect tenancy theft • petty theft thief traffic (in) trafficking trainee training trial verdict • reach a verdict/return a verdict of guilty or not guilty witness fn jogszabály ige behív, berendel, idéz 1 ige beidéz 2 fn idézés 1 fn gyanúsított 2 ige gyanúsít fn (a) bérleti szerződés (b) bérleti szerződés időtartama fn lopás fn jelentéktelen, kis értékre elkövetett lopás fn tolvaj 1 fn forgalom 2 ige jogellenesen üzletel vmivel, üzérkedik fn üzérkedés fn gyakornok fn képzés, tanítás fn (a) tárgyalás (b) próba fn (a) ítélet (b) halottszéki tárgyaláson hozott döntés ige ítéletet hoz bűnösség / ártatlanság kérdésében 1 fn tanú 2 ige tanúskodik 119