Sports | Watersports » Adaptive Sailing Resource Manual

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International Association for Disabled Sailing

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Adaptive Sailing Resource Manual ussailing.org In Cooperation with the International Association for Disabled Sailing This body of work grew from the original Disabled Sailing Manual from IFDS and contributions to that by Pauline and Ian Harrison, Jackie Kay, Phil Vardy and other IFDS volunteers. Information for the current Manual was compiled/written by Debra Frenkel, LCSW and Betsy Alison, Paralympic Coach for US Sailig with thanks and gratitude to all of those who have contributed to the contents including: IFDS, Sailability Australia, Sailability Rutland, Gowrie Group, local organizations, other agencies and individuals. This work has been completed because of the many volunteers and participants connected to adaptive sailing. Thank you all. FromthePresidentofUSSailing USSailingisproudtopresenttheAdaptiveSailingResourceManual.Inthisguideyouwillfinduseful

informationregardingtheadaptationofyourfacilitytosupportandaccommodatepeoplewithdisabilities.The manualprovidesdetailedinstructiononhowtoproperlyadaptyourboats,traininstructorsandvolunteers, learnaboutdifferenttypesofdisabilitiesandrecruitnewsailorsforyourprogramandmuchmore! Sailingisasportoffreedom–ofthewind,water,bodyandspirit.Thismanualisdesignedtohelpyoudevelop programmingthatsharesthefreedomofsailingwithpeoplewithdisabilities.Youwillbepleasantlysurprisedto understandjusthowpracticalthisisforyourorganization.Themanualwillshowyouhow! ThankyoutoDebraFrankel,BetsyAlison,IFDS,Sailability,ourUSSailingstaff,andthemanylocalorganizations, agenciesandindividualswhoworkedtirelesslytoputtogethertheAdaptiveSailingResourceManual. WehopethatyoufindthisincrediblyhelpfulindevelopingandimplementingyourAdaptiveSailingProgram. Seeyouonthewater!

  TomHubbell President,USSailing  FromthePresidentoftheInternationalAssociationforDisabledSailing TheIFDSisthrilledtoseethiscoͲoperativeventurewithUSSailingcometofruition.Thecollaborationand sharingofresourcestomakethisAdaptiveSailingResourceManualavailablehasbeenveryworthwhileforallof us.ItsupportsthevaluesofIFDSwhichareequity,opportunitytoexcelandempowermentforsailorswith disabilities. IFDSexiststopromotesailingactivitiesforpeoplewithanytypeanddegreeofdisability.Iamcertainthatthe IFDSmembers(RecognizedNationalAuthorities)willusetheknowledgeandadvicecapturedinthismanual.It willenablethemtoexpandthehorizonsandopportunitiesforthosewithadisabilitywhowanttoexploresailing ofallkindsbeitcruising,racingorjustpotteringaroundonthesea,riverornearbylake.

ThisManualwillhelpanyonewithaninterestingrowingthesport,anywhereintheworld,tomakethathappen. ManythankstoallwhohavecontributedtomakingthisAdaptiveSailingResourceManualpossible. Kindregards.  JohnTwomey President,IFDS TableofContents I. INTRODUCTIONͲGETTINGSTARTED.3 Whatyouneedtoknow. 3 Equipmentneedsforanewadaptiveprogram.4 II. DISABILITYAWARENESS. 5 Viewpoint. 7 Personalspace. 8 Wheelchairinformation. 8 Prostheticdevices. 9 III. FACILITYREQUIREMENTS 10 Ramps,Stairs,DocksandPontoons&ShoreLaunching.10 IV. SAFETY,RISKMANAGEMENT&INSURANCE18 SafetyConsiderationsforPeoplewithDisabilities.18 Insurance. 21 V. STAFF,VOLUNTEERS&PARTICPANTS.22 Staff. 22 InstructionandCoachingforSailorswithDisabilities.22 Volunteers. 23 DisabilityEtiquette/TrainingforyourVolunteers.27 RecruitingParticipants. 28 VI.

INSTRUCTIONALTECHNIQUES 30 Paraplegics&Quadriplegics.30 BrainInjuries. 30 VisualImpairments. 31 HearingImpairments. 31 IntellectualDisabilities. 32 Transferring/Lifting. 33 VII. EQUIPMENTADAPTATIONS 38 MobilityͲImpairmentAdaptations.39 StabilityͲImpairmentAdaptations.41 HandFunction. 44 Steering&TillerModifications.45 VisualImpairment. 48 AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|1  SpecificExamplesofAdaptationNeedsandtheirSolutions.50 VIII. BOATS 52 AccessDinghies. 52 SKUD18. 52 Freedom20. 53 HobieTrapseat. 53 NorlinMarkIII2.4mR 54 Martin16. 54 Sonar. 55 ChallengerTrimaran. 56 Ideal18. 56 FlyingScot. 57 IX. ADDITIONALRESOURCES 58 “ComeandTryDay!”ͲSampleProgramOutline.59 Local/National/InternationalInformation.63 TheInternationalFoundationforDisabledSailing(IFDS).64 WorkingwithSchools. 66 VolunteerRegistrationForm.67

ParticipantApplicationForm.68 Accident/IncidentProcedureFlowChart(reprintedwithpermissionfromGowrieGroup).69 EmergencyProcedure(reprintedwithpermissionfromGowrieGroup).70 CommonDisabilities,InstructionalTechniques&OtherConsiderations.71 TypesofDisabilities. 71        AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|2  I. INTRODUCTIONǦGETTINGSTARTED Acommunityismadeupofallsortsofindividuals.OurphilosophyatUSSailingisthateveryoneshouldhave accesstothesportofsailing.Wesupportthedevelopmentandpromotionofsailingforpeopleregardlessof theirskilllevelandphysicalabilities.Withthismanual,wehopetoassistyouinbecomingmoreawareofthe needsofthoselivingwithaphysicalormentalimpairment.Wealsowanttohelpyoumakeyourfacility universallywelcomingandsafe. Whatyouneedtoknow

Thismanualisfullofinformationthatwilloffertheabilitytoincludeyourcommunitymemberswithdisabilities inthesportofsailing.Thissectionisalookat“HowtoGetStartedataGlance”Itispossibletoget overwhelmedwhenseeingallthatisofferedinthismanual.Hereisanoutlinetoputyouateaseandgetyou started.Remember,thegoalisbringingthesportofsailingandtheenjoymentofittothosewhomaynot otherwisehavetheopportunitytoexperiencethefreedomandexcitementthatsailingoffers. Hereareafewsuggestedstepstohelpyougetstarted: 1. Doresearch Sinceyou’rereadingthismanual,you’vetakenthefirststeptowardscreatingasuccessfuladaptiveprogram. Manyorganizationsfearthattheirprogramisn’tequippedtorunaprogrambecausetheydon’thavethe facilities/resources,fundingorproperstafftraining.However,asyou’llfindinthismanual,therearea

varietyofinexpensiveadaptationsthatwillallowyoutorunaverysuccessfulprogramwithoutover extendingyourresources.Additionally,thismanualprovidesavarietyofsuggestionsforhowtobestequip yourstaffandvolunteers,toteachsailorswithdisabilities.It’salsohighlyrecommendedthatyoureachout tootherorganizationsforsuggestions.  2. Prepareyourequipment Prepareyoursailboats,safetyboatsandfacilitiesbymakingnecessarymodifications.Itisbeneficial, wheneverpossible;toincludesomeonewithadisabilityinyourplanningastheywillbesensitivetowhat needstobedone.Inthismanualweshowexamplesofavarietyofmodificationsandadaptationsthatwill makethisprocesseasier.  3. Designaprogram Holdinga“ComeandTry!”dayisagreatwaytointroduceindividualswithdisabilitiestosailing,aswellas recruitforyourprogram.Designthedaysothatyouhaveactivitiesbothonthewaterandadditionalsailing

relatedactivitiesonland.DON’TFORGETTOHAVEFUN!!!MakeitasocialeventRemember,attheendof thedayyourultimategoalshouldbetoteachsomeonetosail.Additionally,figureoutwaystoretainsailors aftertheinitialsailingday.Youwon’tget100%ofparticipantsreturningbutretentionisakeygoalforany program.  4. Trainyourstaff/volunteers Explainhowtheprogramwilloperateandmakesureeveryoneisproperlytrained.Ifyouneedadditional support,contactyourlocalhospitaloruniversitieswithPhysicalorOccupationalorRecreationalTherapy programstoseeifanytherapistswouldliketovolunteertheirhelp.  AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|3  5. Findsailors Pickadate,timeandletyourlocalcommunityknow.Getthewordout!Localsocialserviceagenciescan connectyouwithpotentialsailorsthroughhospitals,SpecialOlympics,TherapeuticRecreationDepartments

(atthecityorcountylevel)orveteransgroups.Besuretoaskmembersofyoursailingcentertoseeifthey knowofindividualsorgroupswhoshouldbeaskedtojoinin.  6. Planthenextsteps Onceyourunaonedayprogram,decidewhatyournextstepwillbe.Developconversationswithlocal agenciestoseeifyoucancoordinatearegularlyscheduledopportunityforsailorswithdisabilities.Lookinto grantsandadditionalrevenuestreamsthatmaybeavailablespecificallyforyourorganization. Equipmentneedsforanewadaptiveprogram Thefollowingisabrieflistofwhatmightbeusedinyourinitialproposaltostartanadaptivesailingprogram: x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Boats:1Ͳ3ofthesametypeofboatthatarealreadyorcaneasilybemadeaccessible,i.eAccess Dinghies;Freedom20s;Sonars;anyopencockpitkeelboatthatiseasilyadaptedorwide,stabledinghy suchasaFlyingScot.

TrailerorDryRackstoragefortheboatsortieupareaalongsideapermanentorfloatingdock Safetyboat Safetyboattrailer/dryrackstorage LifeJackets/PFD’s Whistles LifttotransfersailorsfromdocktoboatsuchasaHoyerlift(notnecessarytobegin,butarealbenefitif available)ortransferbox Liftharness(ifyouhavealift) TwoͲwayradios Bailersorhandpumps(needdependentuponboats) Floatingmarks(forinstructionandpracticingskills) Mushroomanchorsformarks Bullhorn/Loudhailer Toolsandtoolbox FirstAidkit ProgramRelease/Waiver(forparticipantsandvolunteers) Additionalneedsforyourspecificvenuemaybenecessary.Thereareagreatnumberoforganizationsand peoplewhowilloffertheirexpertiseandexperiencetoassistyou.Feelfreetocontactthemthroughthe resourceslistedattheendofthismanual.   AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|4  II. DISABILITYAWARENESS

Thereareawiderangeofdisabilities,andeventhesametypeofdisabilitywillaffectpeopledifferently.Some categoriesofdisabilitiesandsomechallengestheymaypresentinclude: 1) Disabilitiesthatmaylimitphysicalmobility:spinalcordinjury(SCI),cerebralpalsy(CP),paralysis (paraplegiaorquadriplegia),musculardystrophy(MD),fibromyalgia,cysticfibrosis,amputations, multiplesclerosis(MS),arthritis,andspinabifada. Ͳ PossibleChallengesforSailing: x Equipmentmayneedtobeadaptedtosuittheperson’sneeds. x Theinstructor/volunteermayneedtoassistwithhelpingthesailoronandofftheboat. x Thesailormayfatigueeasilyduetomuscleweaknessandspasticity. x Mobilityissuesmayincreasesusceptibilitytohypothermiaincoolerconditionsand hyperthermiainhot,humidconditions. x Theremaybesomedifficultywithbalanceonandofftheboatduetocoordinationissues, levelofspinalcordinjury/paralysis,andsensoryloss.

x Reducedsensationorparalysisinthelimbscouldleadtoinjuriesofthefeetandlegs.Itis advisabletowearsneakerswhilesailingandpadanyacuteedgesontheboatand equipment.Paddedshortsandpantsarerecommendedinadditiontoacushionorpadding underthebuttocksofthosewithspinalcordinjuries. x Lossofbladderorbowelcontrol.  2) Developmentaldisabilities:Downsyndrome,traumaticbrainInjury(TBI),cerebralpalsy,autistic spectrumdisorders,cysticfibrosis,musculardystrophy,epilepsy,anddiabetes Ͳ PossibleChallengesforSailing: x Balancemaybeaproblemonandofftheboat. x Sailorsmayfatigueeasily. x Dependingonthedisability,itmaybenecessarytomodifysomeofthesailingequipment. x Theinstructor/volunteermayneedtoassistwithhelpingthesailoronandofftheboat. x Sensoryimpairmentsmayreducetheabilitytofeelpain,andaninjurymaygounnoticed. x

Diabeticsneedtomonitortheirbloodsugarlevels.Askthesailorwhathis/herneedsare andfamiliarizeyourselfwiththeirtreatmentandactionplans.Thesailormightneedtokeep theirinsulinnearbyinacooldryplaceaswellasasnackshouldtheyhaveaninsulinreaction (lowbloodsugar).  3) Visualimpairments:Anythingthatcausesapersontohavedifficultyseeingsuchas:congenital blindness,amblyopia,strabismus,cataracts,diabeticretinopathy,glaucoma,andmaculardegeneration. Ͳ PossibleChallengesforSailing: x Sailorsmayhavedifficultybecomingorientedwithinthefacility.Thiscanincludethe directionofthewateranddocks,locationofboatsandequipment. x Difficultyunderstandingthedirectionanddistancetothebuoysandotherboatsonthe water.Audibleaidsandcuescanhelpthesailor x Difficultyunderstandingthedirectionthatthewindiscomingfrom,andthevelocityofit.

Sensorycueswillhelpthesailor.Additionally,givingconsistentandfrequentcommunication AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|5  andfeedbackwhileoutonthewaterwillbehelpfulandusefultothevisuallyimpaired sailor. x Notunderstandingwhereeverythingispositionedwithintheboat.Usingtactilecuesand differentsizelines,aswellasanorientation,willhelpfamiliarizethemwiththeboat. 4) Hearingimpairments:Anythingthataffectsaperson’shearingsuchasconductivehearinglosssuchas sensorneuralhearingloss,auditoryneuropathyspectrumdisorder,mixedhearingloss,andcentral hearingloss.  Ͳ PossibleChallengesforSailing: x Difficultyidentifyingspecificcontrollines,sheetsandfittings.Labelsonequipmentand visualcues,suchasmarksonparticularlinesorfittings,willbebeneficialtothesailor. x Unfamiliaritywiththefacilityorsailingarea.Usingmapsandchartsprovidesagreat resourceforacclimation x

Miscommunicationonwhentoperformactionssuchasmovingthetillerortrimasail. CreatingwellͲdefined(andagreeon)clearvisualsignalswiththehearingimpairedsailorwill solvethisproblem.Forexample,thumbsupmeanssailisatagoodtrim,thumbsdown meanssailneedsadjusting.Wavingyourhandsidetosidemeansletsailout;tappingyour kneemeanstrimsailin.  5) Cognitivedisabilities:Autism,TraumaticBrainInjury(TBI),Dementia,AttentionDeficitdisorder(ADD), dyslexia,dyscalculia,Aphasia,learningdisabilitiesorsomekindofdifficultywithcognitivecalculationor processing. Ͳ PossibleChallengesforSailing: x Proficiencyofthesailor’swatersafetyskills. x Themovementoftheboatundersailingoranabruptchangeinmotion(likeheelingoverin agustofwind)maycausehimorhertobecomefearfulorerratic. x Misunderstandingofexpectationsanddirections.Beconciseanddeliberatewhen communicating. x

ProblemͲsolvingforthesailormaybedifficultinapressurizedsituation.Positive reinforcement,encouragement,andconsistencyshouldhelpthesailorprocessand rememberthesailingtraining. Keepinmindthatpeoplelivingwiththedisabilitiesmentionedabovemayuseamobility,visual,orhearingaid suchasawheelchair,walker,orcane.Somemightbeaccompaniedbyafamilymemberorpersonalcare attendant(PCA).Theindividualmaybeabletowalkwithoutassistancebutmayhavedifficultynavigatingstairs andotherbarriers.Sittingand/orstandingforextendedperiodsoftimemaybeaconcernforsome participants.Certainmedicationscanaffecttheirendurance,stamina,andfocusItisimportantthatyouask theparticipantsinyouradaptivesailingprogramwhattheirconcernsandneedsare,besensitivetothoseneeds, andmonitortheactivitiestheyareparticipatingintomakesurethattheyarecomfortableandenjoyingtheir sailingexperience. 

AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|6  Sometopicsthatyoumaywanttoreviewwithyourstaffandvolunteerswhenworkingwithindividualswith disabilitiesandspecialneedsare: x x x x x Viewpoint Communication Personalspace Wheelchairinformation Prostheticdevices Viewpoint Havingadisabilitydoesn’tautomaticallyqualifyasneedingassistance. Firstandforemost,ifyouthinksomeonemayrequireassistance,askiftheywouldlikehelp!Iftheyaccept,ask themhowbesttohelpandlistencarefullytowhattheytellyou.NEVERassumethatyouknowbesthowtohelp aspecificindividual.Iftheydonotknowhowtofacilitatesomeaspectofanactivity,youmightsuggestpossible solutions.Individualswithdisabilitiesshouldbeencouragedtotakeanactive,supportiveroleintheoperation oftheprogramandtodoasmuchaspossibleontheirown.Thisenhancestheirindependenceandgivesthem anopportunitytobeanassettotheprogram.

Trainingandsupporttoacquirenewskillsshouldbeofferedtothosewithdisabilitiesasitwouldbetoanyother sailoratthefacility.Itisimportantforparticipantswithdisabilitiestobegivenachievabletasksandbe encouragedtoprogressatwhateverratetheyarecomfortable. TIP:ItisbesttoalwaysrefertotheABILITYratherthanDISABILITY.Thefocusshouldbeonachievement, acknowledgingandnurturingtheability.  Communication Somepeoplewithdisabilitiesmayhavedifficultywithcommunication. ItisimportanttoestablishhowanonͲverbalpersoncommunicatesYESandNO.Askthemtoshow“yes”and then“no”.CommunicationmightbecomeeasierwhenyouphrasequestionsrequiringaYESorNOanswerIf thepersonisnotabletoevengiveyoua“YesorNo”response,askthepersonwhobroughttheparticipantto thesailingcenterhowmuchtheparticipantunderstandsandwhatthebestwaytocommunicatewiththat

individualis.ThePCA(PersonalCareAttendant),familymemberorfriendshouldbeabletoshowyousignificant signsorcommunicativemannerismsthatareidentifiableandhelpful. Youneedtobepatientwhenapersonhasdifficultywithverbalcommunication.Ifyoucan’tworkoutwhatthe personistryingtotellyou,askthemtoslowlyrepeatwhatthey’vesaid.Don’tbeembarrassedtosaythatyou can’tunderstand.Ifyouhaveaquestion,justaskSpeaktotheminaclearandconcisetone,keepingyour sentencesshortandsimple.Givethemtimetoanswerandnevercutthemoffbyfinishingtheirsentences Whenspeakingwithapersoninawheelchair,talkdirectlytothem.Donottalkaroundoroverthemtotheir PCAorcompanion.Trygettingdowntoeyelevelandmakesuretheycanhearyou Wheninteractingwithsomeonewithahearingimpairment,itisimportanttokeepinmindthatsomeofthese

individualsmayhavepartialhearinglossandcancommunicatefairlywell.Otherhearingimpairedindividuals AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|7  mightreadlipsorusesignlanguage.BemindfulofhowtheyprefertocommunicateIftheycommunicate throughsignlanguageandyoudonothavesomeoneonstafforavolunteerwhocansign,thatparticipantmay wanttobringasignlanguageinterpretertothesailingsessions. Whencommunicatingwithsomeonewithavisualimpairment,alwaysmakesureyouintroduceyourselfandlet themknowyou’rethere.ItisequallyhelpfultoletthemknowifyouareleavinganareaTheymayrequestyour assistancebutneverassumethatitisneeded.TheindividualmayhaveaguidedogAlwayscheckwiththe individualonhowtointeractwiththeguidedog.Remember,thatthisisaserviceanimal CommunicationisatwoͲwayprocess.Relayingamessagethroughspeechoracommunicationaidisineffective

withoutacarefullistener.Whenaparticipantiscommunicatingwithyou,focusonthemandlistentowhatthey aresaying.YoumaywanttorepeatbackthemessageyouthinktheysendingtoyoutoconfirmitAfteryou havegiveninstructiontothesailor,itmaybehelpfultohavetheindividualrepeatbackwhatyouare communicatingtoensureunderstanding. Mostimportantly,staffandvolunteersshouldalwaysbeobservant,respectful,andpleasanttoanyonecoming tosailatyourcenter. Personalspace TheuseofpersonalspaceandphysicalinteractioncanbeatypeofnonͲverbalcommunication.Personalspace requirementsvaryfrompersontoperson.Unwantedintrusionsintopersonalspacemightleadtoaperson withdrawingorhavinganoutburst,dependingifhe/shehasabehavioraldisorder. AphysicalinteractionisoneofthemostimportantnonͲverbalsignals.Touchingcanbeperceivedasavery

positivething,butitcanalsobeperceivedasanegative.Onthepositiveside,touchingisonewaypeople demonstrateprotection,support,andcaring.Initsnegativecontext,touchingmaysignalsuperiorityand dominance.Apersonwithadisabilitymaynotnecessarilywanttobetouchedorassistedbutisunableto communicatethat.StaffandvolunteersneedtobeawareandsensitivetothisissueBecognizantofthe reactionyoureceive.Ifyouattempttoassistsomeonesteppingonthedockandreachouttoholdtheirarm, theymightnotbeabletospeakuptotellyou“no”.Payattentiontotheirfacialexpressionsorbodylanguage Aretheylookingangryorworried?Aretheytryingtopullaway?Beawareofhowyourphysicalinteractionis makingthatpersonfeel. Wheelchairinformation Donotassumethatapersoninawheelchairwantstobepushed. ALWAYSaskfirst.Aperson’swheelchairispartoftheirpersonalspace

It’salmostanextensionofthemandshouldbetreatedwithrespect. Youshouldneverleanonorholdthewheelchairunlessyouare assisting.Neverleavethechairunattendedwithoutfirstputtingonthe brakes.Aftertheparticipanttransfersintotheboat,makesuretheir wheelchairismovedwellawayfromtheedgeofthedockorwater.Try nottoleavethewheelchairinthesun/weatherwhileunoccupied.If thereisnoshelterorcoverforthechair,considerturningthecushion upsidedownorflipthechairovertoprotecttheseatedareafromthesunorweather. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|8  Therearemanydifferentmodelsandstylesofwheelchairs.Peoplewithupperbodystrengthwillgenerallyusea manualwheelchair.ManualwheelchairsneedtobepushedorselfͲpropelledManualwheelchairscomeina widevarietyofsizes,colorsandperformancelevels.

Someissuestobeawareofwithamanualwheelchair:Ifthechairisdifficulttopush,thetiresmaybeflatorlow onair.Itmightbehelpfultohaveabiketirepumponsitewithsomenozzlefittingsincaseofaloworflattire Unevenground,sand,andlargestonesshouldbeavoidedbecauseitisverydifficulttopushawheelchairover thosesurfaces.Whileonthedockitmightbeagoodideatokeepthebrakesontohelpkeepthechairfrom rolling. Somemanualwheelchairsdonothavebrakesandifleftemptyandunattendedshouldbeflippedovertokeep fromrolling.TrynottoletthecushionlayonthegroundRemember,thesailorwillneedtositonthatcushion whentheyreturnfromsailing. PowerWheelchairsareabitmorecomplicated.TheytoovaryinsizeandshapeTomoveapowerwheelchair manually,thereisasmallwheel/knob/leverinsidethebackwheels,whichcanbeunlocked.Notethatthese

chairsareveryheavywhenunlockedintomanualmode,someexceedingseveralhundredpounds.Power wheelchairsneedtobeturnedoffwhenstationarytokeepthebatteryfromdyingandtopreventany accidental,unanticipatedmovement.Ifyouneedtomoveapowerwheelchair,asktheownerofthechairfor his/herpermissionandforanyspecificinstructionsthatmightbeneeded.Theelectroniccontrolsareextremely sensitivetotouch.Sogreatcaremustbetakenwhenattemptingtooperate/moveone,especiallywhennear thewater’sedge. TIP:Wheelchairusersknowtheirequipment,soaskthemtoreviewhowthechairworksbeforetryingto maneuverit. Prostheticdevices Aprostheticdeviceorprosthesisbasicallyreferstothereplacementofabodypart,forexampleanarmorleg. Somepeoplearebornwithoutbodypart(s)andsomepeoplehavetohavebodypart(s)amputatedduetoan

injuryorillness.Sometimessailorsleavetheirprostheticarmsandlegsonthedockwhentheyheadoutonthe water.Makesurethattheprosthesesaresafelysecuredorstored,perhapsinthedockhouseItmightbea goodideatodesignateaspacesothatprosthesesstaydryandthatyouandthesailorsalwaysknowwherethey havebeenputforsafekeeping.     AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|9  III. FACILITYREQUIREMENTS Manypeoplewithdisabilitiessailsuccessfullyatvenueswithnospecialfacilitiesoradaptations.Challengeswith physicalaccesscanbemanagedwithapositiveattitudeandminimallossofindependenceforsailorswhohave disabilities.Priortoinvitingindividualswithdisabilitiestoyoursite,youmayneedtomakeafewadjustmentsto yourvenueandfamiliarizeyourstaffandvolunteerswithadaptinginstructionand/orboats.

Accessiblefacilitiesbenefiteveryone.Muchofthefollowingcanbeintroducedeasilyatthedesignstageorat minimalcostifchangesneedtobemadetoyoursite. Takealookatyoursailingcenterandaskyourselfthefollowingquestions: x x x x DoIhavedocksthatareaccessibletoapersoninawheelchair? HowwillawheelchairͲusingnewcomergetintoaboat? Aremyrestroomsaccessible? Aremyparkinglot,walkways,andbuildingdoorwaysaccessible?  Considerborrowingawheelchairandnavigatingaroundyourfacilitytosee whatchallengesyoucomeupagainst.Thisisagoodwaytobecome sensitivetotheneedsofsomeonewhousesawheelchair.Youmaynotice thatsigns,doors,countersorotherthingsaredifficulttoreach,maneuver aroundorutilize.Youcanalsosimulatebeingvisuallyimpairedby blindfoldingyourself(accompaniedbyasightedpartner)togiveyourselfan importantperspectiveofobstaclesanddangersforsomeonewhocannot

see.Whileassessingyourfacility,considerthefollowing: Ramps,Stairs,DocksandPontoons&ShoreLaunching Ramps Ideally,rampsshouldhavegentleslopesandlevelareasneardoorwaystopreventwheelchairsrollingback downtherampwhenopeningadoor.Levelareasthatbreakuplongerrampsgivethoseinwheelchairsaplace torest.Iftheriseandfallofthetideatyourfacilityisgreaterthan3feet(approximately1meter),theramp maybecomeverysteepatlowtide(greaterthan1:7ratio).Wiremesh,nonͲskidpadsorindustrialstrength rubbermatscanbelaidoverareaswhichmaybeslipperywhenwettopreventawheelchairfromsliding.Hand andguardrailscanbeinstalledoneithersideoftherampforsafetyandadditionalsupport.      AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|10  Iftherampcannotbeextendedtomaketheslopegentler,consider: x x x

Addingtreadsnowiderthan8inches(20cms)forwheelchairusers.Thiswidthallowsthewheelsofa chairpasseasilyeithersideofthetreads; AddingnonͲskidpadsortreadstomakethesurfacenonͲslipwhenwet; Providingextrahelponthedockatlowtidetoassistsailorsgettingupordowntheramp. StepsandStairs Somewheelchairuserscanmanageasmallstepindependentlybuttwoormorestepsmayrequireasmallramp orphysicalassistance.Graduatedlongerrampsorelevatorsprovideanalternativetostairsbutaremorecostly toinstall.       Therearestairliftsonthemarketthatprovidealessexpensiveoptionforinstallinganelevator.Someliftsare opentotheelementsandothersareenclosed.Ifyouthinkyoumightwanttoaddanelevatororlifttoyour buildingtherearegrantsforsuchprojectsavailablethroughlocalgovernmentagencies,charities,orlocal serviceorganizations/foundations.  

AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|11    Docks&Pontoons Thedock,orpontoon,shouldbewideenoughtoallowtwowheelchairuserstopassbyeachother,butthisis notabsolutelynecessary(approximately6ft./180cm)Itisimportantforthedocktobestableandnottiltover andsubmergeifeveryonemovestooneside.ItshouldhaveanonͲslipsurfacewithminimalgapstopreventthe smallwheels(frontcasters)onthewheelchairfromgettingcaught(carpeting,webbedcanvasorwiremeshmay beusedtocoverthegaps.)Awoodenstrip(1inx1in/25mmx25mm)alongtheedgeofthedockwouldbe veryhelpfultoalertapersonwithavisualimpairmenttothedockperimeters,andtopreventwheelchairsfrom accidentallyrollingintothewater.    Shorelaunching Shorelaunchingrequiresafirm,smoothbeach,surfaceorramp.Ifnecessary,thiscanbeimprovedbylaying

carpet,plankedwalkway,heavydutyrubbermattingorplywoodontopofthesurface.     Thoughwheelchairscanbepushedsafelyalittlewayintosaltwater,theyshouldnotbeinthewaterforlong periodsoftime.ThesaltshouldbewashedoffassoonaspossibleandanymechanicalpartslubricatedAbeach wheelchaircouldalsobeusedasanoption.Thesechairscanberentedorpurchased,andifyoudoalotof shorelaunching,theymightbeagoodideaforyoursailingcenter. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|12  Dependingonthetypeofdisability,somesailorsmighthaveahardtimestayinguprightinthebeachwheelchair sincetheyaren’tassupportiveastypicalwheelchair.Thesailorwillneedassistancewithmovingaroundinthis typeofwheelchair.Therearepowerbeachwheelchairsonthemarket,buttheyarefarmoreexpensive TransferBoxorBoard

Individualswhohavegoodupperbodystrengthmightuseatransferbox/board.Thisisaboxwithahinged boardattachedthatwhenopenedup,providesaramptoslidefromtheboxtoptotheboat.Positionthe transferbox/boardsothattheycantransferfromtheirwheelchairontothebox,thenslideontotheboatand maneuverthemselvesintosailingposition.Atransferboardallowsthesailortotransferdirectlyfromtheirchair totheboatbyslidingfromonetotheother.        Hoyer,ElectronicLifts Therearemanydifferenttypesofliftsthatcanbeusedtoassistinthetransferringofpeoplewithdisabilities. Theseliftsareextremelyhelpfulwithlargerpeoplewhomaybedifficulttoliftmanually.ANYliftusedmustbe approvedtoholdsignificantbodyweightandmustmeettherequirementsoftheDepartmentofHealth.A hydraulicHoyerliftisusedatmanysailingsites.Theseareveryeasytouseaslongastheyaremounted

securelyinaconvenientpositiononthedockthatallowseasyaccesstotheboatbeingused.Althoughthe mountwillbepermanentlyplacedonthedock,theliftitselfcanberemovedandstoredindoorswhennotin use. Anelectronicallypoweredliftwilldothesameworkasahydraulicpumpliftwithouthavingtomanuallypumpit upanddown.Theseapprovedliftscanbeeasilyfoundontheinternet–theyareoftenutilizedaspoollifts Note:Donotexceedtherecommendedweightlimitsforthehoiststhatyouuseatyourfacility.    AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|13  SlingsorLiftingHarnesses SlingsoraliftingharnessareneededforboththeHoyerandElectroniclifts.Somesailorswillhavetheirown personalslings/harnessesthattheyprefertouse.However,thesailingcentershouldmeettherequirementsof theDepartmentofHealthwhenselectingtypesofslingsforthefacility.Slingsthatcradlethesailoraroundthe

backandbuttocksandthatcrossbetweenthelegsarehighlyrecommendedbecausetheyoffertheextrasafety ofkeepingapersonfromslidingoutoftheslingduringthetransfer.Somesailorsprefertouseclimbingor mountaineeringharnessestypicallyusedbybigboatbowmen.               AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|14  AccessibleParkingSpaces Parkingshouldbeavailableclosetothesailingcenter’sbuilding,dockorbeachwithenoughspaceforacardoor toopencompletely,orforavantoloweraramp.Clearsignagefordesignatedspacesreservedfordriversand passengerswithdisabilitiesshouldbemadeavailable.   Signage Signsthatusealargefontsizeandstyle(sansserif),highcontrast,andaredisplayedataconsistentheightwill behelpfultothosewithvisualimpairmentsthatcanreadvisuallyandbytouch.Makesuretheletteringishighly

contrastedtothebackgroundandthatallsignshaveanonͲglarefinish.Considerusingredorblacktextonan allͲwhitebackground.Tactilecharactersshouldbealluppercase,thin,raisedoretched,andwidelyspacedYou mayalsowanttoincludeBraillewhenhavingnewsignsmadeforyoursailingsite.       AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|15  AccessibleDoorways Thewidthofthedoorframeshouldbeaminimumof36”toaccommodatemostwheelchairsandideallyhave 36”ofclearspacewhenthedoorisopen.Agoodcolorcontrastbetweenthedoorframeandthesurrounding wallsishelpfulforpeoplewithvisualimpairmentsinidentifyingthedoorway.Ifthereisaliporastepupor down,considerpostingasignandlayingcautiontapeorpaintingthethresholdabrightcolortodrawattention totheliporstep.Handlesand/orgrabrailsontheinsideand/oroutsideofadoormakeiteasierforpeopleto

pullthemselvesthroughthedoorway.Leverhandlesmakeiteasierforthosewithadisabilitytoopendoors      Pathways/Walkways Ideally,pathwaysandwalkwaysshouldbehardsurfaced(notsand,gravelormuddygrass)andclearofany obstructions.Forroughorunevensurfaces,youcanuseoldcarpet,sheetsofwood,metalgridsorsnowfences onthegroundtoprovideatemporarysolutionforaccommodatingwheelchairsandpeopleusingprosthetic devices.Ifyouhaveaprogramwithmanyparticipantswhoarevisuallyimpaired,havinginsetguidancetilesto alloweasynavigationofsidewalksandwalkwaysatyourfacility.   AccessibleRestrooms/ChangingRooms Thefollowingfeaturescanhelpmakeanexistingrestroommoreaccessible:Widedoorswithapullrailonthe inside;nonͲslipfloorsurfaceandgrabrailsbytoilets,sinksandshowers,bothverticalandhorizontalinposition.

Aseatorbenchforchangingwithnearbyclotheshookssetatareachableheightisideal.Toiletstallswith doorsopeningoutwardswithpullrailsarealsoideal.   AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|16  AccessibleShower(s) Anaccessibleshowershouldhavealevelfloorwiththefloorslopinggentlytoacovereddrainhole.Somekind ofwaterproofseatingsuchasashowerbench/stoolorafolddownwallmountedseat,orevenaplasticgarden chairwitharmscanturnaregularshowerstallintoanaccessibleone.Showersshouldideallyhavegrabrails, andadetachablehandheldshowerhead(easyconversionkitsavailableatanyhardwarestore),andwater controlsataheightthatcanbeeasilyreachedwhenseated.      Classroom/Social/CommonAreas Anyareasusedforgeneralinstructionormeetingshouldhaveclearunobstructedspaceforwheelchairstomove

aroundinwithadequatepathwaysbetweentablesandotherfixedobstructions.Avoidusingthrowrugsonthe floor.Throwrugstendtobeveryslipperysincetheydonotsticktothefloorandpeoplecaneasilytripover themwhenusingacaneorwalker.Lowheightservingtables/countersarealsohelpfulforwheelchairusers  Tableswithchairsormoveablebenches(notfixed/attachedbenches)arepreferabletoallowawheelchairto easilyreplaceachair.Ifyouarelookingtoaddseatingtoyourfacility,youcanpurchasewheelchairaccessible picnicandparktables.        AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|17  IV. SAFETY,RISKMANAGEMENT&INSURANCE SafetyConsiderationsforPeoplewithDisabilities Sailingisasafesportaslongaspoliciesandproceduresthathavesafetyinmindareimplementedandfollowed. Generally,thesamepoliciesthatyourprogramhaswithallparticipants(likewearingPFDswhileondocksor

nearthewater)shouldbethesameforparticipantswhohavedisabilities.However,thereareafew considerationsthatareimportanttodiscussinthismanual. Whenspecifictasksarebeingdone,liketransferringontotheboatorsecuringthesailorinaseatontheboat,it isimportanttoexaminehowyouarehandlingthattask.Isthewaythetaskisbeinghandledsafeforyouand forthesailor?Isthereasaferwayofdoingit?Itcanbeveryhelpfultobrainstormwithinstructors,caregivers, andthesailorsthemselvestodeterminewhatworksbestandmostsafelyforeveryone. Safetyshouldbeacornerstoneofyoursailingprogram.Therestshouldbepurefun,sportandenjoyment Communication “AsktheParticipant”isagoodmantratoremember.Doestheparticipanthaveaproblemthatmightaffect eithertheirownsafety,orthesafetyofothers?Iftheindividualisunabletocommunicatewell–askacaregiver

orthepersonwhoisaccompanyingthesailor.Ifthereisasafetyissue,itisimportanttoinformanyonewho willbeworkingwiththisindividualanddeviseaplan(keepingthatspecificissueinmind)toinsurethesafetyof thesailorandothers.Forexample,apersonwithparaplegiamaytellyouthathe/shehasaninjuryonhis/her foot,anditiscoveredinabandageandsock,butmustnothit/rubagainstanyotherobjectandneedstobe protectedfrominjury.Youmaywanttowraptheperson’sinjuredfootinatowelorsomesoftfoamandtapeit ontoensurethatthefootremainsclearofadditionalharm. Behavioralissues Forbehavioralissuesthatmayposeasafetyconcernfortheindividualsailororsomeoneelseonboard,youmay wanttoassignapersonalaidorinstructorforoneononeattentiontothatparticularindividual.Thiswillenable

aconsistent,strongstructureforthesailortofollow.Havingtheaidfollowupandhelpmaintainorderinthe classroom/ontheboat,willhelpprotectnotonlytheindividualfromharm,butothersaswell. Withsomegroupsofdisabilities,youmayhaveseveralparticipantswhohavebehavioralissues.Ifyoudonot haveanexistingpolicyonbehavioratyourcenter,youmaywanttoformulateone.Thiscanbedonewith advicefromtheleadersoftheparticulargroupyouareworkingwith,andmightincludebehaviormodifications, rewards,andappropriatediscipline(whichmightincludeexpulsion). Hypothermia,HeatExhaustion&Dehydration Attentionshouldbegiventoanypersonwhomayhaveadisabilityandnotbepersonallyawareofthedangers ofhypothermiaandheatexhaustion.Someparticipantsmayhavenosensoryfeelingof“cold”or“hot”,orbe

unawareofthemeaningofthatfeeling.Similarly,someparticipantsmayfinditdifficulttojudgetheirstamina accurately.(Sunscreenandhatsareextremelyimportantandshouldbewornbytheseindividuals)Some individualswithspinalcordinjuriesdonotsweatbelowtheirinjurylevel–soforthosewithhighlevelsofinjury (especiallycervicalinjuries)coolingthroughsweatevaporationmynotbepossible.Havingmistingspraybottles ofwateronhotdayscanbeveryhelpful.Underthedirectionofthesailor,aninstructormightspraymistonthe faceandarmsofasailortopromoteevaporationonahotdaytocoolthesailor. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|18  Participantsneedtotakewaterwiththemwhileengagedinactivitiesandneedtobeencouragedtodrinkfluids whiletheyareoutonthewatertoavoiddehydration. AutonomicDysreflexia Autonomicdysreflexia,alsoknownashyperreflexia,referstoanoverͲactiveAutonomicNervous

System,whichcausesanabruptonsetofexcessivelyhighbloodpressurethat,ifnottreatedpromptly andcorrectly,couldleadtostrokeorseizures(orinextremecases,death).Personsatriskforthis problemgenerallyhavespinalcordinjurylevelsaboveTͲ6.Autonomicdysreflexiacandevelop suddenlyandisconsideredamedicalemergency.Itoccurswhenanirritatingstimulusisintroducedto thebodybelowthelevelofspinalcordinjury,suchasanoverfullbladderoraningrowntoenail.The stimulussendsnerveimpulsesupthespinalcorduntiltheyareblockedbythelesionatthelevelof injury.Sincethenerveimpulsesareblockedbytheinjuryandcan’treachthebrain,areflexisactivated thatincreasesactivityofthesympatheticportionofautonomicnervoussystem.Thisresultsinspasms andanarrowingofthebloodvesselswhichcausesasuddenriseinthebloodpressure.Signsand

symptomsofautonomicdysreflexiaareapoundingheadache,goosepimples,sweatingabovelevelof injury,slowpulse,highbloodpressure(>200/100),redface,blotchingofskinaboveinjurylevel, restlessness,nasalcongestion,nausea,andcoldclammyskinbelowthelevelofinjury.Thoughthisis notacommonoccurrence,instructorsandvolunteersshouldbewatchfulforsignsofautonomic dysreflexiawhenworkingwithsailorswithhighlevelspinalcordinjuries,especiallythosewhoare quadriplegics. PersonalFlotationDevices(PFDs) CoastGuardapprovedPersonalFlotationDevices(PFD’s)mustbewornbyeachpersonnearoronthewater. MostpeoplewithdisabilitiescanusefoamcoreveststylePFDs.Ifforsomereason,thesailor’smovementis hinderedorobstructedbythefoamcorePFDoriftheirbodytypeorstiffnesswillnotallowaregularfoamPFD tobeworn,theinflatablevesttypePFDprovidesanalternative.

TIP:Forsafetyreasonsandtopreventinjury,inflatablePFDsshouldNEVERbewornunderneathrestraining harnessesorstraps! ItisimportantthateachsailortryonaPFDtomakesurethatitfits,andifpossible,testitwhileactuallyinthe waterwithsomeoneassisting.Thisistoinsurethatitadequatelysupportsthesailor!Sometimescrotchstraps mayneedtobeusedforsomeonewhohasnoupperlimbstopreventthevestfromslidingupoverthehead wheninthewater.SinceaPFDisaverypersonalitemandshouldfittheindividualrequirementsofasailor,itis highlyrecommendedthateachsailorpurchaseandmaintaintheirownPFD! TIP:Itiseverysailor’spersonalresponsibilitytotesttheirsafetyequipmentandbesurethatitisalwaysin properworkingorder! RiskManagement Manysailingprogramsmandateswimchecksfornewsailors.Aswimdemonstrationmightnotbepossible,

especiallyforahighlevelquadriplegicthatneedsassistancewithdressingandtransferring.Insomecases,you willbeabletomodifyaswimchecktobeafloatingrequirementwiththeappropriatePFD,whereasinothers you’llneedtoeliminatetheswimcheckcompletely.Becognizantofyourparticipantandtheircapabilities AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|19  Additionally,forthosewhocannotswim,youmaywanttomodifyyourinstructorͲtoͲsailorratioorincreasethe numberofsafetyboatsonthewater.Ifpossible,youmightbeabletodoaswimcheckinaheatedswimming pool.Manysailorswithdisabilitiescanswimand/orfloat Hypothermia/HeatExhaustioncanbeahigherriskforindividualswithdisabilities.Dependingonthelevelof spinalcordinjuryhe/shemaynotbeabletogaugeorregulatetheirbodytemperatureslikeableͲbodiedsailors,

sotheyneedtoberemindedofappropriateweathergear/dressoptionsandmonitoredtomakesuretheyare okay.It’sespeciallyimportanttogetsailorsonorofftheboatquickly,andoutoftheelementsuchasexcessive heatandsun. Somesailorswithdisabilitiesmaynotdrinkenoughbecausetheydon’thaveawaytoeliminatewhileonthe boatordon’twantto,whichputsthematahigherriskfordehydration.Allparticipantsneedtobeencouraged todrinkfluids. Paralyzedlimbsarealsoaconcernandshouldbehandledwithcare,especiallywhenthepersonisbeingliftedin andoutoftheboat.MakesurethatsomeoneistendingtothelooselimbstoguardthemfromharmSailors withparalysiscangethurt,bruisedorcutandnotknowitduetoalackoffeelingbelowtheirleveloninjury. Oncesafelyintheboat,itishelpfulforthesailortosecurelooselimbstogether(legswithaVelcroelasticstrap)

orahandsecuredontothetillerifskipperingtheboat.Again,askthesailorwhattheypreferandwhatthey thinkwillworkbest. Asstatedearlierinthismanual,specialseatingisimportantforsailorswithdisabilitiestoinsurestability,safety andkeepingtheindividualfrombeinginjured,especiallyonsensitivepressurepointareas.Thesailorshould wearprotectiveclothingonhis/herlegsandfeet,i.esocks,shoes,leggings/pants,anduseacushionfor pressurerelief.PleaseseetheseatingsectionintheBoatAdaptationssectionCushionsarevitalpiecesof equipmentforsailorswithdisabilitiessincetheyprovideessentialskinprotection,comfortforthosewithlimited movementwhentheywillbeseatedforlongperiodsoftime,andhelpfulforthosewithlimitedtrunkstabilityto maintainacertaindegreeofsupport.JayProtectorcushionsthatstrapontothelegsandwaisttoprotectthe

backside/buttocksoraRohocushionaretwoexamplesofsailingappropriatecushioningoptions. Medicationsmaybenecessaryforsomesailors,andassuch,theymayneedtocarryitwiththem,i.easthma inhalers;heartmedications;etc.Thesailingcenter/instructorshouldknowaboutthemedicationandknow whatitisusedforincaseofanemergency.Otherwise,medication,aswithanyothersailor,shouldnotbe administeredbystaff/volunteers.      AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|20  Insurance Insurancecoverageforsailingorganizationsvarieswidely.Someinsuranceprogramscoveradaptivesailing activitieswithoutneedforpolicyendorsements(changes)however;youshouldnotrelyonthattobethe case.Havetheleadershipofyoursailingorganizationcontactyourinsuranceagentandclearlyoutlinethe adaptiveprogrammingyouareplanningtoadd.Ifadditionalinformationisneeded,herearesomeofthe

elementsyoushouldoffertohelpestablishaprogramscopeforyourinsurancecarrier. x x x x x x Numberofadaptivesailingparticipants Numberofstaffandvolunteers Numberandtypeofboatsinvolved Trainingofstaff(USSailingCertifications,etc.) Frequencyanddurationofsailingsessions Locationofsailingsessions Allactivitiesonthewaterposeinherentrisksthatcannotbeavoided.Askingallvolunteersandparticipantsto signastandardwaiver/holdharmlessagreementisprudentandcommonlyinstitutedinotherinstructional sailingprograms. ManyofthesolidriskmanagementtechniquesoutlinedinGowrieGroup’sBurgeeProgramSafetyManualapply toadaptivesailingprogramsaswell.OrientationandtrainingofyourstaffandvolunteersiscriticalLeadership andaculturalawarenessofsafetyatyoursailingorganizationwillmakethenecessarydifferencetoensurea

safeenvironmentforyouremployees,volunteersandparticipants.Makesureeveryoneknowswhattheyare expectedtodoincaseofemergencyͲͲforanonthewaterincident,shouldtheycall911/Channel16or both?Whowilltakecontrolinanemergencysituation?AproͲactiveawarenessofadaptivesailingparticipant’s uniquecharacteristics,asoutlinedinthisbook,suchasreducedstabilityoraninabilitytoregulatebody temperature,isrequiredofthepeopleleadingyourprogram. ShouldyouprogramacquireadaptiveequipmentsuchasHoyerlifts,transferbenches,ramps,etc.youshould reviewyourinsurancepolicylimitstomakesurethatthispropertyisadequatelycoveredforloss.Thebottom lineisthatinsurancecoverageisavailable.Payattentiontoriskmanagementissuesthatareuniquetoadaptive sailingaswellasthosethatarecommontoallsailingprogramming.Vigilancepays         AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|21  V.

STAFF,VOLUNTEERS&PARTICPANTS Staff Havingakeypersondedicatedtotheinclusionofadaptivesailingintoyourorganizationisessentialtothe program’ssuccess.Aswithanynewprogram,therearemanyfacetstosettinguptheprogram:recruiting volunteersandparticipants,andthenimplementingtheactualprogram.Sailingprogramstaffmembersdonot needanyformaldisabilitycertificationstoinstructindividualswithdisabilities,however,trainingindisability awarenessandmanagingvolunteersisveryimportant. Itisessentialthatthepersoninchargeoftheadaptivesailingprogramatthesailingvenuebewellsupportedby his/hercoͲworkers.TheprogramcannotandshouldnotbeoperatedbyasingleindividualIttakesa communitytomakeanysailingprogramworktoitsbestandfullestcapacity.Thatiswhyvolunteersareequally asimportantasstaff. InstructionandCoachingforSailorswithDisabilities

Anyoneinterestedinteachingsailingtopeoplewithadisabilityshouldbeawareofthecriticaldistinctions betweeninstructingandcoaching.Alsoimportantarephysiologicaldistinctionsbetweensailorswithdisabilities andthosewithoutthatmayaffectthelearningprocess.Followingaresomeofthemajorcomponentsofeach area. ComponentsofInstruction TheterminstructionreferstoaveryhandsͲonprocesswhereeachactionofthestudentmustbecarefully planned,monitoredandcontrolledinordertoprovideasafeenvironmentconducivetolearning.Theinstructor takesagreaterresponsibilityforthephysicalsafetyofthesailor.Particularlyforsailorswithadisability,this meansbeingincreasinglyawareofandwatchingforpossibledangersandconcerns. Thetermcoachingreferstoamorefluidandadvancedformofinstructionintheeducationofsailors.When

coaching,theinstructorfocusesonthehigherperformanceaspectofmaneuvers,activitiesandperhaps competitiontostreamlinebasicskillsetsthatthesailoralreadyhaslearned.Itismore“handsoff”withthe sailorstakingmoreresponsibility,independenceandcontroloftheboatandtheirsurroundings. Thebiggestdifferencebetweenteachingsailingtopeoplewithadisabilitycomparedtothosewithoutisforthe instructortohaveaclearunderstandingofthephysical,emotionaland/ormentalparametersthatmayposeany limitationsthesailor’sabilitytoperformcertaintasks.Otherwise,thetheory,actions,tacticsandstrategyare justthesame. Commonconcerns Somecommonconcernsinstructorsshouldmonitorwhenworkingwithsailorswithdisabilitiesinclude: x x IncreasedpossibilityofheatͲandcoldͲrelatedproblemsmayoccurbecauseofaninabilitytomonitor

andcontrolbodytemperatureduetothenatureofthediseaseorphysicalinjury.Thisprimarilyoccurs insailorswithspinalcordinjuries,butmayalsoaffectsomeCP,amputeesandothers. Dehydrationmaybecomeaconcernduetoanactualorperceivedinabilitytorelieveoneselfonthe water,resultinginanunwillingnesstodrinkenoughfluidstomaintainadequatelevelsofhydration.  AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|22  x x Thepotentialforsailingrelatedinjuryisincreasedbecauseofreducedstability,handfunctionor mobility.Thiscanincludebeing"stuck"ontheleewardside;losingbalanceduringsuddenmaneuversor whenrespondingtosuddenchangesinwind;unknowinglygettinglimbswrappedinlinesorcaughton equipment. Lackofpersonalawarenessofinjuriessustainedmayoccurduetolossofsensationtoextremities. Injuriescanrangefromsplinters,minorandmajorcutsandabrasions,tobrokenbones.

Outsideoftheseareasofconcern,instructorsshouldmakeeveryefforttoprovideinstructionthatisidenticalto thatforableͲbodiedsailors.Beingoverprotectiveand“mothering”thesailormaylimitoreliminate opportunitiestoexperiencethethrills,challengesandadventuresofferedbythesport.Sailorswithadisability oftenhavegreaterabilitytoconcentrateandtoadapttoincreasedchallenges.Theyoftenpossessahigherlevel ofinterestthantheirablebodiedcounterparts.Additionally,sailorswithphysicaldisabilitiesmayhavegreater thanaveragestrengthandorabilityintheirremaininglimbsorsenseswhichcanbeofenormousbenefittotheir skillsassailors. Justastheywouldwithanysailor,theinstructorshouldholddetailedconversationsinadvancewitheach participanttodeterminethesailor’suniqueneeds,abilitiesorrequirements.  ComponentsofCoaching

CoachingisamorehandsͲoffapproachtolearningthanfundamentalinstruction,andtypicallyreferstothe continuedrefinementofbasicoralreadyestablishedskills.Again,careshouldbetakentomonitorareaswhere sailorsmaybeunawareoftheirownlimitations.BodyͲtemperaturerelatedissuesseemtobethemostcommon areasneedingmonitoring. Outsideofphysicalmonitoring,timeshouldbededicatedtoevaluatingthesailingprocess.Adaptingstandard techniquestoaccommodateanindividual’slimitationduringcommonmaneuvers(tacking.)canprovidegreat opportunitiesforrapidimprovementinskillandability.Perceivedlimitationsinmobilityandstabilitycanoften beeasilyovercomewithtraining,planning,andteamwork.Incoaching,nolimitationshouldbetakenfor granted.EveryeffortshouldbemadetoassistathletesinimprovingallnecessaryskillsArtificialimpediments

causedbyanassumptionofinabilitytoperformaskillaremostdamagingandshouldbeavoided.Aswith instruction,controlledtrialͲandͲerrorandstepͲbyͲstepanalysisarecriticalcomponentsoftheprocess. InstructionalMaterials Severalnationalsailingorganizationshavedevelopedmanualswhichcontaindetailedplansandproceduresfor sailinginstructionandcoachingthatincludesailorswithdisabilities.AmongtheseorganizationsareUSSailing, theRYA(RoyalYachtingAssociation),CYA(CanadianYachtingAssociation),andSailabilityinAustralia.These materialsarereadilyavailablethroughnationalwebsiteswhichcanbefoundintheresourcessectionofthis manual. Volunteers Volunteersareoftenthebestworkersbecausetheyarevolunteeringforsomethingtheybelieveinandenjoy. Volunteersareatremendousresourcewhenasailingprogramprovidessailingopportunitiesforindividualswith

disabilities.Theycanassistinnumerouswaysbothonlandandonthewaterfromsimplymakingsurethesailor haswater,toassistingwithtransfers,totheactualsailingwhileonthewaterasthe“ableͲbodied”assistant. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|23  Peoplewithdisabilitiesoftentravelwithothersoutofnecessityforassistance,e.gfamilymembers,siblings, friends,orhiredcaregivers/attendants.Theseindividualshavethepotentialofbecomingsomeofyourbest volunteersandnewmembers.Theyarealreadyfamiliarwiththenuancesandneedsofpeoplewithdisabilities andarecomfortablewithassisting. Pleaserememberthatvolunteersaresimilartoemployeesinthefactthattheyneedtohaveanorientationas tothepoliciesandproceduresatthecenter;disabilitytraining/awareness;andspecifictaskassignments. Volunteerswhoarenotmanagedandoccupiedmayfeelunneededorunwantedandmaynotreturn.Always

remembertothankthem.Thanksandacknowledgmentisalwaysappreciatedandwillencouragethereturnof volunteers. JobDescriptionsforVolunteers Individualprogramsshoulddeterminetheirownrequirementsandformulatetheirownjobdescriptions. Dependingonhowyouchoosetodevelopandimplementyouradaptivesailingprogram,volunteerscanbe maderesponsibleinanyofthefollowingsuggestedpositions: x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Assistonthedockswithlifting,gettingsupplies,maintainingdockareas ParticipateasanAbleͲBodiedAssistant/Skipperaboardtheboat Boatpreparation–rigging,carryingsails,launching,sailingtraining/instruction,rescue,etc. ServingonanAdvisoryCommittee VolunteerCoordinator SocialCoordination–Welcoming,Planningandimplementingsocialactivities Program/RegattaAdvisor AssistwithsecuringofProgramNeeds–Equipment,Maintenance,Facilities,BoatAdaptations,etc.

AssistwithMeals–planning,preparation,service,cleanup Coordinationofbookingsforsailing/boatingdays. Assistwithcommunicatingdaysofactivities/programs. Assistwiththedevelopmentandimplementationofalllocalsailingactivities. Assistwithrecruitmentandretainingparticipants AssistwithMarketingandPublicRelationsofprogram AssistwithFundraisingactivities Membershipsecretary Skillsrequired x GroupLeadership–leadership,organization,energy&enthusiasm x SailingSpecific–competentsailor,boathandling,sailingknowledge,trainercertification x Social–friendly,sociable,goodinterpersonalskills x Practical–creative/innovative,taskͲoriented,abletocompleteobjective x Specialist–firstͲaidqualifications,fundͲraising,accountsmanagement,writing/goodcommunicator Everyvolunteershouldknowwhatisexpectedofthem(andwhatisnot).Checkthattheycanandwanttodo whattheyareasked.

AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|24  RecruitingVolunteers AdaptiveSailingProgramsareoftenhighprofile,attractiveactivities.OftenpassersͲbyinadditiontofamilies, friendsandcaretakersbecomeengagedintheactivities.Anyonemaybeapossibleparticipant/volunteer Knowledgeofsailingisnotrequired,justwillingnesstobehelpful.Therearejobs,fromofficeworktoonwater activitiesforeveryonewhoiswillingtoassist,includingpeoplewithdisabilitiesaswell!Whenpreparingto recruitforvolunteers,youmaywanttoinviteasailorwithadisabilitytoaccompanytheheadoftheadaptive sailingprogramwhentheygotoselectedgroupsanddescribetheprogramandpresenttheopportunityto assist.Havingthesailortalkaboutwhatsailingmeanstothemandtheimportanceofallthosevolunteersin makingtheprogrampossiblecanhelpintherecruitmentofyourvolunteers(andwithfundingpossibilities).

Thefollowingareafewgroupsfromwhichvolunteersmayberecruited: x x x x x x x x Sailing/BoatingActivities/Clubs Juniorsailorsascoaches,dockpersons,shorehelpersandtransferassistants Communitymindedindividuals Recreationworkersinthedisabilityfield HospitalWorkers,especiallyphysicaltherapistsandtheirtrainees Largecompaniesthatencouragevolunteerism Localcommunity/religious/civicorganizations SocialServiceAgencies,e.gRotary,Kiwanis,Lyons,Masons,Scouts,etc StepsinRecruitment: x x x x Inviteasailorwithadisabilitytopresentwithyouatanyofyourlocalgroups. ContactUSSailingandaskforacopyoftheAdaptiveSailingvideo,whichcanalsobehelpfulinyour presentation. Afteryoumakeyourpresentation,invitethemouttosailwiththeadaptivesailingprogramforfreeto experiencetheprogramfirsthand. Beforeleaving,getcontactinformationforanyonewhoisinterestedinvolunteering.

Onceyouhaveyourstaff,volunteersandfacilityready,allyouwillneedissailors.Recruitingparticipantscanbe fun,butchallengingatthesametime.JustaswithableͲbodiedindividuals,somepeoplewillbereadytojump intoanewactivity,whereasothersmayneedsomehelpworkingthroughtheirfearsandinsecurities. RetentionofVolunteers YoumaywanttoconsiderhavingaVolunteerCoordinator,whocanassistwithrecruitingandmaintainingyour groupofvolunteers.ThispersonshouldbeawareofthedifferentreasonswhypeoplebecomevolunteersTo ensuretheyremaincontentandmotivated,itisimportanttoidentifythesereasonsandmakesurethatyour volunteersgainwhatevertheywerehopingtofrombecominginvolvedwiththeCenter’sactivities.Peopletend tobecomevolunteersforthefollowingreasons: 1. 2. 3. 4. Social–Meetingnewpeople,spendingtimewithfriendsandfamily,havingfun.

Educational/Career–Gainexperienceinacertainfieldorfulfillcourserequirements Health–Getting“outandabout”tostayactive Emotional–Asenseofsatisfactionatajobwelldone;anincreaseinone’sselfͲesteem;givingbackto thecommunity;andtosharetalentsandabilities. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|25  Volunteerswanttofeel:Needed,Useful,Partofateam/communityandWelcome!  1. Anorientationisanessentialpartofanyvolunteerprogramifyouwishtoensuretheretentionofthe volunteers.Anintroductiontoyourprogramandthekeypersonnelwillencouragevolunteerstostay involved. 2. AllowforaperiodofadjustmentAVolunteerCoordinatorshouldbeawareofdifferingpersonalitiesand thepotentialfor“clashes.”Carefullymonitorpotentialproblemsbutallowforaperiodof“balancing” ofpersonalitiestooccurbeforeintervening. 3.

Itisimportantnottopressureanewvolunteerintobeingavailablemoreoftenthanhe/sheis comfortable. 4. Clearexpectations/jobdescriptionsaremostbeneficialtovolunteers 5. MonitoringattendanceͲIftheydonotattend,callthemtocheckwhy(theirhealth,othercommitments, unhappywithgroupetc.) 6. Buildteamspiritbyhavingvolunteersworktogether/usingabuddysystem 7. Recognitionforthevolunteer’scontributiontotheadaptivesailingprogramismostimportantinthe retentionofgoodvolunteers.Everyprogramwillhavedifferentwaysofrecognizingtheirvolunteers Somesuggestionsare: x x x x x x x x x x x RecognitionCertificates Personalpraisewhileonthejob–Simple“Thanks!”isappreciated Writinglettersandpostcardsofthanks Givingidentificationpins,TͲshirts Acknowledgingtheminlocal/nationalnewsletters PresentingvolunteerawardsattheEndoftheSeasonCelebration AwardingBoating/Sailingprivileges

Holdingeventsinhonorofvolunteers Acknowledgingeffortsduringcommitteemeetings Honoringpeoplewithafarewellwhentheymoveawayfromthearea ProvidingBoating/Sailingtimeattheendoftheday.Thisensuresvolunteersfinishtheirdaywith pleasantthoughtsandalsobuildsasenseofcamaraderiebetweeneachother.  Volunteersareveryspecialpeople.TreatthemassuchAlwaysrememberthevolunteer’scontributionand importance.Theycanbeyourbestworkersandpublicrelationspersonnel  Note:Moreimportant,however,aretheintangiblerewards,whichultimatelyprovidethemotivationtoreturn: asenseofpersonalsatisfaction,commitmenttothemeritoftheprogram,senseofbelonging,andawarenessof personalgrowthasaresultoftheexperiences.CommittedvolunteersaregreatrecruitersTheirenthusiasm andpleasuremakevolunteeringa“coolthingtodo,”encouragingotherstobecomeinvolvedaswell.Insome

cases,theexperiencecanbelifechanging.AboatdriverwhovolunteeredtoassistatthefirstParalympic regattainAtlantasaidthatnexttohiswifeandchild,thatwasthemostimportantthingthathadeverhappened tohim,andthatfurthermore,hewouldneverparkinadisabledparkingspaceagain! Havingfun,enjoyingthewaterandthesailors,feelingusefulandproductive–allcombinetoproducean effective,wellͲfunctioningvolunteerprogram. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|26  Note:Somewillcome,tryit,andgoaway.Insomecases,avolunteerleadermayhavetoaskthatsomeonenot returnforvariousreasons–showinguplate,notnotifyingtheprogramofinabilitytoattendanevent,etc.In thesecircumstances,itisbesttoletthemgowithasimplethanks/symbolofgratitude. Checklocalrequirementsforvolunteers x Checkforlocallegislationwhichmightaffectvolunteers–e.gbackgroundchecksforpeopleworking

withyoungpeople,severelydisabled/vulnerablepeople x Insurance–Makesurevolunteersarecoveredbyagrouppublicliabilityinsurancepolicyatyourcenter. DisabilityEtiquette/TrainingforyourVolunteers Thekeytosuccessfultrainingisclearcommunication.Tasksshouldbeoutlinedspecificallysothatthe volunteersunderstandwhatisexpectedofthem.Thetrainingshouldincludedisabilityawarenessandveryclear definitionofthetaskstobedone.Alsoimportantiscommitmentfromthevolunteersforwhichtheyarebeing dependedupontodowhattheysaytheywilldo.ThecommunicationworksbothwaysVolunteersneedtobe madetofeelfreetomakeknowntheirownlimitationsandexpectations.Sailingissupposedtobefun,butit won’tbeforsomeonewithabadbackwhoattemptstoliftasailorintoaboat.Therewillbeotherswhocan providethenecessaryphysicalstrength.Volunteersalsoneedtoknowwheretoreport,whenandtowhom

Havingaclearlyidentifiablepersononsiteisvitaltosuccessfulidentificationandcompletionoftasks.The overallfocusoftraining,then,iscenteredontheneedsofthepopulationbeingservedandmeetingthoseneeds tothesatisfactionofallinvolved. Clarifyingwhatvolunteersneedtohavewiththemsuchassunscreen,alifejacketandwhethertheyneedto bringtheirownwaterandfoodisalsoimportant.Theyalsoneedtoknowthetimeexpectationsinvolved Attitude Apersonwithadisabilityisjustthat–Apersonwithadisability.Peoplewithdisabilitieshavespecialneedsand mayneedextraassistance,orbeunabletodosometasks.However,themajorityofpeoplewithdisabilitiesare capable,contributingmembersofthecommunity.Thevastmajorityofallpeoplewithadisabilityareengaged infullorpartͲtimeemployment–paidorunpaid.

Someofthevolunteersmaybeuneasywhenmeetingapersonwithadisabilityforthefirsttime.Theyshould treatapersonwithadisabilityjustthesameashe/shewouldtreatanyotherperson. Ifthereisafeelingthatapersonmayrequireassistance,he/sheshouldbeaskediftheywouldlikehelp,and theninquirehowbesttohelp.Itisimportantforthemtobegivenachievabletasksandbeencouragedto progressatwhateverratetheyarecomfortable.Thepersonshouldnotbeleftstrugglingwithataskthatis beyondtheircapabilitiesfortoolong,otherwise,theymaybecomefrustratedanddownhearted. TheSailingCentershouldencourageparticipantstotakeanactivesupportiveroleintheoperationofthe program.ParticipantsshouldbeprovidedtrainingandsupporttoacquirenewskillsRememberthatpeople withdisabilities,oftendon’tseethemselvesasdisabledandprefertobetreatedjustlikeeveryoneelseand shouldbe.

ItisbesttoalwaysrefertotheABILITYratherthanDISABILITY.One’sdisabilityisnotfocusedupon;one’s abilityisacknowledgedandnurtured. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|27  Volunteersandstaffshouldbeobservant,respectful,pleasant–butmostimportantberelaxedandenjoythe interaction! RecruitingParticipants Everycommunityhasindividualswithadisability.ThoseindividualscanbereachedinanumberofwaysWhen recruitingforyourprogram,itisbesttomakepersonalcontactwithpotentialparticipants.Inviteanexperienced sailorwithadisabilitytogowithyoutotalktopotentialrecruitsandhaveatimeanddatefora“ComeandTry” daytoinvitethosefolkstoparticipate. Thecommunityofpeoplewithdisabilitiesisverydiverseandmayincludethosewithphysicaldisabilities, developmentaldisabilities,learningdisabilities,visual/hearingimpairments,orthosewithmultipleissues.You

willwanttodecidewhichpopulationyouwouldliketoinvitetoparticipatefirst.Ifyourfacilityisnotyet wheelchairaccessible,youcanbeginyourprogramwithindividualswhoareambulatoryandhaveother disabilities,i.edevelopmental/learningdisabilities,orparticipantswhoareblindordeafIfyourfacilityisfully accessible,youmaywanttostartwithapopulationthathasmorephysicaldisabilities.Eitherway,youcan beginservingthosewithdisabilitiesregardlessofyourfacilitiescapability.Asforinstructionconsiderations, thereismoreregardingthoseneedsintheInstructionalTechniquessectionofthismanual. Note:A“ComeandTry”dayisadaysetasideforpotentialnewsailorstocomeandtrythesportofsailing.It mayincludearide/briefinstruction.Itcanbedesignedasafulldayofactivitiesorjustabriefsailforeach attendee.BepreparedtopresentyouractionplananddatesoftheprogramtoencourageyournewcomersSee

atemplateforthateventintheResourcessectionofthismanual. Herearesomeideasforrecruitingnewsailors: Contactyourlocal(cityandcounty)parksandrecreationdepartmentsandaskfortheirTherapeuticRecreation Department,orforthepersonwhoprovidestherapeuticrecreationwithintheirsystem.Mostcitiesand countieshaveatleastonepersonwhoisassignedtoprogramsforpeoplewithdisabilities.Ifyouareina smallertownwhichdoesnothavethatspecificdesignation,asktheParksandRecreationDepartmentstowhom theyreferdisabledcitizensforrecreation. Onceyouhaveyourcontact,askifyoucanmeetwiththemandmakeapresentationregardingadaptivesailing. (Atsomepoint,anaturalpartnershipmayhappen,andyoumaybeabletoshareinexpensestowardthe programasitgrows.)Inadditiontoparksandrecreationdepartments,thefollowingmayalsobehelpfulinthe

recruitmentofyourparticipants:local/nationaldisabledsportsorganizations;localagenciesthatservepeople withdisabilities;rehabilitationcenters;schools;yourlocalmedia;andsimplewordofmouth. RetainingSailors Asinanyprogram,amethodforretainingsailorsisimportant.Youmaywanttosetupa“BuddySystem”, partneringnewmemberswithmoreestablishedones.Monitorthesailors’attendance,byphoningand encouragingtheirreturn.Findoutifthereisareasontheyarenotreturning,ieahealthissue,anunpleasant experience,orifthereisalackoftransportation.Periodically,organizesocialactivitiestoencouragegreater involvementandinteraction.   AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|28   ProvidingactivitiesaftersailingseasonendsmayalsokeepyoursailorsinterestedduringtheoffͲseason.Inthe wintermonthstryreachingouttoanotheradaptiveprograminyourareathatmightofferasledhockeyor

adaptiveskiingprogram.Theseotheractivitiesmayprovideopportunitiestorecruitnewsailorstoo!                           AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|29  VI. INSTRUCTIONALTECHNIQUES Whenteachingsailingtothosewithadisability,youmayneedtomodifysometeachingandinstruction methodsandtechniques. Thoughitisnotnecessarytohavespecialcertificationsforyourinstructorstoteachsailingtoindividualswith disabilities,itcanbeveryhelpfulforinstructorstotakeabasicsailinginstructorscoursefromtheirnational governingbody.USSailingoffersLevel1SailingInstructorandLevel2SeniorInstructorcoursesthatare designedtoprovideinstructorswithinformationonhowtoteachmoresafely,effectively,andcreatively. Instructorsdevelopknowledgeandskillinteachingsailtheory,sailcontrols,introductorymanagementskills,

andpowerboatoperationforemergencysituations.Thegoalofthesecoursesistoproducehighlyqualified instructors,therebyreducingriskexposureforsailingprograms. Someinstructionalprograms,likeUSSailing,mayofferworkshopsorclinicsspecificallydesignedtohelp instructorsandvolunteerswithdisabilityspecificteachingtechniquesandmethods.Checkyournational trainingprogramstoseewhatisavailabletoyou. TIP:Rememberthatsailingtheory,rules,andtacticsarethesameforeveryone,althoughphysicalparameters maybedifferentwhenworkingwithsailorsthathaveadisability. Overall,asstatedthroughoutthismanualeachindividualisuniqueandhasdifferentlearningabilitiesandstyles. Althoughitisdifficulttomakegeneralizationsregardingaspecificdisability,belowisanattemptatoffering somesuggestions/guidelinesinapproachingthemorecommonissueswithinadisabilitygroup. Paraplegics&Quadriplegics

Mostpeoplewithparaplegiaandquadriplegiawillbeabletospeakandcommunicatehis/herneedsand participateindevelopingcreativeadaptationsthatwillmakethesailingexperienceeasierandsafe.Oncethe challengeofadaptingtheboatiscomplete(secure,supportiveappropriateseating;necessarystrapsfor hands/feet;limbprotectionfromhardsurfaces,etc.),sailinginstructionshouldbethesameasanyothersailor BrainInjuries Wheninstructinganindividualwithabraininjury,takeintoconsiderationthatprocessingandmemorymaybe difficult,soitisimportanttotalkslowly,clearlyandtoprovidesmallamountsofinformationatonetime.Break thetaskdownintocomponents.Youmayfindthatyouneedtorepeatproceduresanumberoftimesbefore theystick.Visualaidsintheclassroomandontheboatmaybehelpful,ieusingflashcardstoshowthedifferent partsoftheboat.

Writtenmaterialsinlargerprintmayalsobehelpfulwithindividualswithbraininjuriesbecausetheysometimes haveadifficulttimewithreadingmaterialthathassmallprintasitmayappeartothemasablur. Eachinstructorwillneedtodeterminetheamountofinformationthatcanbeprocessedbyaparticipant, includingthecapacityofshortandlongtermmemory,andadjustaccordingly. Thismayallseemoverwhelming,butifyoucanrememberthatyouhaveapersonwhoismostinterestedin sailing,andwhoisthinkingandlivingbeyondwhatothersexpectofthem,you,yourstaffandvolunteerswillall benefitfromsharingintheexperienceofassistingthesesailorstolearnandenjoythesportofsailing. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|30  VisualImpairments Wheninthepresenceofapersonwithavisualimpairment,itisbesttospeakdirectlytothem,usingtheir

name,whichletsthemknowyouarespeakingtothem.Talkclearly,butnotlouderthannormalItisalways helpfultoannounceyourpresence,introduceyourselfandletthemknowyouareleavingwhenyoudo,sothey arenotlefttalkingtosomeonewhoisnolongerpresent.Bespecificwithdirections,iedirecthim/hertothe leftfromhis/herpositioninsteadofsaying,“overthere.” If/whenyouarewalkingwithapersonwithavisualimpairment,talktotheindividualwhileguidingthemand givethemdirectionstoavoiddifficulties,i.etellthemthereisastep/objectinfrontofthem,slowdownuntil theyfeelitwiththeircaneorfootandthenproceedforward.Whenguiding,allowthepersonwithavisual impairmenttoholdontoyourarmatyoursideorplaceahandonyourshoulder.Thiswillallowhim/hertowalk astepbehindyouandhaveanideawhatiscominginfrontofthembythewayyoumove.

Basically,beingwithapersonwhohasavisualimpairmentshouldheightenyourawarenessofyour surroundingsandinturn,assistthemwithavoidinganypossiblehazards. Wheninstructingapersonwithavisualimpairment,speakingclearlyandgivingthefullestexplanationof techniquewillbeextremelyhelpful.Rememberthattheyvisualizeintheirmindsoyourdescriptionwillbevery important.Trytousetactiletriggersliketapeonalinewhereitinsertsintoacleat,whippingthreadonacontrol lineatintervalstomakeforeasyadjustment,brightorcontrastingcolorforthosewithmildimpairments.Use countdownsorcadencestohelpvisuallyimpairedsailorsontheircoordinationwithteammatesonboard.Use othersensorydirectivestohelpvisuallyimpairedsailorsfunctionbestwithintheboat.Avoiduseof“visual cues”withthosewhoarecompletelyblind.

Sometimesitmaybehelpfulifthepersoncanfeeltheinstructoractuallyperformingaparticularmovementor theinstructormovesthepersonthroughthemovement.Andofferingverbalfeedbackontheprogressofan activitythatmaynaturallybeobservedbypeoplewithvisioncanbeveryhelpfulandencouraging. HearingImpairments Individualswithhearingimpairmentsmayusehearingaids,lipreading,signlanguage,orwrittennotesto enhancetheircommunicationwithothers. Hearingaids HearingAidsonlyamplifysounds;theydonotclarifythemmuch.Backgroundsoundsalsogetamplifiedandthis makesitdifficultforthepersontoisolatesounds.So,ifpossible,backgroundnoisesshouldbekepttoa minimum.Also,rememberthatwhensailing,thewindmayaffecttheabilitytohearingeneral,andtherefore canbemorechallengingforsomeonewhoishearingimpaired,soalternativecommunicationmayneedtobe established,i.ehandsignals

Whenapersonwithahearingimpairmentislipreading,itisbesttobeatthesameheightlevelastheperson youarespeakingwithtomakeiteasierforthemtoreadyourlips.Trytobeingoodlightingwiththelighttothe backoftheindividualwithahearingimpairment.PoorlightingalsomakeslipreadingdifficultConversations shouldbekeptsimpleandtoaminimuminordertoavoidconfusion.Itisalsogoodtorememberthattalking quickly,movingalot,orsmilingwhilespeakingmakelipreadingdifficult.Additionally,beardsandmustaches makelipreadingverydifficultifnotimpossible. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|31  Whengivinginstructionsinthepresenceofsomeonewithhearingimpairment,besureyouhavetheperson’s attentionsotheycanascertainthewholemessage.Handgesturesandfacialexpressionscanbeveryhelpfulin makingthemeaningclear.Usestandardmovements/bodylanguagethatpeoplewithhearingimpairmentscan

understand.Makesureyoukeepyourhandsawayfromtheface,sothepersoncanstillreadyourlipsand expression.CheckthatyouhavebeenunderstoodThiscanbedonewithasimple“okay”signwithahand, Duringtheactivity,signssuchasthewaveofaflag,flickoflights,ortapontheshouldermayberequiredifthe personisunabletohearawhistle. WrittenNotes Writtennotescanbeusedanytimenecessaryorappropriate,butitisbestnottorelyonthemunlessabsolutely necessary.ItisbettertocommunicateviamethodsdescribedaboveWithpatienceandpractice,youwillfind whatworksbestforyouandthehearingimpairedindividual. SpecialNote:Thereisariskofsocialisolationforthosewithahearingoravisualimpairmentbecauseof difficultyinparticipatinginconversations,soeffortsshouldbemadetoincludeandencouragethoseindividuals inconversation. IntellectualDisabilities

AnintellectualdisabilityislifeͲlongdisabilitythataffectsthecognitiveprocessingabilityofanindividual,suchas Downsyndrome. Aninstructorneedstobeawareofsomecommondenominatorsamongthepopulationofpeoplewith intellectualdisabilities.Anyoneindividualmaynotdisplayallofthefollowingcharacteristics,butrathersome ofthem,andtovaryingdegrees:inabilitytothinkinabstractterms;lackofdecisionmakingability;poorshort termmemory;learningdifficultiesandgenerallyafewliteracy/innumeracyskill;poorcoͲordinationandmobility skills,oftenduetolackofappropriateopportunity,orinconsistentconcentrationspans. Thoseinvolvedwithinstructingsailorswithanintellectualdisabilityshouldacknowledgethatthelevelof expectationiscrucial.KeepverbalinstructionsbasicandbriefBeclear,precise,deliberate,sequential,and thenreinforceyourmessage.

Wheninstructingindividualswithintellectualdisabilities,demonstratingtheactivityandallowingthepersonto participateinthedemonstrationgivestheparticipantastandardwithwhichtomodelhis/herperformance. Peoplewithanintellectualdisabilitytendtolearnmorebydoingthanlookingandlistening.Whenteachingnew skills,besuretomovethesailorsthroughthedesiredmotions.Praiseandencouragementareveryimportant Breakdownskillsintosmallteachingcomponents,ensuringeachpartislearnedfullybeforeprogressing. Reviewandrepeatskills,anddrillinmanydifferentwaysandsituations.ThenreinforceRememberalsothat reinforcementshouldbespontaneousandimmediate.TeachbasicskillsKeeppracticetimeonspecific activitiesshorttoavoidlossofconcentrationandboredom.Besuretovaryyouractivitiesanddrills Whilesailing,apersonwithanintellectualdisabilitymaybecomefearfulandreactinanunexpectedmanner.

Thesesailorsshouldbemonitoredcloselyuntiltheirlevelofconfidenceisascertained.Ontheotherhand,a sailorwithanintellectualdisabilitymayshownoconcernforhis/herownpersonalsafetyorthesafetyofothers. Again,initialclosemonitoringisnecessary. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|32  Consistencyincrewandbasicequipmentisbothimportantandhelpfulforindividualswithanintellectual disability. Alwayscheckwithcaregivers/familymembersandparticipantsthemselvesastohowtheyarefeelingwhenthey arrive,andifthereisanythingspecificthatneedstobemonitoredthatday.Thisismostimportantforthose participantswhomaybemoredependentandbelessabletoadvocateforthemselves. Mostimportantly,enjoytheexperienceofsharingandlearningwithyoursailors.Moststaffandvolunteers deriveasmuchoutoftheexperienceasdoestheindividualwiththedisability. Transferring/Lifting

Individualswithphysicaldisabilitiesmayormaynotneedassistanceintransferringfromtheirwheelchairsor crutches,totheboatfromthedock.TransferscanbedoneinavarietyofwaysIneveryinstance,theboat mustbesecuretothedock. Positioning Inmostcasesaboatwillnaturallydriftawayfromthedock,especiallywhenbumpersarebeingused.Inorderto properlypreparetheboatforatransfer,removethebumpersandbringtheboatalongsidethedock.Ensureas muchcontactaspossiblebetweenthedockandtheboat.Disconnectanylifelines/guardrailstoprovideaclear pathwaybetweenthetransferboxandtheboat.     PlacethetransferboxinalocationwherethereisenoughspacetodeploytheflipͲtop.IdeallytheflipͲtopwillbe positionedsothattheendrestsjustinsidetheboat’stoerail,orapproximately6”Ͳ8”fromtheedgeifthereis notoerailis.Pleaserefertothepicturesforproperpositioning      

 AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|33  3StageIndependentTransfer Thisisforsailorsthatuseawheelchair,havedifficultystandingormayhaveavisualimpairmentwhodonot needmuchassistanceexcepttoholdwheelchairsteady,oractasaguard/support: 3StageIndependentTransfer x x x Movefromthechairorstandingpositiontoasittingpositionthedock Shiftthebuttocksfromthedocktothedeckoftheboatthentransferthelegs.Somesailorspreferto transferlegsthenbuttocks Movefromdecktocockpit    Note:Neverassumethatyouknowhowtomoveortransfersomeoneinawheelchair/withadisabilitybetter thanhe/sheortheircaregiverdoes.ItisbesttoaskfirstHOWyoumayassisttheminatransfer,andWHAT worksbestforthem.Iftheyareunsure,youmaymakesuggestionsastohowtoproceed  3StageTransferwithAssistant 1.

MovefromthechairorstandingpositiontoasittingpositiononthedockortransferboxYou,orthesailor, maywanttoplaceacushiononthebox.   2. HavethesailorpositionthemselvessothattheyarefacingtheboatShiftthebuttocksfromthedocktothe deckoftheboatthentransferthelegs.Somesailorsprefertotransferlegsthenbuttocks    AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|34  3. Afterthey’vetransferredintotheboat,havethemmovefromdecktocockpitItishelpfultohavethemshift forward.  Note:Neverassumethatyouknowhowtomoveortransfersomeoneinawheelchair/withadisabilitybetter thanhe/sheortheircaregiverdoes.ItisbesttoaskfirstHOWyoumayassisttheminatransfer,andWHAT worksbestforthem.Iftheyareunsure,youmaymakesuggestionsastohowtoproceed  TIP:Contactingalocalhospital/rehabilitationcentertorequestthataphysicaltherapisttotrainstaff/volunteers

oncorrectliftingcanbeveryhelpful,inbothlearningcorrectliftsandconnectingwiththeorganizationfor recruitmentoffuturesailors. 1Ǧ4personfullbodylift Abodyliftfromawheelchairtotheboatcanbedonewiththeassistanceof1Ͳ4peopletolift(lifters),butis mostcommonlydonebytwolifters.Theproperwaystodothisshouldbedemonstratedbysomeonewhohas beentrainedinordertomaintainsafetyforboththelifterandparticipant.ItismostimportanttoLISTENtothe personyouaretransferring,ortotheircompanion/caregiveriftheycannotcommunicate.Theywilldirectthe liftersastothebestwaytoassistinthetransfer.Makesurethatthedisabledsailor’sbackiswellsupportedby someonewhocanhandletheweight,thekneesofthesailormustbesupported,andfeetkeptfreefrom catchingonanythingduringthetransfer. 1ǦPersonFullBodyLift

Itisimportanttohaveasecondpersonstabilizetheboatatalltimesduringthetransfer.  AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|35    Note:Anyonewhoisliftingasailorinandoutofachair,orinandoutofaboat,shouldremembertoliftfrom thekneeswhentheystandupandnotusetheirbacktofacilitatethelift.Thiswillhelppreventunnecessary backinjuries! 2ǦPersonExtremityLift(notbestforsailorswithshoulderinjuries) Thesailorcrosseshis/herarmsacrossthechestandgripsownwrists.Onelifterstandsbehindthesailorand reachesundersailor’sarmpitsattheshouldersandreachedaroundtograspthesailor’sforearms.Thesecond lifterreachesunderthekneesofthesailor.Bothliftsimultaneouslytomovethesailorfromchairtodockorboat usingproperliftingtechniques(liftingthroughthekneesnottheback).         AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|36  ThetwoǦpersonsidetosidetransfer

Thelifterswillstandoneachsideofthesailor,facingeachother.Bendingatthekneesandkeepingthenatural curveoftheirspine,thelifterswillplaceonehandeachbehindthesailorsbackandonehandunderneaththe sailor’sthighsandknees.Together,theywillliftthesailorupandcradlehim/herTheywillslowlymovetothe boatorchairandgentlylowerthesailordown,bendingatthekneesandusingtheirlegsforsupport.    OneonOnePersonalAssistance Asailorwithadisabilitymaynotneedafullbodylift,butmaystillneedsomeassistanceforbalanceorstability. Forinstance,someonewithcerebralpalsywhousescrutchesmayneedsomesupportforstabilitywhile loweringintotheboatorswingingtheirlegsintoposition,butmaybeabletomanagemostoftherestofthe transferbyhim/herself.AsailorwithavisualimpairmentmayneedhelpplacingahandorfootontheboatA

paraplegicmaybeabletotransferoutoftheirchairandontothedock,butmayneedhelptoshifttheirlegs ontotheboatwhiletheylifttheirbodyontothedeck.Again,itismostimportanttoASKwhatassistanceis needed,LISTEN,andabidebytheresponsegiven.             AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|37  VII. EQUIPMENTADAPTATIONS Weknowthatsailingisagreatsportforpeoplewithphysicaldisabilitiesbecauseitaccommodatessuchawide rangeofdisabilitiesandwiththeuseofadaptiveequipment;individualscanfunctionasindependentlyas possible.SailorswithdisabilitiescanparticipatebothrecreationallyandcompetitivelyMostcangetoutonthe waterwithminimaladaptationstowhateverboatsandequipmentareavailable.Apersonwithadisabilitymay haveissueswithstability,mobility,handfunctionorvision.Manydifferentadaptationshavebeendesigned,

developedandinstalledtohelpthosesailorswhoneedsomeadaptiveequipmenttoenablethemtosailtotheir fullcapacity. Anadaptationissomethingput,orchanged,inaboattoenableapersonwithaphysicaldisabilitytocontrola boatsafelyandcomfortably.Anadaptationisintendedtomaximizetheabilityofthesailorwhileminimizingthe impactofthedisabilityonhis/hersailing. TIP:Theadaptationsthattheindividualusesinhis/hereverydailylifetodriveacar,movehis/herwheelchairor getaroundathomemayalsobeusedaboardasailingvessel. Thoughsomesailboatshavebeendesignedwithpeoplewithdisabilitiesinmind,mosthavenot.TheAccess dinghiesareaperfectexampleofboatssuccessfullydesignedtoaccommodatewiderangesofdisabilities.They areactivelysailedandracedthroughouttheworld.TwoofthemoresuccessfulracingclassesaretheSonarand

the2.4mR,bothdesignedwithoutanyspecialconsiderationoftheneedsofpeoplewithdisabilitiesbuteasily adaptedtoallowbothdisabledandablebodiedsailorstocompetesidebyside.Adaptiveequipment,someof whichisextremelysimpleandeconomicaltofabricate,enablessailorswithdisabilitiestobeextremely competitiveateventsfromclubtoWorldChampionshiplevels. Evenifadisabledsailor’sinterestsdonotleantowardcompetition,manyoftheadaptationshavestemmed fromdisabledracingsailors.Theyhavetakentheleadindevelopingadaptationsthatrangefromthevery simpletohighlyengineered,allwiththethoughttoimproveasailor’sfunctionalperformanceonboard. Actually,manyboatscanbeeasilyadaptedtomeettheneedsoftheindividualsailor.Formanysailors, regardlessofdisability,astandardfactorypreparedboatisperfectlyadequate.Peoplewhoarenewtosailingor

stillexperimentingtofindthebestsolutionstotheirownphysicalchallengesshouldmaketemporary adaptationsthatcanbeeasilyinstalledandremoveduntiltheyarecompletelycomfortablewiththeiradaptive equipment. Belowyouwillfindphotographsofsomeoftheadaptationscurrentlybeingusedbysailors.Manyotherkindsof modificationsarepossibletoenableasailortomaximizecapabilitiesandallowtheindividualtofocustheir attentiononsailing. Examplesofsomeitemsthatcanbeusedtoadaptanyboatmightincludeacampingoryogamat,shortlengths ofrope,awoodplank(smooth,nosplinters)oraplasticcooler,androllsofducttapeandelectricaltape.With theseitems,onecancreate: x x x x Apadded,nonͲslipseat Paddingaroundsharpobjectsinthecockpit A“bench”toassisttransferfromsidetoside Extraloopsofropetogriporformhandlesandprovidestabilityintheboat o Extensionstosheets

AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|38  Forsailorswithdisabilities,thefollowingguidelinesareimportant: x x x x x Minimizeobstructionswithinandaroundtheboat. Establishaconsistentlocationofequipmentandcontrollinesonprogramboats,especiallyfor visuallyimpairedsailors Checkallequipmentcarefully.Breakageisfrustratingtodealwithforanysailorbutitmaypresenta biggerproblemforthelessagile. Lubricatemechanicalpartsandincreasepurchaseinlineswherenecessarytominimizethestrength neededtooperatethem. Tapeanythingthatislikelytosnaglineslikecleatsonthemast,loosemastblocks,clevispins,or compassbrackets. Aligncleatswithlinestofacilitatereleasebyasinglehand. x  Beforetryingtoengineercomplexadaptations,itisimportanttoidentifytheproblemarea(s)thatmightbe helpedbyaddinganadaptation.

TheIFDSFunctionalClassificationManualwhichisusedtodetermineeligibilityforParalympicsailing competitionidentifiesandexaminesfourcriticalphysicalareasoffunctionality: 1) Mobility–Theabilitytomovearoundortransferwithintheboat 2) Stability–Compensationforthemovementoftheboatwhichmayaffecttheabilitytositup straightwhentheboatheels,respondtomovementsoftheboatwhilesitting,ortoresistbeing pulledforwardagainstthepressureofalinewhentrimmingorwinching. 3) HandFunction–Theabilitytooperateorgripcontrollines,wheeland/orthetiller.Theabilityto bothpushandpull. 4) Vision–Theabilitytosee. MobilityǦImpairmentAdaptations SailorswithmobilityͲimpairmentsmayneedsomethingtoholdontoforbalancewhencrossingtheboat.Sailors withsingleordoublelegamputations(withorwithoutprostheses/”artificiallegs”),orthosewithother

disabilitiesthataffectbalancemayuseasimpleathwartshipgrabbarwhensailing.     Otherswhosedisabilitiespreventthemfromstanding–suchasparaplegicsanddoublelegamputeessailing withoutprostheses–mightuseasimpletransferbench.Inordertokeeptheboatlevel,movingtothe windwardside,itisdifficultforapersonwithoutlegsorwithparalyzedlegsand/orwithpoortrunkstabilityto slidefromsidetosideduringmaneuvers.Oftenatransferbenchisusedinconjunctionwithagrabbarbecause theremaybetimeswhenitisnecessarytocrosswhiletheboatisflatoreventogettothe“highside”fromthe “lowside.” AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|39  Thiscanmadeeasierwiththefollowingpossibleadaptations:placingaplankofwoodacrosstheboat,sothat thesailorcanslidefromsidetosideacrosstheplank,orbyusingsomeotherobjectlikeacooler,ashower

bench,ordensefoamcushionsthatcanbefittedtoclosethegapbetweenthetwosidesofthecockpitarea.           Manypeoplewithmobilityimpairments(particularlydoubleabovekneeamputeesandparaplegics)are extremelystronginthearmsandshoulders.Onalargerboatwheretheinstallationofagrabbarisimpractical,a lengthofline(atleast½inchindiameter)tiedfromrailtorail(orlifelinestanchiontolifelinestanchion)can providesufficientmanualassistancetoapersonwithadisabilitywhousuallyreliesonslidingfromsidetoside.       AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|40  Harnesses&straps/beltswithquickreleasefasteners Harnesses&straps/beltswithquickreleasefastenersareoftenusedtosecurethesailortotheseatandadd safety,comfortandstabilityforthesailorwhocannotphysicallyholdhim/herselfupright.Thebeltisused

acrossthelapandchest,andtheharnessaroundtheshoulders.Besurethatquickreleasefastenersaresecured insuchawayastomakethemeasytoreachandreleasebythesailor,acrewmemberorasailingcompanion.    Legstraps Legstrapsmaybeusedtokeepanindividual’slegs(ifweakorparalyzed)secureandasafefrominjury.Sailties orelasticmaterialwithVelcroworkbestbysecuringthelegsattheankles/calf/thighareas.Eachsailorwillbe abletoprovidefeedbackastowhatworksbestforhim/her.    StabilityǦImpairmentAdaptations Lossofstabilityoccurswhenthecoremusclesaroundthehipsand/orabdominalareadonotfunctionproperly. Whilethisisaproblemformost,butnotall,spinalcordinjuriesandneurologicalormusculoskeletalconditions, itcanalsobeaproblemforlegamputeeswithveryshortornonͲexistentresiduallimbs.Somesailorsmaynot

havethetrunkstabilityorupperbodystrengthtostayuprightindependently.Somesolutionsforstabilityissues mightbetouseaseatthatprovidesmoretrunkorbacksupportlikeagocartseatorotherhighbackedmolded seat,suctionhandles,grabbars,lateralsupports,oragoodharness. Asimplesolutionistohavesomethingwithinreachtoholdontoorleaninto. Thegrabbarmentionedabovecanperformdoubleduty.Sometimesalength ofthinlinerunningthroughsurgicaltubingcanbemadeintoahand/arm hold.Asailorcaneitherholdontothelineorpassanarmthroughthelooped handleandlockitintoanelbow.Asimplehandlemayalsobeattachedto deckorcabintopforsupport.Transferseatsorbenchescanbemadeusing simpleandcommonmaterials.Asturdy,plasticcoolermightbewedgedin betweenbenchseatstoformasimpletransferbenchorperhapsashower benchusedinthesamemanner. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|41   

   Seating Forthosewithreducedtrunkstabilityorlimiteduseofthelegs,itmaybe usefultohaveaseatwithaback,sides,andalapand/orchestbelt.Seating adaptationsmayvaryfromsimplepaddingtospecializedswingingseats. Cushionsareimportantaswell.Basicplasticgarden/patiochairs,securely fastenedtotheboatandwiththebacklegscutdowntorestonthecockpit seatoranoldmodifiedwheelchairframecanprovidesimpletrunksupport.A quickreleasestrapsystemtoholdthesailorintotheseatprovidesadditional support/stability.Someboatshaveastandardseatbuiltspecificallytofitthe boat,likeintheFreedom20.TheFreedomhasbuiltͲinmoldedseatsthat includeharnessstrapsforaddedstability.TheIdeal18adaptedseatsare stockpaddedboatingchairsmountedonsimpleplywoodbaseswithchest and/orlapstraps. Customizedseatingsystemscanbedesignedandbuiltforsomeonewitha

moreseveredisability.Somesailorshavehadspeciallydesignedchairsmade withaddedpaddingorstrapstosupporthis/herindividualneeds.More sophisticateddevices,suchasswivelingtransferseatshavebeendesignedto allowsailorstotransferfromsidetosideandarebeingproducedworldͲwide. Suchseatsneedsecureinstallationandmayrequirepermanentadaptationor drilling.Thesetransferseatsofferaccesstosailingforverydisabledskippers andcrew,andtheabilitytotransferfromsidetosideallowstheskipperbetter fieldofvisionwhendrivingtheboat.Seatsmayalsobederivedfrommodified wheelchairbases,boatseats,andgolfcartseats.  AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|42        Localcolleges/universities/rehabcentersmaybeabletoassistinthedesign,cost,andconstructionofsuchseats aswellasotheradaptations.    

Surfaces:SailorsmayfindanonͲskidsurfacetobeusefulforadditionalstability.Thiscanbeachievedwiththe useofacampingmat,fiberͲbackedcarpet,oranonͲslipbathmatandcanbeattachedbytape.Othersailors maypreferahighlypolishedsurfaceforeaseofmovementacrosstheboat.Eachsailormustdeterminewhatis mosteffectiveforhimorher.        AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|43  HandFunction Lackoforlimitationsinhandfunctionmayaffectoneorbothhands(amputationsandhighlevelspinalcord injuries)ormaybeassociatedwithgeneralmuscledeficiencyandweaknessasexperiencedbythosewithMS, ALSorotherneurologicalconditions.Aboveelbowarmamputeeswiththeabilitytotrapalinebetweenresidual limbandchestorbelowelbowamputeeswiththeabilitytogripalineinanelbowjointarehighlyfunctionalon aboat.

Quadriplegicswithseverelycompromisedhandfunctionmaybeunabletotrimaline–exceptwithapower winch–butmaybequitecapableofsteeringaboat.Dependingontheindividualsailor’striceps,bicepsand shoulderfunctionand/orlimitations,steeringwithatillermaybedifficultsoalternativesteeringsystemslikea steeringwheel,tractor/rodorpowersteeringusingajoystickandanautopilot(“Autohelm”),orSipandPuff maybebetteroptions.      Electronics Thereisanincreasedgrowthinthedesignanddevelopmentofelectronicallyassistedsteeringandsheet trimming.Someboatsaredesignedspecificallytoincorporatethesesystems,whileothersarereadilyandeasily adaptedfortheiruse.Therearethreetypesofcontrolsystems: x 4Ͳwayjoysticksarethesimplestandmost reliabletouseusingeitherfoot/toesor hand/fingerstomanipulatethetoggle.The electricjoysticksusuallycontrolboththetiller

andsails,movingthetillerinandouttoletthe sailsgoinandoutandmovingitleftorrightto movetheboatleftorright(usingthejoystickto steerinthesamedesireddirection,likedrivinga carorridingabicycle,oppositeofthatofa “regular”tiller.) Chincontrolledjoystickshavealsobeenusedfor thissamepurposeforthosewithquadriplegiawhomayalsouseachincontrollerfortheirwheelchairs. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|44  x x  SipandPuffisusedininstanceswhereseverequadriplegiamaylimitthe useofajoystick.Asipandpuffcontrolwhichallowsapersonwith quadriplegiatouseastrawlikemechanisminwhichtheycontrolsail movementbyhowtheyblow,siporbitethecontrol.Blowingmovesthe sailout;sippingmovesthesailin;bitingincertainwayscontrolsthe rudder.Eachsailorshouldusehis/herownpersonalmoduletoguard againstspreadofinfection.Thisisanaddedexpensewhichcanbe

avoidedifthesailorcanmanageajoystick.  PaddleswitchesaregreatforpeoplewithsevereCPandthelike whohavedifficultywithfinefingermovementsandstrugglewith breathcontrolforsipandpuffsystems. Asalwayswiththeuseofanydevice,safetyforthesailorisofutmost importance!  Steering&TillerModifications Sailorswithdisabilities(particularlyofthelowerlimbs)havealottodowiththeirhandsandarelessagilewhen movingacrosstheboatiftransferringisnecessary.Itisimportantthatthehelmsmannotbehinderedbythe tillerduringmaneuvers.Seatingmodificationmightbeenoughtosolvethisissuebutthetillermayneedtobe shortenedorextended.Ifthepersoncannotgripthetillerortheextension,youcanusesemiͲelasticstrapswith Velcroclosuresorducttape(yes,ducttape!)tosecurethesailor’shandtothetiller/extension.       AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|45 

Someindividualsprefertheducttapemethodbecausetheycanhavemorecontrolbyhavingtheirhandtaped intotheladderextensiontiller.Ifnot,thefollowingmightbepossiblesolutions: x x x x x Lengthen,shorten,orhingethetillerinrelationtothesittingpositionofthehelmsman. Addaring(wheelchaircastertire,etc.)tothetillerendtoprovideeasygripforsailorswithweak handsorhandprosthesis. Tensionthetillertointroduceresistancetoitsmovement,especiallyifthesailorhastoletgoofit duringatackorgybe.TensioncanbeintroducedwiththeadditionofshockcordItisimportantto makesurethatthatsailorhastheupperbodystrengthtocontrolthetiller. Fixthetillerinachosenpositiontofreehandsforropework.Thiscanbeimportantifthesailorhas effectiveuseofonlyonehand. Considerwheelorleversteeringifthesailormustsitinthecenteroftheboat.    

Sometimesasteeringwheelmaybeeasierforthepersonwithadisability.Thesewheelsmayincludespecially adaptedgrips,knobsorspokes,dependingontheindividual’sdisability.Itisbesttoaskthepersonwiththe disabilitywhattheythinkwouldbebestforthemtohavethemostcontrol.Forsomeitmaybethatasystem similartothatusedtomaneuvertheirwheelchairsisbestortheymayhaveanotherideaofwhattheythinkmay work.Remember,theyknowtheirbodiesandabilitiesbetterthananyoneelsesoitisalwaysbesttogettheir input.   Forquadriplegicswholacktricepsfunction,twohandedsteering,usingatiller,maybethesimplestadaptation: thetillerispulledwiththeafthandandtheforwardhandalsopullsonalinewhichrunstotheothersideofthe boat,throughaturningblock,andbacktobeattachedtothetiller.Thecompromisehereisthat,withouta

sophisticatedtranslating,rotating,seat,thesailorwillbeunabletotransferacrosstheboat.Itwillprovidea startingpointandassailingabilityandinterestimprovesmoresophisticateddevicesmaybeemployed. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|46    ModificationstoRunningRigging Thefollowingitemsarestandardonmanyboats,andmanyareofparticularbenefittosailorswithdisabilities: x x x x x x Linesledbacktothecockpitifallofthecrewmustremaininthecockpitofaboatdesignedfor sittingout. Qualityblockswithrollerbearingsreducefriction. Increasedpurchaseonlinesdecreasetheeffortrequiredtopullinlines. Cascaderiggingfortheboomvangincreasespurchasewithoutincreasingthelengthoflinetobe pulledin.Considerterminatingthevanglineattheboomsothatitcanbepulleddownwards usingbodyweight. Amainsheetoperatedfromtheboommaybeeasierforsomesailorstooperatethanone

operatedfromthefloororBarneypost(thepostinthecockpitofasmallersailboatwhereyou attachthemainsheet). Coarseandfinetunecontrolofmainsheetandjibtensionenableasailorwithweakhandsto haulinthesheetwiththecoursecontrolandtensionthesheetwithfinecontrol.Thisisdoneby usingablockandtackletiedintothebitterendofamainorjibsheet.        AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|47     Sheetendmodification Simplemodificationstotheendofasheetcanbeofgreathelptosailorswholackfinemotorcontrolorstrength inthefingers.Someexamplesmightbeaballorhandleontheendofaline,oranextraͲlargeknotAsailor withavisualimpairmentmayappreciatesimilarmodificationssothathe/shecanidentifydifferentlinesby touch. VisualImpairment Anothersignificantandcommondisabilityisvisualimpairment.Sailorswithvisualimpairmentsneedtactile

cuestofindequipmentontheboatalongwithverbaldirectionoraudiocuestoassistwithsteeringnear obstacles.Tactilecuesliketapeonaline,knotsincertainpositions,useofcadencesfortimingtransfersand actionsareveryhelpfultosailingwell.LinesarehardtoidentifywhenlooseDifferentsizesandtexturesoflines makelifeeasierforvisuallyimpairedsailorsinthesamewaythatdifferentcoloredlinesaidthesightedtotrim thepropercontrolsinahurry. Braillelabelscanhelpnewsailorslearntheboatparts(Braillelabelmakerscanbefoundinexpensivelyonthe internet)andaddingtexturetoclutcharmswillmakethemmoredistinct.Considerreplacingcleatswith clutchesonbiggerboats. Also,tactilemapsandaudiocompassesreplacevisualmapsasantoaidnavigation.Anaudiocompassisone thatspeaksbythepressofabuttonofferingthepositionofthevessel,winddirection,andthedegreethevessel ispointed.

OrientingaNewVisuallyImpairedSailor Priortosailing,individualswhoarevisuallyimpairedmayfindithelpfultofeeldetailedboatmodelsto understandhowtheboat,sailsandriggingworktogether.Hereareafewsuggestionstohelporientthem: x x x x Havea“Where’sthewind”discussionpriortoboardingtoshowhowtofeelthewindonthenose, cheek,ear,backofneck.Asmallboatmodelwithaboomforthesailortoholdcanassistunderstanding ofpointsofsail. Keepupaconversationasyouwalknewvisitorstotheboatsotheycanfollowthesoundofyourvoice. Letthemknowyouareavailableiftheyshouldtheywantanelbow. Havetheboattiedtighttothedockpriortoboarding,withfendersremovedtoeliminateanygapsoa footwon’tgetcaughtbetweenthedockandtheboat.Iftheboathasashroudorotherobjecttohold ontowhileboarding,havethatpartoftheboattightagainstthedock.

Priortoboarding,provideaverbaldescriptionofhowtoboard.Forexample,“Holdontotheshroud withyourlefthand.Stepup6inches–nowyou’reonthedeckReachahandstraightouttofindthe AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|48  x x x x x boom.Stepdown6inches–nowyou’reonthebenchTakeanotherbigstepdown,nowyou’restanding inthecockpit.”Givefriendlyverbaldirectionasthepersonboards,butdon’tjustgrabaperson’shand Respectboundaries–apersonwilltellyouifassistanceisdesired. Beforeleavingthedock,encouragesailorstowalkaroundthecockpitandgetorientedtokey equipment:tiller,boom,mainsheetandcleat,jibsheets.Demonstratehowtheboomwillmoveback andforthandhowthemainsheetcontrolsit.Indicateanytrippinghazards Considerusingaclockreferencewiththe12atthebow,6atthestern.Talkaboutthewindpositionat2 o’clock.

Onceyou’veboardedtheboat,repeatthe“Where’sthewind?”discussion.Havestudentspointtothe windandtalkaboutwhereitfeelsonthebody.Turnoverthetillertothenewsailorandletthemfeel howthewindmovesacrosstheirbodyastheymovethetiller. Findingthecenteroftheboat,asin“centeryourtiller”canbeachallengeforapersonwhocannotsee. Somesailorsusetheirbodytofindcenter,byknowingwheretheendofthetillerextensionfitsunder theirarm,orbyplacingtheballsoftheirfeetonafootbrace.Waystocommunicate“center”through thebodywillvarywitheverysailorandeveryboat,soit’simportanttoencouragecreativityingetting comfortablewiththeboat. Asyoubegintoraisethesails,letbeginnersknowthatthesailswillrattleforafewminutesandthat waterfromrainorcondensationmaydriponthem. AdvancingVisuallyImpairedSailors

Assailorswhoarevisuallyimpairedlearnsailtrim,crewpositions,linesandfittings,theywillbecomemore independentwithrespondingtowindshiftsandboatheel.Justlikesightedstudents,astheyprogresstheywill needlessguidance,toapointwhereasightedguideisonlyneededforavoidingtrafficandobstacles. TIP:Beforeleavingthedock,makesureyoureviewthedifferentlinesandlocations,thecockpit,thetiller,the boom,andanyobstaclesthatmayhindermobilityorcauseinjurywithaVIsailoruntilhe/shefeelssafeand comfortable.        AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|49  BlindsailingalsohasexpandedfromfleetracingopportunitiestoincludeoneͲonͲonematchracingforteamsof visuallyimpairedsailorswithnosightedguidesonboard.Thistypeofsailingisconductedinkeelboatsusingthe HomerusAutonomousSailingsystem.Threeacousticbuoys,eachwithauniquesignal,definethecourseand

boatshavetheirownsoundsignalthatchangeswhenonportorstarboardtack.    ElitelevelblindsailorsareclassifiedonathreepointscalewhichrangesfromB1toB3: B1TotalAbsenceofperceptionoflightinbotheyes,orsomeperceptionofthelightbutwiththeinabilityto recognizetheformofahandatanydistanceandinanydirection. B2Fromtheabilitytorecognizetheformofahandtoavisualacuityof2/60and/orvisualfieldoflessthan5 degrees. B3Fromavisualacuityofabove2/60toavisualacuityof6/60and/oravisualfieldofmorethan5degreesand lessthan20degrees. ClassRules:Sailorswhointendtoraceshouldcheckthatanymodificationsoradaptationsmadetotheboatwill fallwithinclassruleguidelines.Afalsefloorinaboatmaybeacceptableattheclubracinglevelbutnotinopen competition.Manyoftheboatsmostcommonlyusedbysailorswithdisabilitiesincompetitionhaveallowances

intheirclassrulesforadaptationsforsailorswithdisabilities.Beforeamodificationismadetoaboat,theclass rulesshouldbecheckedtoseethattheparticularchangeisallowed.Ifnoracingisintended,anykindof modificationisfine.Andaswithanythingrelatedtosailing,safetyofthedeviceproposediscritical SpecificExamplesofAdaptationNeedsandtheirSolutions Thedegreeofindependencecanvarygreatlyfromsailortosailor,ascantheequipmentrequiredforthemtogo sailing.Belowaresomeexamplesofspecificimpairmentsandpossiblesolutions Issue:Paralysisormissinglegs Task(s)–Needtobalancetheboat;needtobeabletosee;mayneedhelptogetfromsidetoside. Solution(s)–Provideawayofslidingfromsidetosideandgettingupontothedeck,ifpossible,byusingaplank ofwood,bathseat,transferbench,blocksoffoam,swingingseat,bars,grabhandles,pushͲuphandles,orany

othercreativeadaptationthatworksfortheindividualsailor. Issue–Reducedtrunkstability Task(s)–Needtocontroltheboatfromasecure,uprightposition Solution–Providebackandsidewayssupportbyusingaplasticchair,oldwheelchairs/theirparts,orcustom madeseating.Youmayalsoneedtousebelts/harnessesthathaveaquickreleasetosecuretheindividualin placesotheydonotfalloverwhilesailing. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|50  Issue–Needeasieraccessandabilityinpullinglinesfromafixedsailingposition. Task(s)–Needtocontrolsailsandtunetheboat;Needtoreach&pullcontrollines. Solution–Bringthelinesbackinthecockpit;provideadditionalpurchase,knobsandloopsforeasyaccessand improvedcontrol. Issue–Reducedstrength,mobility,andreach Task(s)–Needtosteertheboat

Solution(s)–Mayneedtoshortenorextendthetiller,liftingtiller,ortheringontillerend.Youcanalsouse shockcord,wheel,fixingpointsfortiller,theaudiocompass,knotsinthelines,orspecificcolorsasdesignators, alldependingonwhatisbestfortheindividuals’needs. Issue–Needtoprotecttheindividual’sbuttocks Task(s)–Sittingforalongtime Solution(s)–Utilizecushions(range,campingfoam,Jayprotectors,etc.)Therearespecialcushionsmadefor thosewhousewheelchairs;manysailorswillhaveonewiththemthatcanberemovedfromtheirchairsandbe usedontheboat.Bestpractice,however,itistohaveaseparatecushionfortheboat,therebyallowingpeople tokeeptheoneforthechairclean,dryandalwaysuseableandnothavetoworryaboutitbeingwetor botheredbythewater,especiallysaltwater. Issue–Handsbusywithmanythingsallatonce Task–Displayingaprotestflag(onlyforboats>6M)

Solution–Utilizeapullcordwithaquickrelease. Issue(s)–Severelyreducedmobility,stabilityandstrength(forsailorswithseveredisabilities) Task–Steeringandcontrollingthesails Solution(s)–Utilizeservoassistedsteeringandsailcontrols          AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|51  VIII. BOATS Thereareseveralclassesofsailboatsthatarepopularandfrequentlyusedbyadaptivesailingprograms: Freedom20,AccessDinghy(Access2.3,AccessLiberty,andSKUD18),Sonar,24mR,Martin16,HobieTrapseat, ChallengerTrimaran,Ideal18andtheFlyingScot.Mostarekeelboatsthatrequireonlyminoradaptationsin ordertoaccommodateapersonwithadisability.Infact,justaboutanyboatthathasastableplatformhasthe potentialtobeusedforinstructioninaccessiblesailingprograms. Thefeaturesofasuitableboatshouldinclude:theboathavingastabilizingkeelorweightedcenterboard;an

openunclutteredcockpit;andlinesthatcanbeeasilyaccessed. *Boatsthatarecurrentlypopularandusedbysailorswithdisabilitiesworldwideareincludedinthissection withreferenceinformationastowhereyoucanlearnmoreabouteachindividualboat: AccessDinghies http://www.accessdinghyorg AccessDinghiescomeinavarietyofmodels/designsandcolors!Theyarefunlittledinghiesthatareeasily adaptedtoawidevarietyofdisabilitiesbyutilizingajoysticksteeringsystemandslingseat.Theyareavailable inmoldedhullstoseateitheroneortwocrew.Theycomeinavarietyofcolorsandareperfectforgrassroots, entryͲlevelprograms.ThecenterboardintheAccessDinghiesareheavilyballastedwithlead,andfillwithwater oncetheyaredropped,makingtheboatsvirtuallyuncapsizable. TheAccess2.3(length7’6”,singlesail)andtheAccess303(length10’,MainsailandJib)areusedinanumberof

communitysailingprogramsaroundtheworld.Bothcanbecrewedby1Ͳ2peopleandbothareutilizedina numberofregattas,offeringincreasedsocializationandexperienceforyournewandseasonedsailors.Along withtheAccess2.3andtheAccess303,AccessDinghiesalsoofferstheLiberty(length12’),whichwasdesigned tobeafaster,highͲpointingsailingdinghy. Access2.3 Access303 AccessLiberty SKUD18 TheSKUD18(Length19’)isahighperformancedesignbyAccessDinghiesthatwasutilizedforthefirsttimein thesummer2008Paralympics,inthetwopersonkeelboatevent.TheSKUD18canbehandledinavarietyof crewconfigurations.Thehelmsmancantransfermanuallyandbesteeringwithtillers,orbeinafixedseaton thecenterlineusingamanualjoystick,push/pullrods,oraservoassistjoystickwithfullcontrolofallfunctions.

Theforwardcrewcaneitherbeonthecenterline,transferringmanually,orusingaswingingseat.Aswithallthe AccessDinghiesdesigns,theSKUD18canbesailedbyalllevelsofphysicalability. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|52    Freedom20 http://www.catalinayachtscom TheFreedom20/FreedomIndependence(length20’6”)isbuiltbyCatalinaYachts.Thiskeelboatwasdesigned forextraordinaryaccessibilitywithtwomountedpivotingseats,oneforthehelmsmanandonefortheforward crew.Thefreeboardislowandthesidedecksareunclutteredtofacilitategettingonboardandeasymobilityfor anyonewhodoesnotneedtobeinsecuredintoaseat.Thisboatisalsoverygoodforfirsttimesailors,asitis extremelystableandgivesthenewsailoragreatfeelingofstability.Ithasaddedstabilityduetotheballastratio andverticalcenterofgravity.IthasaselfͲtendingjibandsimplistic,efficientriggingandisgreatforanewsailor

whomayhavelimitedability.   HobieTrapseat http://www.hobiecatcom/sailing/models hobie16html TheHobieTrapseat(length16’7”)isatwoͲhulledcatamarandesignedforspeedandperformanceandissailed byatwoͲpersoncrew.The‘Trapseats’areboltedontoeachsideoftheHobie16Peoplewithseverelylimited mobilitycansailaTrapseatHobie16witheaseandonequaltermstothosewithoutdisabilities. Thesailingteamconsistsofaskipperwithadisabilitywhosteerstheboatwiththetillerwhiledetermining sailingtactics,andanableͲbodiedcrewwhomansthesheetsofthemainsailandjib.SpecialOlympicssailing programsoftenutilizetheHobie16. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|53    NorlinMarkIII2.4mR http://www.us24meterorg The2.4Meter(length138")isasingleͲhandeddinghythatissuitableforawiderangeofphysicalabilities,from

thosewithquadriplegiatofullyableͲbodiedindividuals.Sailedineverythingfromlocaltointernationalregattas, the2.4Meterisknowntobeafast,highperformance,sometimes“wet”boatAllthecontrollinesareled underthedecktoaconsoledirectlyinfrontoftheskipper.The24mRisidealforuseinadaptivesailing activitiessincethesailordoesnotneedmoveabouttheboat.Allcontrolsareadjustablefromadashboardthat isrightinfrontofthesailor.Alongwiththeeasilyaccessedlines,the24Meterutilizesahandtillerforsteering ease,and/orfootpedalsteeringforthosewhopreferit.Theboatissailedwithoutaspinnakerbutusesa whiskerͲpoleforsettingthejibdownwind. The2.4MeterwasselectedtobethesinglehandedclassintheParalympicsinSydney2000,andhasbeenused ineveryParalympicGamessince.  Martin16 http://www.martin16com

TheMartin16(Length160")isakeelboatthatcanbesailedby1or2crew.TheMartin16designcombines stability,maneuverability,controlandlivelyperformance.Itattractssailorsfromtheagesof10ͲandͲunderto 70+,from40kgtoheavyweights,fromnovicetonationalchampion.Inaddition,theboatisidealforsailing schoolsandtrainingclubs,whileitisalsoaccessibleforseniorsandpersonswithdisabilities.Itsweightedhigh liftkeelmakesitaverystableandsafeboat,whichcanbeeasilytrailerlaunchedandriggedbyoneperson.The Martin16philosophyisbuiltonsimplicityandversatility.  AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|54  TheMartin16hasdesignfeaturesthatmakesailingaccessibletoallsailorswithmobilityimpairments.Stability, adjustableseatingandspecializedcontrolsystemsmakeituserfriendlyforsailorswithanylevelofphysical

ability.TheMartin16offersoptionalautomatedsystemsforsteering(ieManualorelectronicJoystick;sipand puff),sailsheetingandbilgepumping.Byincorporatingtheneedsofhighquadriplegicsailing,theMartin16is themostaccessibleoneͲdesignonthemarket,providinghighquadswith‘sipandpuff’options,enablingthem toracecompetitively.ThestabilityofthekeelmakesitaverysafeboatforpeoplewithseveredisabilitiesThe adjustableseatingalsoassistswithitsabilitytoadapttosailorswithvariousmobilityimpairments.TheMartin 16isahighperformanceboatthatisalsoutilizedinnumerousregattas,verypopularinCanada.   Sonar http://www.sonarorg TheSonar(length23’)isahighperformancekeelboatthatisexcitingtorace,buteasytohandlebysailorsofall ages,strengthsandskilllevels.Itisareallygooddaysailor,spaciousandcomfortabletositinalldaylong,is

trailerableandeasytolaunchforwetordrysailing.TheSonarisasafe,wellbehavedtrainingboatthatisused tohelpteachnewsailorshowtosailwhilehavingfundoingit! This23ͲfootdayracerhasacontouredsitͲin,spaciouscockpitandoffersnumerouspossibleconfigurationsand adaptationsfordifferentdisabilitiesforsailorsfrombeginnertotheParalympicelite.TheSonarshowcased disabledsailingatthe1996ParalympicGamesinAtlantawherethesportwasademonstrationeventusingthe Sonarwithacrewof3.TheSonarhasbeentheequipmentforthethreepersonkeelboatineverysubsequent Paralympics.WhenbeingusedinParalympicconfiguration,TheSonarissailedwithoutaspinnakerWhen runningdownwindawhiskerpoleisusedtoholdthejibouttowindwardformaximumexposedsailarea.    AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|55  ChallengerTrimaran www.sailchallengerscom

TheChallengerTrimaran(length15’)isasinglehandedvesselutilizedbyavarietyofpeoplewithdifferent abilities.TheChallengerisatriedandtestedsailingboatItevolvedfromtheoriginalRobMcAlpineͲDowney designintothemodernexcitingcraftitistoday.Itistoughandreliable,suitableformanyusesandisusedfor training,racing,and/orcruising.TheChallengerisaveryversatileboatusedforadaptivesailingItcanbe launchedfromanysailinglocation,beachorslipwaymakingsailingpossibleforeveryoneeverywhere.Theclass associationpermitssailorswithdisabilitiestoadapttheirboattotheirownpreferences.Inkeepingwiththe spiritofoneͲdesign,modificationstoseatingandcontrollinesetuparenearlyalwaysallowed.   Ideal18 http://www.shumwaymarinecom/ideal18 TheIdeal18isastateͲofͲtheͲartkeelboat,easilyracedordaysailedbyonetotwoormorepersons.Appealing

tomodernsailors,thenewdesigniseasytomaintain,simpletorigandsail,trailerableandgoodͲlooking.Its alsomaneuverableandfast.Seats,seatbacks,cockpitfloorandsplashͲrailarebuiltintothedeckmoldByusing equipmentandsailhandlingtechniquestestedandpopularizedduringthepasttenyears,Ideal18performswell with"nomuss,nofuss."TheIdeal18canbefittedwithspecialadaptationstosuiteachsailor’sspecificneeds        AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|56  FlyingScot http://flyingscot.com The Flying Scot is perfect for family trips, singlehanded fun, and an excellent racer. It is very stable and unsinkable and needs less than a foot of water. And it is a good investment TheFlyingScotSailing Associationalsomaintainsthestrict,oneͲdesignclassrulesthatallowyourFlyingScottoremaincompetitive

yearafteryearwithoutexpensiveequipmentchanges.ThewidebeamedFlyingScothasbeenusedinsome adaptivesailingprogramswithsimpleadaptationstoaccommodateawiderangeofdisabilities.  AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|57  IX. ADDITIONALRESOURCES Inthefollowingsectionyou’llfindexamplesofformsthatyoucanuseinthedevelopmentandimplementation ofyouradaptiveprogramaswellasadditionalbackgroundinformationonsomeofthedisabilitiesthatyour sailorsmayhave. Contentinthissectionincludes: x x x x x x ComeandTryDaySampleProgramOutline Local/National/InternationalInformation WorkingwithSchools VolunteerRegistrationForm ParticipantApplicationForm CommonDisabilities,InstructionalTechniquesandotherConsiderations Additionally,hereareafewlinkstoorganizationsthathavemoreresources 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. USSailingAdaptiveSailingWebpage–http://adaptive.ussailingorg

InternationalAssociationforDisabledSailorsͲwww.sailingorg/ifdsphp Sailability–www.sailabilityorg ISAFͲwww.sailingorg BlindSailingInternationallyͲwww.blindsailingorg/ SpecialOlympicsͲwww.soscorg/sailinghtml GowrieGroupͲwww.gowriecom             AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|58  “ComeandTryDay!”ǦSampleProgramOutline Aneffectivewaytogetstartedholdingeventsforpeoplewithdisabilitiesistoorganizeadaywhentheycan cometrysailing.Thisdaycouldbeseenassimplyanenjoyable,isolatedexperience;ontheotherhand,itcould bethebeginningofawholenewpastime–goodreasonsforcarefulplanningandorganization. 1. Planning Everyeffortshouldbemadetoensurethattheexperienceispleasurableforeveryoneinvolved,fromplanners tovolunteerstoparticipants. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Atleastonepersonwithadisabilityshouldbeontheplanningcommittee.

Membersofthesailingclubororganizationshouldbeinvolved. Thedateshouldbechosensoastoavoidconflictswithmajorcluborareaevents. Planningshouldbeginasearlyaspossibleandshouldincludeanactiontimetable. Extremesofweathershouldbeavoided–includingheatandcold. Peopleshouldbepersuadedtomaketheirboatsavailable;boatsandequipmentshouldbeinsured. Club/Sitefacilitiesshouldbeinspectedforaccessibilityandflexibility. Iffeasible,transportationtothevenueshouldbeprovided. Meals,snacksasappropriate,andhydrationshouldbeavailableforsailorsandhelpers. Ateamofcompetenthelpersshouldbedevelopedandorganized. Anorientationsessioninvolvingdisabilityawarenessandrelatedissues,basictypesofdisability,safety andspecialtechniquesshouldbeplanned. Planningshouldincludealternativeactivitiesiftheweatherisbadaswellasactivitiesforthosewaiting tosail.

Anemergencyandsafetyplanshouldbedevelopedandputintoplace. Thepersonorpersonsresponsiblefordecisionmakingontheday,particularlyinrelationtosafetyand weather,shouldbeidentifiedandintroducedtoall. ArrangementsshouldbemadeforthosewhodonothavePFD’s. 2. ComeandTryDayProgram x Welcome,briefintroduction,andquestion/answerperiod x 1Ͳ4hoursofopensailing–switchingsailorsasoftenasneededtogiveeveryattendeetheopportunity tosail. x Volunteerinstructors/experiencedsailorsthathavebeencheckedouttoassistwilltaketurnsskippering andgivinginitialinstructiontothenewcomers,ineachvessel x Participantswhileonboardcanbetaughtthebasicsofsailingandgiventheopportunitytobeatthe helmortrimthesails. x Thankyouandclosingwithrefreshments,orrefreshmentscanbeservedthroughout. 3. AlternativeActivitiesifneededduetoweatherortooccupythosewaitingtheirturn: x Displays

x DemonstrationsͲdescribingboats,hoists,simpleadaptations x Videos,etc. 4. Promotion x Asmanypeoplewithdisabilitiesaspossibleshouldbecontacted,throughsuchsourcesas: x Localorganizationsforadaptive/disabledsportsandotheractivities x Universities,colleges,andschools x Localcouncils x Communitysailingprograms AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|59  x x x Localrehabilitationcenters LocalTherapeuticParksandRecreationDepartments SpecialOlympicChaptersinyourarea 5. Publicity x Topromoteadaptivesailingandreporttheactivity,thefollowingshouldbeinvolved: x Localnewspapers x Localtelevisionandradio x Appropriatewebsites x Disabilitynewsletters x Localcouncils–nationalgoverningbodyforsailingand/ordisabilitysports. 6. Advanceinformation x Everyoneinvolved–participants,helpers,andpublicityoutlets–shouldknow: x

Whattoexpectfromtheday,schedule,club/venuefacilities,catering,etc. x Howtogettothevenue x Whatkindofclothingtowear,includingspareclothes. x Whatkindofexpensesmayoccurduringtheday 7. Funding Most“tryit”dayscanbemanagedatminimalcost.However,localgrocerystoresandmerchantsmayassist withdonationsoffood,waterandsmallmemorabilia.Inaddition,localgovernmentsandcompaniesmay providegrantsandsponsorships.TheyappreciatethepublicityprovidedbypromotionofthedayParticipants mayhavetobecharged,butitisbestifyoucanofferthisexperiencefreeofcharge. 8. Boats Almostanycraftwilldoprovideditis: x x x Reasonablystable Designedwithalarge,unclutteredcockpit Sensibleforsailingconditionsatthevenue 9. Volunteers AteamofwellͲbriefed,competentandenthusiasticboatownersisessentialforasuccessfulday.Theyshould all: x x x x

Knowclearlywhatisexpectedofthemintermsoftimeandactivity Knowhowbesttohelp(seeInstructionalTechniques) Becompetentattheirallottedtasks,especiallyboathandling Beidentifiedashelpersbynametags,TͲshirts,hats,etc.(seeStaff,Volunteers&Participants) 10. Venuefacilities Perfect,accessiblefacilitiesarenotarequirementfora“TryItDay.”Temporaryramps,rentedportable handicappedaccessibletoilets,tentsandsignscreateasuccessfulenvironment.However,thefollowingshould becheckedtoassurethattheyarereasonablyaccessibleforwheelchairusersandforpeoplewithwalking disabilitiesandvisualimpairment: x x x Jetties,docksandbeaches Toilets Changingrooms AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|60  x x x Refreshmentandgatheringareas Areasprotectedfromsunand/inclementweather. Parking 11. ExtraEquipment/Needs x Planningshouldincludeanadequatesupplyof: x

Buoyancyaids/lifejackets(PFD’s).Theseshouldbeinavarietyoftypesandsizestoaccommodateall disabilities. x Water/windproofclothing(unclaimedclubpropertyisagoodsource) x Sparewarmcaps x LongelasticstrapswithVelcroclaspsforsecuringlimbs,asneeded x Plentyofbottledwater x Sunscreen 12. SafetyandFirstAid Peoplewithdisabilitiesarenomorelikelythananyoneelsetoneedmedicalattention.Butgiventheextra peopleatthevenue,careshouldbetakentocheckforadequatefirstaidandrescuefacilities.AnEmergency ActionPlanishighlyrecommended. RescueBoats&qualifiedcrew(twoperrescueboat)–onerescueboatperfivetotenboatsshouldbeprovided. Theseboatscaneitherbethatofthehostingorganizationorborrowedfromlocalboatowners.(Askinglocal boatownerstodonatetheirtimeandboatsisagreatwaytogetthelocalcommunityinvolvedintheprogram.) 13. Insurance

Obligationsandrequirementsvaryfromcountrytocountry;however,organizerswillusuallyhavethirdparty andpublicliabilitycoverage.Extendingexistingclubpoliciesforthedayshouldbeconsidered;activitiesfor peoplewithdisabilitiesshouldnotaffectthecoverageofferedunderastandardclubpolicyhowever,it’salways agoodideatocheckwithyouragentfirsttobesure. 14. FollowUpInformation Peopleappreciatehavinganinformationsheettotakeawaywiththem.Detailssuchasthefollowingshouldbe included: x x x x x x x Contactnamesandphonenumbers Placestosail Typesofsailingavailable Kindsofboatsbeingused Costofsailing Futureactivitiesandevents Abrochureonyourlocalsailingprogram/abrochureonthenationalorganizationforadaptivesailing. Foryoutofollowup,youwillwantto: x Collectnames,phonenumbers,emailandmailingaddresses x Askforcommentsontheday’sactivities x

Followupwithphonecalls,emailremindersandnewslettersoffutureactivities. 15. SuggestedEmergencyActionPlan AnEmergencyActionPlanisdesignedtoleteveryone,fromorganizersandvolunteerstoparticipants,know whattodoandwheretogoincaseofanaccidentoremergencyonlandorwater.Atsomeevents,participants arebeingprovidedwiththisplanaspartoftheirregistrationpackage. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|61  Theplanshouldincludesuchdetailsas: x x x x x x x Emergencycontactnumbersforpeopleinchargeoffirstaidandforanyrescueunit Whocallsforemergencyhelp Wherethemedicalkitiskeptonsite Ifanemergencyunitiscalled,whowillmeetthemandwhere Whatproceduresaretobefollowedincaringforthevictim Whatdocumentationisrequiredtobecompletedandfiled Howinsuranceistobeadvisedofanyincidents.                    AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|62 

Local/National/InternationalInformation GettingOrganized Thissectionprovidesasummaryandthenamoveforwardfromtheideaspresentedintheprevioussections. Researchingwhatalreadyexistsandfindingadditionalsourcesofinformationprovidesupportforanynew project.Informationisavailableaboutsailingopportunitiesforpeoplewithdisabilitiesfrom: x CommunitySailingPrograms x NationalSailingAuthorities x ParalympicAssociations x Adaptive/DisabledSportsOrganizations  Iftheaboveareunabletoassist,contactingandnetworkingwithaneighboringcountrymayprovide informationabouttheirexperiencesandactivities.InternationalconferencessuchasYesͲEuropeandYesͲAsia, heldincooperationwiththeInternationalFoundationforDisabledSailing(IFDS)canprovideusefulandvaried contactswithothercountries.Inaddition,annualinternationalandworldsailingchampionshipscanbeother

pointsofcontactforadditionalinformationaboutsailingforpeoplewithdisabilities. Local Experiencehasshownthatthefollowingworkwellinestablishingnewadaptivesailingprograms: x x x x x x x x x x Identifyoneortwokeypeopletotakeresponsibilityforagroupofsailorswithdisabilities. Includeatleastonepersonwithadisabilityonthesteeringcommittee. Enlistthesupportoftheclub/organizationboard. Keepallclubmembersinformedasthegroupdevelops. Shareresponsibilityforpublicity,fundraising,boatmaintenance,etc. Recruitandtrainateamofreliablevolunteers. Developapolicyofsharedresponsibilityforboats. Attractsailorsandvolunteersthroughschools,serviceclubs,rehabfacilities,etc. Considertransportationneedstoandfromisolatedvenuesforthosewhodonotdrive. Developastructuredprogramfortrainingandeventsbothsailingandsocial.

Itisnotnecessarytomakethecluborvenuecompletelyaccessiblebeforeyoudeterminewhetheryouhavethe participationtosustainit.Onceyouestablisharegularrelationshipbetweenfacilityandparticipants,plansto providemorepermanentaccessiblefacilitiescanbeorganized,andmayactuallyencouragefinancialsupport andbeoflongͲrangebenefittotheclubitself. Regional Regionalcommitteesdistributeinformation,raiseawareness,andaccessregionalresources.Sailorswitha disabilityshouldberepresentedonallregionalsailingcommittees,andtheneedsofsailorswithdisabilities shouldbeaddressedinalldevelopmentplans. National Asnationalnetworksareestablished,itisimportanttoconsiderreachingouttothefollowingorganizations: 1. NationalsailingauthorityRepresentationforsailorswithdisabilitiesonboardsandcommitteesshould beestablished. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|63  2.

NationaldisabledsportsorganizationsOthersportsoftenprovidenewsailors;theymayhaveaccess tofunding. 3. NationalParalympicAssociationThismayprovidefundingfordevelopmentalorelitetrainingalong withapossiblenationalParalympicteam. Nationalnetworkingalsoprovidesopportunitiesfor: 1. Recreationalsailingatarangeofvenues x Racingagainstsailorsfromotherclubs,qualifyingtorepresentacountryinternationally x Sharing“goodpractices” x Nationalnewslettersdistributedeitherinprintorelectronicallyprovideinformation;national seminarsprovideaforumfordiscussion. TheInternationalFoundationforDisabledSailing(IFDS) History TheInternationalFoundationforDisabledSailingwasformedoutoftheInternationalHandicapCommitteein 1992andisresponsibleforpromotingandsupportingdisabledsailingaroundtheworld.In1993,duringthe

InternationalYachtRacingUnion(IYRU)ConferenceinToronto,theinauguralmeetingoftheDisabledSailing Committeewasheld.In2000,theDisabledSailingCommitteeoftheInternationalSailingFederation(formerly IYRU)wasdissolved,andIFDS,authorizedbyandworkinginpartnershipandcooperationwithISAF,becamethe governingbodyforsailingforpeoplewithphysicaldisabilities,blindness,andlearningdisabilities.IFDSis affiliatedwiththeInternationalParalympicCommitteeandworkswithotherinternationaldisabledsports organizationssuchastheInternationalBlindSailingAssociation. Objectives TheInternationalFoundationforDisabledSailing(IFDS)aimsto: x x x x x x x x Supportthedevelopmentandpromotionofsailingforpeoplewithallkindsanddegreesof disabilitiesworldwide Representsailorswithdisabilitiesattheinternationallevel Gatheranddisseminaterelevantinformation

Provideforaninternationalexchangeofideasthroughmeetings,sailors’forums,andtheonline sailors’forum. Compileadatabaseofcontacts,recommendedboats,adaptations,etc. Preparepromotionalvideos,publications,etc. CoordinateISAF/IFDSsanctionedinternationalracing Createcontactsforrecreationalsailingaroundtheworld. Structure TheIFDShasanExecutiveBoardconsistingofaPresident,aTreasurer,andfourtosixothercommittee members,plusanonͲvotingmembernominatedbyISAF.MajorcommitteesincludeTechnical,Medical, Development,FundRaising,andTechnicalAdvisers.Othercommitteeshaverecentlybeenorganized;these includeSailors’AdvisoryCouncil,Coaches’Commission,EventsandScheduling,andEquipmentEvaluation.The IFDSwebpagesathttp://www.sailingorg/sailors/disabled/indexphpcontainfullerexplanationsand

descriptionsofcommitteetermsandduties.MinutesofBoardmeetingsareavailableonlineTheIFDSBulletinis availabletoanyoneinterestedinadaptive/disabledsailing.  AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|64  IFDScurrentlyhasabroadbaseofcountrymembershipfromaroundtheworld;RecognizedNationalAuthorities (RNA’s)musthaveorshouldaimtohaveaffiliationwiththeirnationalsailingauthoritiesanddisabledsports associations.ThereisanAnnualGeneralMeeting,whichprovidestheopportunityformembercountriesto makerecommendationstotheExecutiveBoard. TheIFDSSecretariathasbeenhousedwithintheISAFsecretariatinSouthampton,GBR,since2001. Publications IFDSisresponsibleforproducingandupdatingthefollowingpublications.Theyareallavailableonlinethrough thewebsite. x x x x RaceManagementManualͲProvidesrulesandguidelinesforinternationalsailingeventssuchasWorld

ChampionshipsandParalympicevents,includingadaptations.Revisedandupdatedeveryfouryears FunctionalClassificationSystemͲProvidesrulesandguidelinesforquantifyinganatomicaland functionalsailingability.Revisedandupdatedeveryfouryears SailingManualͲProvidesideasforbeginningsailingprogramsandgettingstartedintodisabledsailing. Revisedperiodically. IFDSBulletinͲProvidescurrent,relevantinformationaboutevents,competition,conferences,etc. PublishedmonthlyorbiͲmonthly.                 AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|65  WorkingwithSchools Indevelopingyoursailingprogramforpeoplewithdisabilities,itmaybehelpfultopartnerwithyourlocal schools.Belowisanoutlineofsuggestionsonhowtomaximizethistypeofpartnership: Developpartnershipswithlocalschools Ͳ Offervenue&facilitiestoschools Ͳ

Maximizetheuseofclub/watersportscenterfacilities,particularlyduringMondaythroughFriday Ͳ Partnersailingexperiencewithteachingskills Workwithmainstream&specialschools Ͳ Offerasportsuitableforstudentsofallabilities Ͳ Offersopportunitiesforinclusion Contributetoriskassessment Ͳ Schoolsareobligedtoconductariskassessmentoftheactivityandtopreparesafetystrategies Ͳ Sailingvenuecanprovide: x Certifiedsailinginstructors x SafetyPlan Developacurriculumrelatedprogram Ͳ Tojustifytheuseoftimefromtheschooldayitwillbenecessarytoprepareacurriculumbasedsailing programthatcaninclude: x Personal&socialskills–coͲoperatinginteams,raisingselfͲesteem&confidence(whichflows overintootherareasoflearning) x Physicalactivity x Environment–increasedknowledgeofweather,wind&water x

Mathematics–calculatingdistancestovenue,anglesofcourses,costoftravel,fuelforsupport boatsetc. x Geography–weather,locationofvenue x Language–purposefuluseofwritten&verballanguagetorecord/reportactivity;giving& actinguponclearinstructions x Science–howsailswork,flotation,watercycle,hydration,andtemperaturecontrol. Prepareareward/certificationaspectoftheprogram Ͳ Followstandardawardprograms. Ͳ Modifycertificationtoaccommodatestudentswithavarietyofdisabilities. Ͳ Introducesmallstepsrewardsystem.      AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|66  VolunteerRegistrationForm  ProgramLocation:   LastName: FirstName:   DateofBirth(MM/DD/YY): Email   Telephone (Home):

(Work): (Mobile):    Address        (MailingAddress)    (City/State)    (ZipCode)  CurrentOccupation:   Specialskillsandinterests(i.eSailing,Powerboating,Diving,Administrative,etc):    Yes  No DoyouhaveaCPRcertificate,ornursing,PT/paramedicexperience?Circleone:  Ifyes,pleasespecify   PreviousVolunteerExperience:      VOLUNTEERAGREEMENT

ForEmergencyPurposesonlyͲPleaseindicate:  Iagreetoabidebyalldecisions/guidelines DOYOUHAVEAMEDICALCONDITION? setbytheYOURCENTERNAMEinregards to any YOUR CENTER NAME (i.eDiabetes,Epilepsy,HeartCondition?): activity/event.Igivemypermissiontothe YOUR CENTER NAME/the managing Pleasespecify:  partneroftheYOURCENTERProgramsto  doanofficialbackgroundcheckaspartof  policy.  EmergencyContactPerson Name:  Address:   Homephone:   Signature   Date:     AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|67  ParticipantApplicationForm  ProgramLocation:

  LastName: FirstName:   DateofBirth(MM/DD/YY): Email   Telephone (Home): (Work): (Mobile):    Address        (MailingAddress)    (City/State)    (ZipCode)   EmergencyContactInformation:   Name:    Address:   City/State/Zip:    Phone:     Ifyouhaveadisability,thefollowingquestionsareoptional,however,theywouldassisttheYOUR

CENTERNAMEtobetterserveyouthroughthedevelopmentandimplementationoffutureprograms.  TypeofDisability:    Doyourequireassistance?  Yes No  Ifso,inwhatareasdoyourequireassistance?  Doyouhaveacaretaker,memberofyourfamilyorfriendtohelpyou? Yes No  Doyouhaveawheelchair?  Yes No  Wouldyouliketovolunteeraswellasparticipate? Yes No     Haveyoueversailedbefore?Yes No                 Ifyes,pleasegivedetails  Howdidyouhearaboutthisprogram?  AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|68 

Accident/IncidentProcedureFlowChart(reprintedwithpermissionfromGowrieGroup)   AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|69  EmergencyProcedure(reprintedwithpermissionfromGowrieGroup)   AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|70  CommonDisabilities,InstructionalTechniques&OtherConsiderations  InformationinthissectionwasprovidedbyJackieKayofSailability,Australia TypesofDisabilities x x x x x x x x x x x x AcquiredBrainInjury Amputations Asthma Blind&VisionImpaired CerebralPalsy Deaf&HearingImpaired Diabetes HeartDisease IntellectualDisability MultipleSclerosis Paraplegia&Quadriplegia SpinaBifida AcquiredBrainInjury WhatisanAcquiredBrainInjury(ABI)? Anacquiredbraininjuryisalossofbrainfunctionasaresultofdamagetothebrainthatoccursafterbirth.It referstoinjuriestothebraincausedbytraumasuchasfromanexternalforce,whichmayresultin

unconsciousnessoradiminishedoralteredstateofconsciousness. Causes ThetermTraumaticBrainInjury(TBI)referstothoseinjuriestothebraincausedbyanexternalforce.Thismay resultfrom: x x x MotorAccidents SportingAccidents Assault Otherconditionsthatmayresultindamagetothebrain(ABI)include: x x x x x x Tumor Stroke Infection SubstanceAbuse MedicalMistake Accidents ThetermAcquiredBrainInjury(ABI)encompassesallinjuriesthatoccurtothebrainafterbirth.  AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|71  Howlongdoesitlast? TheeffectsofABIcanbetemporaryorpermanent.Theperiodofrehabilitationandtheoutcomeofbraininjury willvaryfrompersontopersondependingonthedegreeofdamagethathasoccurredandtheareaorpartof thebrainaffected.Forthisreason,somepeoplewhoacquireabraininjurymayincurmultipledisabilities

ItshouldbestressedthatpeoplewithABIdifferconsiderablyfrompeoplewithanintellectualdisability.People withbraininjuriesusuallyretaintheirintellectualabilitiesbutmayhavedifficultycontrolling,coordinationand communicatingtheirthoughtsandactions. InstructionalTechniques Aninjurytothebraincanresultinpartialortotalimpairmentsofcognitive,physicaland/orsensoryfunction. Whilerecoveryfromphysicalconditionsmightindicateminimalimpairmentofanindividual,thereisoftena changeinthebehavioralandemotionalfunctioningasapersonadaptstothechangesintheirlife.Forthis reason,ABIisoftenreferredtoasthe“hiddendisability.” ApersonwithanABIusuallyretainstheirintellectualcapacityaftertheirinjury;however,dependingonthearea ofthebrainthathasbeenaffected,theremaybeaprobleminlearningnewskillsbecauseofthedifficultyin

processinginformation.Also,apersonoftenhasaprobleminrecognizingtheirownlimitationsduetolackof insightasaresultofdamagetothefrontallobes. Withregardstoinstructionthefollowingguidelinesarerecommended: x x x x x x Alwaystalkslowlyandclearly–donotprovidetoomuchinformationinanyonesession. Breakdowntaskintocomponents. Bepreparedtorepeatproceduresinthefollowingsession. Usevisualaidsbothduringlessonsandontheboat,ifpossible(i.euseofpicturecardsandvisualcues) Ensurewrittenmaterialisinlargetypewhereverpossible(infont14plus,etc.)aspeoplewithABIoften havedifficultyreadingwrittenmaterial. Ensurethattheparticipantkeepsadiaryforplanning,includingarrangingsessionsandraceschedules. Characteristics PhysicalSensory Physicalconsiderationsmayinclude: x x x x Anincreaseddegreeofspasticity PoorcoͲordinationandmobility Muscleweakness Susceptibilitytofatigue

Oftenapersonmightexperiencealossofsensoryfunction,suchasdecreaseinvisualacuity.   AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|72  Cognitive Cognitivefactorswillvaryforeachindividualbutproblemscanoccurwith: x x x x x Spatialorientation Motivation Judgment Memoryloss Difficultyintransferringinformation Eachinstructorwillneedtodeterminetheamountofinformationthatcanbeprocessedbyaparticipant, includingthecapacityofshortandlongtermmemory. OtherConsiderations Insomeinstances,peoplewithABImightoftenexhibitinappropriatesocialbehavior.Whilethisisminimal,itis anaspectofbraininjurywhichpeopleshouldbeaware,toensureminimumoffensetoothers,especially consideringthesocialaspectofboating. MedicalConsiderations Alwaysattainamedicalreportorassessmentofanindividualincludingmedicationrequirementsandmedical approvalforparticipationinproposedactivities.

Consultwithindividual,doctorandparentorcaretakertoidentifyanyissues,problemareas,medication,etc. Epilepsy–peoplewithABIaremorelikelytodevelopepilepsyaftertheirinjury.Forthisreason,itisessential thatinstructors,caretakers,etc.,haveanawarenessofepilepsyandknowledgeofhowtotreatepileptic seizures. ImplicationsforSailing x Balancecanoftenbeaproblem–thisshouldbetakenintoconsideration,especiallywhenonlarger boats. x Vision–Alwayschecktoseeifthereareanyvisionproblems–peoplewithABIhaveproblemswith visualacuity. x Dependingonthedegreeofinjury,itmaybenecessarytousemodifiedequipment,i.eelectronic controls,etc. Fatigue ApersonwithABIisverysusceptibletofatigue.Onceapersonisfatiguedtheyaremoresusceptibleto accidents,boutsoffrustration,becomeeasilystressedandthereforemorelikelytoexhibitnegativeor inappropriatebehavior. x x x x x

Forthisreason,thefollowingguidelinesshouldbeimplementedtofacilitateaneasierlearning experienceforbothinstructorandparticipant. Planinformationortrainingsessionearlyintheday. Keepsessionsshortasconcentrationisoftenaproblemandtominimizeonsetoffatigue. Ensureappropriaterestperiodsareprogrammedintotrainingschedules. Ifracing,bepreparedtochangeanddistributeresponsibilitieswithinthecrew. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|73  Frustration x x x ApersonwithABIwilloftennotrememberalltheactivitiestheycouldperformpriortotheiraccident. Donotalwayspresumethatapersoniscapableofperformingataskindependently.Itisoftenthecase thatthepersonwillnotbeabletoacknowledgeinitiallythattheyareunabletoperformcertaintasks– thelackofinsightisacommonissueforpeoplewithABI. Alwaysprovideencouragementandpositivereinforcementatalltimes. Motivation

PeoplewithABItendtoexhibitalackofmotivationonmanyoccasions.Toaddressthisissue,contactthe personpriortotheday,ontheday,andastransportationisoftenanissue,arrangetransportationwith someoneatsettimestoensuretheopportunityforparticipation. OtherGuidelines x Alwaysconsultwithcaretakerspriortobeginninganactivity.Apartfromsafety,thismayeliminate situationswherethetraineewillbeuncomfortableandbecomemorestressed. x AnABIisahiddendisability,sometimes;thedisabilityisonlyapparentwherethereisaninabilityto copeinstressfulsituations. x PeoplewithABIwishtoliveindependentandwouldliketobetreatedasanindividual,beinvolvedand integratedintothecluborcommunitywheneverpossible.  PeoplewithAmputations Forourpurposes,amputeeswillincludepeoplebornwithoneormorelimbsmissingaswellaspeoplewith

acquiredamputations.Amputationsmaybeofasinglelimb,theymaybedoubleamputationsormoreThe positionoftheamputationisimportant.Apersonwithanabovethekneeamputationwillbemoredisabled thansomeonewithabelowthekneeamputation. Causes Thecausesofamputationsmayincludeaccidents,i.ecar,farm,powertools,etc,poorcirculationdueto smoking,diabetes,cancer,infections,gangrene,etc.Drugstakenduringpregnancymayleadtochildrenbeing bornwithoutlimbs. ImplicationsforSailing x Equipmentmayneedtobeadaptedtosuittheperson. x Theinstructorshouldalwaysbeonthesideofthesoundlimb. x Theremaybedifficultywithbalancewhilesailing.     AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|74  Asthma Asthmameans“difficultyinbreathing.”Itiscausedbythenarrowingofthesmallbreathingtubesinthelungs

Thisnarrowingisduetothetighteningofthemuscleinthewallsofthetubes;theswellingoftheirlining;and theincreasedproductionofmucus. Causes Theactualreasonthatasthmaoccursisunknown,however,agreatdealisknownaboutthingsthatcantrigger anattack.AttacksmaybebroughtonbymanyfactorsNotwopeoplearealikeanditcanbeverydifficultto identifytheactualcauseofaparticularattack.Belowisalistofpossibletriggersforasthmaattacks: x x x x Allergens,i.egrass,pollens,housedustmites,petfur,etc Suddenchangesintemperature Dryhotwinds Somepeoplemaybesensitivetocertaintypesoffood,i.epreservatives FirstAid RecognizinganAsthmaAttack Earlysignsofanattack x x x Breathingbecomesmoredifficultandawheezingsounddevelops. Breathingisrapid,sometimeswithagrasp. Personbecomesdistressed,pale,andsweatywitharapidpulse. WhattododuringanAcuteAsthmaAttack x x x x x

Duringanattackthepersonneedsquietsurroundings,cleanairandtreatment. Acuteattacksneedearlytreatment;thelongeryouwaitthemoredifficultitisformedicationtowork. Theperson’smedicationsshouldbereadilyavailablewithinstructionsastothedoseandtheorderthey mustbetakenin.GenerallyinhaledbetaͲagonistsarethefastestworking Ifnomedicationisavailableseekmedicalattentionimmediately.Inanemergency,pharmacistcan supplymedication. Duringtheattack,iftheinitialboosterdoseofmedicationishelpingtocontrolsymptoms,continue medicationevery4Ͳ6hours. ImplicationsforSailing x Thereisnoreasonwhypeoplewithasthmashouldnotbefullyinvolvedinsailingaslongastheyhave theirconditionundercontrol. x Ifstimuliforattackareknowntobeclimaticandthesailorandorganizersareawareofthepossibilityof

anattackincertainweatherconditionsthenmedicationcanbetakensensibly,participationcanbe complete. x Organizersshouldbeawareofmedicationandcorrectprocedureduringanattackandensurethe personhasfilledoutaninformationsheetabouttheirmedications. x Sailors,organizers&rescueboatassistantsshouldbeawareofacommonsignalgivenfor“immediate assistancerequired.” AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|75  Blindness&VisionImpairment Blindnessorvisionimpairmentdoesnotnecessarilymeanthatthepersoncannotseeanything.Nomorethan 5%of“blind”peoplearecompletelyunabletosee.MostcanseesomelightAlegallyblindpersonissomeone whocannotsee,withvisualaids,at20feet,whatpersonwithnormalvisioncanseeat200feet,orifthewidth oraperson’svisionis20degreesorless. Causes

Therearemanypossiblecausesofvisionimpairmentincluding:Diabetes,Cataracts,Glaucoma,Aging,Prenatal Infections,Eyemalformations,Trauma–i.ecaraccident,Infections,Tumors,OxygenTreatmentafterBirth GeneralNotes WheninthecompanyofaVisionImpairedperson: x x x x x x x x x x Ifhe/shewishestosit,puthis/herhandonthebackofthechair. LettheVIpersontakeyourarm/shoulder.Thisallowshim/hertowalkonestepbehindyouandjudge, whichwayyouareturning.Whenyoucometoastep,pauseandsaywhetheritisastepupordown Approachingpublictransportorsteps,placetheVIperson’shandonthehandrail. DonotbeafraidtoofferassistancetoaVIpersonwhoistravelingalone.Itisthenuptohim/hertosay whetherornothe/sheneedsassistance. DirectquestionsforaVIpersontohim/herandnottohiscompanion. Usehis/hernameatthebeginningorattheendofasentence.She/hewillthenknowthatyouare

speakingdirectlytohim/her. Alwaysleaveadooropenorclosed,neverajar. IfentertainingaVIperson,askhim/herifhe/shewouldlikeanyofhis/herfoodcutup. Thereisnoneedtotellhim/herwhattypeoffoodyouareservingorwhereitispositionedonhis/her ownplate.He/shewillaskallhe/sheneedstoknowItismostimportantnottomakeafuss Handhim/herhis/herdrink,he/shecanthenplaceitwherehe/shecanfinditeasily. CommunicatingwithapersonwithaVisionImpairment x Speakdistinctlyanddirectlytowardstheperson. x Don’tspeaklouderthanyounormallydo. x Saysomethingthatannouncesyourpresenceorintentiontoleave. x IdentifyyourselfwhenyouapproachaVIpersonandintroduceanypeoplewithyou. x WhenspeakingtoaVIperson,addresshim/herbynameortouchsohe/sheknowsyouaretalkingto him/her. x Speaknaturally;don’tworryaboutusingwordslike“look”and“see”. x

Bespecificwithdirections,i.edirecthim/hertotheleftfromhis/herpositioninsteadofsaying,“over there.” x Unobtrusivelyexplainwhatishappeningwheninpublic. x Talktothepersonyouareguidingandgivedirectionstoavoiddifficulties. x Nevertakeaperson’sarmandputhim/herinfrontofyou.Holdyourarmtoyoursidesohe/shecan takeitandwalk½apacebehindyou. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|76  x x x x x x Don’tleaveaVIpersonaloneinthemiddleofaroom.Makesurehe/shehascontactwithsomething, i.eatable Don’tcompletelyfillglassesorcups. DiscreetlytellaVIpersonifhis/herclothesaredirtyoruntidy. ReturnobjectstocorrectplacessotheVIpersoncanfindthemeasily. AhalfopendoororanyunusualobjectleftwhereaVIpersonmaywalkcanbeverydangerous. WarnVIpeopletoanypossibledangers,i.ewetfloors InstructionalTechniques x

Theinstructormustbearticulateandwillingtogivethefullestdescriptionoftechniqueandcorrection ofpoortechnique.Usekeywordstoassist x Sometimesitmayhelpifthepersonfeelstheinstructorperformingaparticularmovementorthe instructormovesthepersonthroughthemovement. x Don’tgrabtheirarmsunexpectedly.Ifyouaregoingtotouchthepersontellthemfirstwhereandwhat youaregoingtodo. x ConstantlycorrectstylemanuallyͲdoNOTpushorprodthosebeinginstructed. x DemandanacceptedtechniqueirrespectiveofthedisabilityͲadaptationtotechniquesmustbe carefullyevaluatedtofallwithinanacceptedlimit–poorcompromisesinevitablyleadtolowstandards ofperformanceandinjury. x Familiarizethepersonwithobstaclesinthearea(describeobstaclesintheirdirectpathortravel,let themfeeltheareaandhavetimeto“explore”thearea.) x Useotherparticipantstoassistwithguidanceanddirection. x

A“buddy”systemmaybehelpful. x GiveVIpeopleconstantfeedbackontheprogressofanactivitythatmaybenaturallyobservedby peoplewithvision. x Acousticsignalingmayberequiredinsomeactivitiestoaidindirection/distance.Instructorsshouldalso developcue/keywords,i.ecommunicatingdirectionbyreferringtothehandsofaclock x Developagoodlevelofspatialawareness. x WorkinawellͲlitarea.Shadowsanddarkareasmaybedangerousandwillreducevisibility ImplicationsforSailing x AVIshouldbeawareofthelocationofthewater,directionandlocationoffacilitiesandhaveassistance untilhe/shebecomesfamiliarwiththearea. x AudibleaidswillassisttheVIsailorwithdirectionanddistanceofbuoysandothercraftandcountdown forracestarts.      AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|77  CerebralPalsy GeneralInformation

CerebralPalsyistheresultofaninjurytopartofthebrainbeforeithasfinisheddeveloping.ItisnonͲ progressiveanditdoesnotgetworse.Thisinjuryaffectspartsofthebrainthatcontrolandcoordinatethe muscleswhichmovethebody.Therefore,peoplewithcerebralpalsyhavedifficultieswithmovementand posture. Therearethreemaintypesofcerebralpalsy: 1. Spasticity–Thesepeoplefindthatwhentheytrytomove,certainmusclescontractandgostiffThen themusclessuddenlyrelease.Thesepeoplealsohaveabnormalpostureandpoorhandfunctionswitha certainamountofsensoryloss. 2. Athetosis–Peoplewithathetosishavetheirmovementshinderedbylotsofunintentional, uncontrollableextramovements.Theseactionstendtoincreasewithexcitementornervousness Atheotosisgenerallyaffectsthewholebodybutonesidemaybemoreaffected. 3.

Ataxia–UsuallypeoplewithataxiahaveadegreeofspasticityorathetosisaswellThesepeoplehave difficultyinwalkingormovingsteadily.Theyhavetroublemakingcontrolledmovementswiththeir handsandfeetsotheyappearclumsyanduncoordinated. DifficultiesassociatedwithCerebralPalsy Somepeoplewithcerebralpalsymayalsohaveanintellectualdisability.However,itisimportanttorealizethat manypeoplehavenormalorabovenormalintelligence,thisismostlikelywithathetoids.CerebralPalsymay alsobeassociatedwithvisionorhearinglossandepilepsy.PeoplewithCerebralPalsymaynothaveperfect controloverthemusclesoftheirmouthandthroatsothatspeakingandeatingmaybedifficult.Somemayhave troublecontrollingtheirfacialexpressions.Thebraininjurythatcausescerebralpalsydoesnotgetworseasthe persongetsolder.However,theeffectsofthecerebralpalsyonthepersonwillchangeovertheyears Causes

Therearemanypossiblecausesofcerebralpalsy.Themostsignificantaspectisthatthedamageoccurstothe brainbeforeithasfullydeveloped.Thismayhappenifthebirthispremature,prolongedordifficult Sometimes,thedamageoccursinearlychildhoodthroughbraininfections(meningitis)orthroughactualbrain injuryofthesortthatmaybesustainedinacaraccident.CerebralpalsyisnotinheritedItisextremelyrarefor theretobemorethanonecaseinafamily. ImplicationsforSailing x Manypeoplewithcerebralpalsywillneedliftinginandoutofboats. x SailorswithCPmaytireeasily. x Poorcirculationmeanstheywillgetcoldquicklyandthereforemaybesusceptibletohypothermia. SailorswithCPshouldnotbeoutonthewatertoolongincoldweatherandwillneedappropriate clothes. x SailorswithCPoftenhavedifficultywithcontroloflimbsandarepronetobumpsandbruising.Itis

highlyrecommendedthatthesesailorskeeptheirfeetcoveredatalltimestoavoidinjury.  AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|78  HearingImpairment Classification Hearinglossiscategorizedbyitsseverity: MildHearingImpairmentͲSpeechisnormal;conversationiseasy;hasdifficultyhearingdistantnoises. ModerateHearingLossͲSpeechisimpaired;hasdifficultyhearingnormalconversation. SevereHearingLossͲCannotparticipateinconversationsalthoughhe/shemaycatchtheoccasionalword; hearingaidsarehelpful. ProfoundlyDeafͲCannotusehearingtoassistincommunication;hearingaidmayhelpbutitislimitedinits abilitytopermitnormalspeech. Causes Thecauseofapproximately50%ofhearinglossisunknown,however,commoncausesinclude: x x x x x Earinfections Geneticallyinheritedconditions Noisepollution IntraͲuterineinfections(duringpregnancy)i.erubella BirthTrauma InstructionalTechniques PointstoNote:

Hearingaidsonlyamplifysoundstheydonotclarifythemmuch.Backgroundsoundsalsogetamplifiedandthis makesitdifficultforthepersontoisolatesounds.Sobackgroundnoisesshouldbekepttoaminimum Continuousloudsoundsmaycauseheadaches. Lipreading–Trytobeonthesamelevelasthepersonyouarespeakingtoasitisdifficulttolookupordownat apersonandreadtheirlips.PoorlightingalsomakeslipreadinghardThehearingimpairedperson’sback shouldbetowardsthesun.LengthyconversationsshouldbekepttoaminimumtoavoidconfusionPeople whotalkquickly,movetheirhead,orsmilewhentheyspeakmaybedifficulttolipread.Beardsandmustaches canmakelipreadingdifficult.Lipreadingistiringsothepersonmaynotbeasgoodatunderstandinglateat night. Whengivinginstructionsinthepresenceofpersonswithhearingimpairmentthefollowingpointsareimportant foreffectivecommunication: x x x x

Besureyouhavetheperson’sattentionsotheycanascertainthewholemessage. Seeandbeseen.Positionyourselfwhereyoucanbeseenfaceon,atcloserangeandingoodlightThe personneedstobeabletolipreadandseeyourfacialexpression. Handgesturesandfacialexpressionshelpmakethemeaningclear.However,keephandsawayfrom theface. Avoidbackgroundnoise. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|79  x x x x x x x x x x x Speaknaturallyandclearly. Keepinstructionsshortandsimple–donotuseunnecessarywordsorlongsentences. Checkthatyouhavebeenunderstood. Rephrasethemessageifitisnotunderstood. Encourageothermembersoftheteamtolearntocommunicate. Instructorsshouldbepreciseanduncomplicatedwithsignals.Aimtogiveallthenecessaryinstruction beforetheactivityhasbegun,usingvisualaidsanddemonstrationswherepossible. Usedemonstrationasthemostimportantcue.

Considerenvironmentalconditions,i.ewindandsun Duringtheactivity,signssuchasthewaveofaflag,flickoflights,ortapontheshouldermaybe requiredifthepersonisunabletohearawhistle. Usestandardmovements/bodylanguage,thishearingimpairedpeopleunderstand. Bepatient. GeneralNote:Ifyouhavedifficultybeingunderstoodeitherthroughlipreadingorahearingaidrepeatwhat youhavesaidinadifferentway–changethephrasesyouused.Ifthereisstillaproblem,writeitdownThere isadangerofsocialisolationbecauseofdifficultyinparticipatinginconversationssoeffortsmustbemadeto includeahearingimpairedperson.Aprofoundlydeafpersonmaybehesitantwhenspeaking,asheisunableto hearhisownvoicetoknowifitisloudorsoft. ImplicationsforSailing Itmaybeeasierforahearingimpairedpersontounderstandinstructionsandexplanationsifvisualcuesare used,i.emaps,charts,labelsonequipment,etc

Itisessentialthatvisualsignalsbetweeninstructorandhearingimpairedpersonbeclearlyunderstood.  Diabetes Diabetesisadisorderofthesystemthatregulatestheamountofsugarintheblood.DiabeticsrisklongͲterm complicationsduetohighbloodglucose.Thesecomplicationsmayaffecteyes,kidneys,nerves,andarteries, especiallythosesupplyingtheheart,brainandlegs.Oftenblindnessandamputationsareduetodiabetes Diabetesisaninheriteddisease.Apersonwhohasfamilyhistoryofthedisorderhasthetendencytodevelopit andcarryitontohis/heroffspring.Therearetwotypesofdiabetes: x x InsulinDependentDiabetes.Thistypeismostlyinchildrenoryoungadults,yet,isincreasinginthe numberofadults,aswell.ThesepeopleproducelittleornoinsulinThetreatmentisdailyinsulin injectionsorinsulinpump,dietandexercise.

NonͲInsulinDependentDiabetes.ThisgenerallyaffectsmiddleagedorelderlypeopleThesediabetics areabletoproducesomeinsulintheydonotneedinsulininjections.Dietaloneordietandtabletsmay bethetreatmentused. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|80  Causes Itiscausedbyafailureofthepancreastoproduceasufficientsupplyofthehormone,Insulin.Insulinallowsthe sugartoleavethebloodandenterthebodycellstofuelthem.Withoutinsulin,thesugarinthebloodrisesfar beyondnormal. DiabeticReactions Therearetwopossiblereactionsfromwhichdiabeticsmaysuffer;InsulinReactionandDiabeticComa: 1. InsulinReaction Thisisthemostcommoncomplicationofdiabetesandisduetoadropinbloodsugarlevel. CauseofInsulinReaction:Delaying/missingmeals;Insulininjectedwasmorethanneededdose;Unusual strenuousexercise;Emotionalshock;Alcohol;Choiceofinjectionsite;i.echangingfromabdomentoleg;

Injectinginsulinintoamuscleorbloodvessel.Thiscanincreasethebloodinsulinlevelrapidly Symptomscaninclude:sweaty(cold&clammy),pale,trembling,headache,dizziness,dilated(widened)pupils, blurredvisionintensehunger,unusualbehavior,i.ebadtemper,poorcoͲordination,staggeringwalk, convulsion,coma. Symptomsdependontheseverityofthereaction.ThesignsvarybetweenpeopleAdiabeticshouldknowhis warningsymptoms. 2. DiabeticComaͲKetosis CausesofKetosis:Omissionofadoseofinsulin;insufficientinsulinindose,infections,i.eflu,gastricupset; neglectofdiet;injury;severedinjury;excessivealcoholconsumption. Symptomscaninclude:heavyurineglucose,ketonesintheurine,thirst,frequenturination,hunger,fatigue, blurredvision,deeprapidbreathing,vomiting,coma–ifuntreated,death. EmergencyTreatment x Givedrinkssweetenedwith2fulltablespoonsofsugarandglucose. x

Ifdramaticrecoveryoccursitisan“InsulinReaction”–givemoresugarevery15minutesforanhour. x Ifitis“Ketosis,”givingsugarwillnotharmthembutyoumustSEEKURGENTMEDICALATTENTIONif recoveryisn’tobvious. x Ifunconscious,putthepersoninthecomapositionandSEEKMEDICATIONATTENTIONIMMEDIATELY. Diet Itisimportantthatdiabeticsareveryconsciousoftheirdietforanumberofreasons.Dietcanhelptocontrol thebloodglucoselevelanddiabeticsneedtomaintainadesirablebodyweight. Importantpointsaboutdiet: x x x x Mealsandsnacksshouldbeeatenatapproximatelythesametimeeveryday. Mealsmustnotbemissed. Mealsshouldbeplannedtoprovideanevenfoodintake. Addedsugarsshouldbelimited,alternativesugarsareadvised. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|81  x x Foodsthatcontainahighamountofsugarshouldbeavoided.

Alcoholshouldbehadinmoderation.Alcoholishighinkilojoulesanditmayreactadverselywithsome medications. Implicationsforsailing x Unusualamountsofexerciseorexcitementmayrequiretheadjustmentoftreatmentoraninsulin reactionmayoccur. x Sensoryimpairmentreducesthediabetic’sperceptionofpain;injuriesmaygounnoticedorbe perceivedasminor. x Peoplewithdiabetesaresusceptibletoinfectionsandtheytendtohavepoorhealingcapacities. Infectionsthroughcuts,blisters,etc.shouldbeavoidedAstheirskinissosensitiveitmaybeadvisable towearfootcovering.CirculatoryrestrictionsshouldalsobeavoidedTightwetsuitsmaynotbe suitable. x Sunburncancauseinfectionsanditalsoaffectsbloodsugarlevels. x Organizersshouldbeawarethatdiabeticscannotmissordelaymeals.Insulinneedstobekeptinacool place,preferablyarefrigerator.Fastactingsugars,iecandies,orangejuiceshouldbereadilyavailable

incaseofaninsulinreaction.  HeartDisease Generally,thereisnoreasonwhypeoplewithheartdiseaseshouldnotparticipateinsailing.Infact,being physicallyfitisthoughttoimproveone’sresistancetoheartdisease.Theissueathandistheworkintensityand theabilityoftheindividualtocopewiththephysicalstress. HeartAttack Suddenandcompleteoxygenshortagetotheheartmusclecausestissuedamageandifitisnotrelievedsomeof theheartmuscledies.Thisisaheartattack Thewarningsigns: x x Squeezing,discomfortorpaininthecenterofthechestorbehindthebreastbonelastingmorethan10Ͳ 15minutes. Painspreadingtotheshoulders,neckorarms. Thesemaybeaccompaniedby: x x Sweating,shortnessofbreath Asickfeelinginthestomach Fartoomanyindividualsdieeachyearbecausetheyfailtorecognizeaheartattack.Modernmedical

treatmentsforheartattackcansavelivesandpreventseriousheartdamage.Donotwastevitalmoments! x x x Dial911 AskforanAmbulance Reportapossibleheartattack AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|82  x Ifanambulanceisnotavailable,havesomeonedrivetheparticipanttothehospital. Suddenpainanddiscomfortinthechestcanbefrightening.Itisnaturalforallinvolvedto“hope”itis somethingelse–likeindigestion,orapulledchestmuscle–anddelaytakingaction.Ifitisaheartattack,every minutecounts! Stroke Strokeisaninterruptionofthebloodsupplytothebrain.Symptomsdependonthepartofthebrainaffected Theycaninclude:headache,unconsciousness,weaknessornumbnessononesideofthebody,impairedspeech andpartiallossofsight.Onsetofsymptomsisusuallysudden ImplicationsforSailing x Sailorwillbecomefatiguedreadilyandrequiresfrequentrestperiods. x

Ifapersonwithaheartconditioncollapses,getmedicalhelpimmediately.  IntellectualDisability WhatisIntellectualDisability? IntellectualDisabilitycanbedefinedasasignificantlyreducedabilitytounderstandneworcomplexinformation andlearnnewskills,reducingaperson’sabilitytocopeindependently.Itusuallypresentsbeforeadulthoodand resultsinalastingeffectondevelopment.Butitmayalsoresultfromdiseaseorinjurytothecentralnervous systematanystageoflife. Intellectualdisabilityispresentfrombirthorearlychildhood,oroccursduringthedevelopmentalperiod (conceptionto18years).Specialeducation,trainingandadequatesupportandmedicaltreatmentcanhelp lessenitseffects,butitisnotcurable.However,mostpeoplewithintellectualdisabilitiesarecapable,with assistance,oflearningaboutnewsituationsandadaptingtothem.Peoplewithintellectualdisabilities

experiencethingsthatmakeusallhuman,buttheylearnanddevelopintellectuallyataslowerratethan average. Threefactorsincombinationdeterminewhetherornotapersonhasanintellectualdisability. 1. Significantlybelowaverageintelligence 2. Shortcomingsineverydaylifeskills 3. Disabilityappearsinthedevelopmentalperiod Causes x Braininjuryduetolackofoxygenatbirth x Braininjuryduringorafterbirth x Disordersofmetabolism,growthornutrition x Chromosomeabnormalities x ExtremepreͲmaturity x Poordietandinadequatehealthcare x Drugmisuseduringpregnancy(includedexcessiveconsumptionofalcoholandsmoking.) AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|83  InstructionalTechniques Aninstructorneedstobeawareofsomecommondenominatorsamongthepopulationofpeoplewithan intellectualdisability.Anyoneindividualmaynotdisplayallofthefollowingcharacteristics,butrather,someof thesetovaryingdegrees: x x x x

x x Inabilitytothinkinabstractterms. Lackofdecisionmakingability Poorshorttermmemory Learningdifficultiesandgenerallyfewliteracy/innumeracyskills Poorcoordinationandmobilityskills(oftenduetolackorappropriateopportunity.) Inconsistentconcentrationspans. Aninstructorshouldrecognizethat: x x x x x Peoplewithintellectualdisabilitiesmayrangefromborderlinetoprofoundintheirimpairment. Anumberofphysicaldisabilitiesareoftenalignedwithintellectualdisabilities. Oftenwherethereisnoaccompanyingphysicaldisability,thereissomedelayinphysicaldevelopment. Thesailormaytakelongertomasterphysicalskills. Patienceandunderstandingareneeded. Peoplewithanintellectualdisabilitylikeotherpeople,expressfrustrationandanger.Becausetheyso oftenfinditdifficulttodothisverbally,itoftentakesthephysicalform,i.eclenchedfists,foot

stamping,withdrawal,tears,sittingdownandrefusingtogetup.Theirfrustrationneednotbefeared; rather,itshouldberecognized,acceptedandchanneledintoappropriateactions. Thoseinvolvedwithinstructingsailorswithanintellectualdisabilityshouldconsiderthefollowingpoints: x x x x x x x x x Makeallsessionsfunandenjoyable. Thelevelofexpectationiscrucial.Generallynotenoughisexpectedofpeoplewithintellectual disabilitiesbothphysicallyandsocially. Thegreatestareaofdifficultyandfrustrationforbothinstructorandsailorsiscommunication.Keep verbalinstructionsbasicandbrief.Beclear,precise,deliberate,sequential,andthenreinforceyour message. Whendemonstratinganactivity,beclearandparticipatesothepersonhasvisualexamplestomodel theperformanceon. Donotpresumeanodorshakeoftheheadmeansthepersonhasunderstoodyourinstruction.Seek understandingoftheinstructionfromtheperson.

Peoplewithanintellectualdisabilitylearnmorebydoingthanlookingandlistening.Whenteaching newskillsmovethesailorsthroughthedesiredmotion. Bespecificinpraiseandencouragement. Breakdownskillsintosmallteachingcomponents,ensuringeachpartislearnedfullybeforeprogressing. Reviewandrepeatskills,anddrillinmanydifferentwaysandsituations.ThenreinforceRemember alsothatreinforcementshouldbespontaneousandimmediate. Bepreparedtoteachbasicskills.Manynewsailorswillnothavehadtheopportunitytolearnor understandtheseskills. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|84  x x x x x x x x Keeppracticetimeonspecificactivitiesshorttoavoidlossofconcentrationandboredom.Besureto varyyouractivitiesanddrills. Donotassumethatthesesailorswillautomaticallyknowtheinherentetiquetteofsailing.Etiquette shouldbetaughtandpracticedregularly.

Observeandtalkwiththepersontobecomefamiliarwithhis/herindividualphysicalandintellectual abilities. Activitiesandtechniquescanthenbedevelopedtoprovidechallengestomeetindividualneeds. Peoplewithanintellectualdisabilitymayhavelittleornounderstandingofcorrectclothing. Aswithanyinstructionsession,introducenewactivities,earlyinpracticesessionsbeforetheindividual becomestiredandvarythetempooftrainingtoreducethefatiguefactor.Also,motivatewith appropriatedevices,positivefeedback,points,andindividualrecognition. Encouragethesailortocompete,aboveallagainstpersonalperformances Instructionshouldemphasizepatience,dynamicinteraction,andpromptfeedbackthatisboth appropriateandvalidating. ImplicationsforSailing x Manysailorswithintellectualdisabilitieswillbefullymobile.Itisimportanttoascertainlevelofwater

safetyskilltheyhaveandifnecessary,thesailormayneedtowearalifejacketwhileatthesailing venue. x Whilesailing,apersonwithanintellectualdisabilitymaybecomefearfulandreactinanunexpected manner.Thesesailorsshouldbemonitoredcloselyuntiltheirlevelofconfidenceisascertained x Ontheotherhand,asailorwithanintellectualdisabilitymayshownoconcernforhis/herownpersonal safetyorthesafetyofothers.Again,initialclosemonitoringshouldbeinstigated x Positiveactionsshouldbecontinuouslyreinforcedandcelebrated.Negativebehaviorsshouldbe addressedimmediatelywithredirectionandeducation. x Besuccinctandcarefulintheirpurposewhengivingdirection. x Consistentcrewandbasicequipmentshouldbemaintainedasmuchaspossibleforthoseindividuals withanintellectualdisability. AdditionalOperationalConsiderations LearningEnvironment

Theremustbeahighlevelofprogramorganization.Thisincludesthefacilities,allmaterialsandpresentations Theentirelayoutofthefacility(insideandout)mustbeuncomplicatedandclearlymarked.Theclassrooms mustbefreeofdistractions,brightandclean,andwithfewshadowsordarkspaces.Inaddition,materials shouldbedesignedtosupporteaseofunderstanding,modularincontent,withlimitedandprecisewording, diagramsandpictures.Instructorsshouldbeoutfittedinauniformshirt(poloͲTͲshirt)thatreadilyidentifies themtoprogramparticipants.Theshirtsshouldbebrightincolorandnotcontaincomplicatedorwordy graphics.Presentationsshouldalsobemodular,dynamic,clearandreinforcinginpurposeanddirection    AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|85  Equipment Alloftheequipmentusedbythesesailorsneedstobebasicinitsdesignandmaintainedproperly.Thisis

especiallyimportantasitpertainstotheboats,forwhichthesetͲupneedstobeconsistentwiththestandard classconfigurations.Thisleadstosimplifiedoperationandadjustment,basedoncleardirectionand understanding.  MultipleSclerosis MultipleSclerosis,orMS,isadiseaseaffectingthecentralnervoussysteminthebrainandspinalcord.Itisthe mostcommonchronicneurologicalconditionamongyoungadults.MShasnostandardpatternofsymptoms Thetypeandseverityofitssymptomsdependonthepartsofthecentralnervoussystemaffected.MScan presentaseitheraremittingoraprogressivecourse. Theremittingcourseischaracterizedbyattacksorexacerbationsofsymptoms.Inthebeginning,theaverage intervalbetweenattacksistwoyears.However,itmayvaryandsomepeoplecanexperiencelongremissions (evenupto20years),whileotherscanexperiencemorefrequentbouts.AtleasttwoͲthirdsofthepeoplewith

MSstartoffwiththeremittingcourse.Ofthose,about60%developthroughaslowlyprogressivecourse Theprogressivecourse,whichismorecommonlaterinlife,ischaracterizedbythesymptomssteadilybecoming worse.Insomecases,earlierboutsmayhavebeentootrivialtonoticeInveryrarecases,MScanpresentat anyageasseverelyprogressivecoursefromtheoutset. Symptoms SymptomsofMSvarygreatlyfrompersontoperson–fromtimetotimeinthesameperson.Itshouldbenoted thatmanypeoplewhohaveMShaveanincreaseofsymptomsduringhotweather.Symptomsmightinclude: x x x x x x x x Lossofcoordination Extremefatigueorunusualtiredfeeling Numbnessorpinsandneedles Lossofbladderorbowelcontrol Draggingoffeet Eyetrouble Speechdifficulties Shakingofhands ImplicationsforSailing x BecausesymptomscanvarysogreatlyitwouldbeunwisetopresumethateachpersonwithMSshould

betreatedthesame.Nevertheless,allsafetyprecautionsshouldbepracticedAndaswithallpeople withdisabilities,askthemthebestwaytoapproachanysituation. x Thesesailorsmaybemorepronetohypothermiaandheatexhaustion. x Reducedsensationinlimbsmayleadtoinjuriesofthefeetandtherefore,itisadvisabletohavefeet coveredwhilesailing. AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|86  Paraplegia&Quadriplegia Paraplegiaisdefinedasparalysisofthelowerlimbsandpartorwholeofthetrunk–usuallyaresultofaninjury totheback. Quadriplegiaisparalysisofallfourlimbsandthetrunk–usuallyaresultofaninjurytotheneck. Causes Themajorcausesofspinalcordinjuriesaremotorvehicleaccidents,divingaccidents,fallsandfootball accidents.Themajorityofaccidentvictimsareyoungmalesaged17to25yearsHumanfactorssuchasrisk takingandothercarelessordangerousbehaviorpredominateinspinalaccidents.

Classification Descriptionofimpairmentusinginternationalsportingclassificationsaccordingtolevelofinjury: Quadriplegics x x x CLASS1A–Weakhandandupperarmmuscles. CLASS1B–Armandwristmusclesfunctioningbutfingersunabletograsp. CLASS1C–Armandwristmusclesfunctioning,fingersabletograspbutinabilitytospreadthefingers andclosethem. Paraplegics x x x x x CLASS2–Impairedbalanceinsittingposition CLASS3–Goodbalanceinsittingposition CLASS4–Thighmusclesnotfunctioning CLASS5–Thighmusclesfunctioning,buthip,kneeandanklemusclesnotfunctioningornotfunctioning optimally. CLASS6–ThesameasinClass5butfunctioningtoagreaterdegree. ImplicationsforSailing x Dependingonthelevelofdisability,mostpeoplewithquadriplegiaandparaplegiawillneedassistance withlifting. x Quadriplegicsnotaccustomtophysicalexercisewilltireeasily. x

Thesesailorsmaybemorepronetohypothermiaandheatexhaustion. x Theparalyzedareasofthebodyareusuallyinsensitivetoheat,cold,orpainandwillhavereduced circulation.Theseareasneedtobeprotectedfromhardsurfacesbycushioningandotherprotective clothing.Itisimportantforquadriplegicsandparaplegicstohavetheirfeetprotectedatalltimes x Thesailormayexperiencedifficultywithbalancewhilesittinginaboat,dependingonthelevelof disabilityandmayneedadditionalsupportadaptedfortheiruse.    AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|87  SpinaBifida ThetermSpinaBifidareferstoagroupofconditionsinwhichthereisfailureofdevelopmentofstructures aroundthespinalcord.IntheusualsituationthelowerpartofthespineisinvolvedTheseverityofthe conditionvariesconsiderablyfrompersontoperson,withsomebeingminimallyaffectedandothershaving

multiple,severeproblems.Thelowerpartofthespinalcordcontrolsvoluntarybladderandbowelfunction,and mostpeoplewithSpinaBifidahaveproblemsintheseareas.Usuallywithmedicalandsurgicaltreatment, appropriateappliancesandpersonalcarethesecanbeovercome,howeveroccasionalleakageofurineand fecesdoesoccur.Theremayalsobeassociatedrenaltractdamageandrenalaffectionsthatcauseperiodic illness. SpinaBifidaisassociatedwithanadditionalmalformationatthebaseofthebrainthatcausesobstructiontothe circulationoffluidsintheinterconnectedcavitiesthatnormallyoccurwithinthebrain.Thisresultsinincreased pressureandexpansionofthesecavities–orhydrocephalus. IngeneraltheaverageIQofpeoplewithSpinaBifidaisbelowthatofcomparablegroups–slightlymoresofor thosewithshunts.HowevertheaverageIQiswithinthenormalrange Causes

Thecauseispartlygeneticandpartlyenvironmental.FamilieswithonechildwithSpinaBifidahaveanincreased riskofhavingSpinaBifidainfurtherchildren.ThereisanincreasedriskintheoffspringofpeoplewithSpina Bifida.SmallerrisksapplytocloserelativesOtherknownfactssuchassocialclass,seasonalandgeographical variationspointtoenvironmentalfactors.Manypossibilitiesincludingvitamindeficiencyhavealsobeen postulatedbutnotproven.ThereisnoevidencelinkingdrugstakenduringpregnancywithSpinaBifida ImplicationsforSailing Generally,theperson’slowerlimbsarefragileandthereforemorelikelytofractureorsuffersofttissuedamage. Theseareasneedtobeprotectedfromhardsurfacesbycushioningandotherprotectiveclothing.Itis importantforthesesailorstohavetheirfeetprotectedatalltimes. Caremustbetakentonotpressorbumponthevalveoftheshuntthatcontrolshydrocephalus.Thisvalveis

undertheskinbehindtheear–bewareofbooms! Ifaurinarybagisworn,itshouldbeemptiedevery3Ͳ4hoursandbeforeanyphysicalactivity.  AdaptiveSailingResourceManual|88  Published by the United States Sailing Association 15 Maritime Drive Portsmouth, RI 02871 401-683-0800 www.ussailingorg