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Economic policies in the 18th century Hungary In the 18th century the rulers of Eastern Europe realised that in order to keep up with the Western European states and be able to maintain or increase their influence, they had to modernise the system and introduce reforms from above. In Hungary this was also necessitated by the great losses and the destruction made by the Turks. The so called Enlightened Absolutism was born. Resettlement of the country begins  internal migration (escaping serves migrated inside the country)  spontaneous immigration (Serbian, Rumanian immigrants mainly)  organised settlement (immigration of German Catholics) 1740 – 1780. Maria Theresa 1. 1754 Double Tariff System was introduced Immediate cause: failure of the Queen to tax the Hungarian nobility The inner border separated Hungary from the other provinces, the outer excluded the foreign import of manufactured goods from the Habsburg Empire. aim: Hungarian supply of agricultural goods and raw

materials to the Empire, market of Austrian industrial products in Hungary. Evaluation Some historians regard it as a major reason for the lack of industrial development in Hungary and see it as a deliberate attempt on the part of the Habsburgs to keep Hungary backward Others believe that Hungarian industry could not really develop due to lack of capital, workforce and market. According to them it was a pragmatic decision by the dynasty to create a division of labour within the Monarchy, assigning the role of industrial development to the more developed Austria-Bohemia. Though the inner tariff border was disadvantageous for much of Hungarian industry but ensured a steady market for agricultural and also a positive trade balance in the period. In addition, contrary to Habrburg intentions, it created a national economy in Hungary. 2. Development  Some manufactures were established (for example broad-cloth industry at Gács and silk factory at Óbuda) First aristocrats or members of

the dynasty founded these but in the second half of the    century more and more manufytures were founded by members of the middle class Mining of copper and iron increased (though that of gold and silver declined) In mining the most modern machinery was used Both the government and the counties tried to improve transportation: earthen roads were widened, new bridges built, canals constructed. (For the government this was important for a military reason as well) Drawback: Hungarian industry was still dominated by the guild system. 3. Taxes only on peasants  military tax (hadiadó, depended on the size of the land, was paid to the state)  portio (ensuring accommodation to the soldiers)  forspont (transportation of the soldiers)  decima (dézsma, one tenth of the harvest was given to the Church)  ninth (kilenced, one tenth of the harvest was given to the landlord)  labour (compulsory labour to the landlord)  house tax (háziadó, was paid to the

county) 4. Protection of the rights of the peasants in order to keep their ability to pay taxes to the state and to be good soldiers and to prevent revolts (see below): o limited the landlord’s right to judge o prohibited the monopolisation of the peasants’ lands by the landlord o limited the amount of the compulsory labour o 1767. Regulation of Serfdom (Urbárium) : regulated the amount of services payable to the landlord and fixed the size of the peasants’ lands which determined the amount of tax 1765 -1766. Serf movements: Serfs refused to work to the ladlord, took back their lands and set the houses on fire  consequence: Urbárium in 1767. 1780 – 1790. Joseph II ◊ 1784. Peasant uprising in Transylvania  1785 Decree on Serfdom : the name ’serf’ and also being bound to the land were abolished. Peasants could freely learn professions, inherit their possessions. It also protected peasants against illegial eviction from the land by the landlord. Although the

reforms and the new laws seemed to help improve the situation of the peasants / the serfs the arrangements never transformed feudalism because it would have interfered with the landlords’ interest so it would have called forth resistence on their part. The Economy and the Economic Policies in the 18th Century Hungary Historical Background • • • • • Spanish Succession War (1701-1714) Hungarian estates could confirm the political and Pragmatica Sanctio (1722-1723) economic separateness of the country by deciding Austrian Succession War (1740-48) about recruitment and taxation Seven Year War (1756-63) Turkish War and Freedom Fight  enormous demographic and agricultural losses The Century of Recovery • • • resettlement of the country  gradual population increase (from 4 million to 10 million) ○ internal migration from fringes to the central areas ○ spontaneous immigration (Ruthenians, Romanians, Serbians, Croatians) ○ organised immigration (Germans)

development of the economy  agriculture remained the main branch ○ crop rotation ○ spreading of “kapásnövények” (potato, maize, tobacco) (relative) stagnation of industry ○ guilds recovered after Turkish destruction ○ manufactures were discouraged to develop (only some in light-industry) ○ mining remained significant Economic Reforms through Enlightened Absolutism • succession wars ○ loss of Sylesia (important industrial region) ○ shortfall in revenue  imposition of taxes in the Trans-Lajta Region • double tariff system introduced in 1754 • manorial domain increase  tax base was in danger and peasants were overloaded (ninth, tenth, socage, forspont, portion)  Urbarium decree issued in 1767 • radical reforms by II. Joseph ○ dissolution of monastic orders (except healing and educating orders)  revenue ○ Serf Decree in 1784  peasants were no longer bound to clot Stormy Times • • French Revolution Napoleonic Wars increased demand

for lightindustry products death toll upswing in Hungarian economy Economic consequences of Trianon Historical Background • • • Austro-Hungarian Monarchy ○ common ministries for foreign policy, military affairs and financial affairs ○ common currency ○ protective tariff system  division of market ○ benefits of harmonised taxation, transport, measure and information system First World War ○ Triple Alliance (Austro-Hungarian Monarchy + Germany + Italy) lost Revolutionary Atmosphere  economic recession ○ Crisantemum Revolution on 13th October 1918 ○ Soviet Republic on 21st March 1919 ○ Horthy Miklós Peace Treaty on 20th June 1920 • • • • • • • Aponyi Albert’s “Red Map” of demographic distribution dissolution of the Monarchy ○ no protective tariff system ○ no division of market territorial losses  new borders ○ Upper H ungary a nd R uthenia  gold, s ilver, c opper, iron o re min es; w ater plants; industrial region;

forests ○ Transylvania and Bánát  gold, silver, copper, iron ore, salt mines; water plants; petroleum and natural gas resources; industrial region ○ Bácska  arable land ○ Burgenland infrastructural losses ○ railways ○ waterways ○ sea outlet population losses ○ ½ of total population lost ○ ⅓ of Hungarian population lost immigration  homelessness and unemployment reparation obligation  indebtment of the country Consolidation • • • • • League of Nations Membership in 1922  international loans were given Hungarian National Bank established new currency (pengő) issued development of industry  foreign investors were attracted ○ textile ○ pharmaceutical industry ○ chemical industry ○ machine indsutry  inventions: transformer, water turbine, electric locomotive stagnation in agriculture Economic consequences of Trianon Before the first World War Hungary was a part of the Habsburg Monarchy, therefore the country b asically

relied o n t he m arket o f t he Empire. B eing a m ember o f t he M onarchy ensured economic unity which meant common currency, common tariff and market system. In 1918 t he M onarchy became di sintegrated: H ungary got i nto a ne w s ituation; s he ha d t o reorganise her international trade, the tariff system and had to introduce own money. June 4., 1920 : Hungarian delegation signed the peace treaty in Versailles (Grand Trianon) The Treaty contained the following conditions: ◊ Fixing of new Hungarian borders. The new area became one third of the original one, 57% of the Hungarian population was excluded. The country lost Upper Hungary (Felvidék), Sub Carpathia (Kárpátalja), Transylvania, the Partium, Bánát, Bácska and Burgenland. ◊ Hungary was not allowed to reunite her territories with Austria ◊ Restrictions in connection with rearmament. Hungary was not allowed to have permament army, she was restricted in shipping and aviation, abolition of conscription. ◊

Protection of minority ◊ Bringing of war-criminals to trial ◊ Paying of huge reparation. Hungary had to pay in money, coal and animals Moreover all of state possessions became blocked. Hungarian economy after the Treaty 1. Great territorial losses ◊ Significant part of raw material sources was lost: salt, golden, silver, copper, manganese (Nagybánya, Körmöcbánya, Selmecbánya), oil (Nyitra, Erdély, Muraköz). The problem with this was not only the shortage of income but the disproportion between the amount of raw materials and the capacity. In other words the raw materials were lost but the processing industries (feldolgozóipar) remained in Hungary. ◊ 38% of the railway system remained. Consequence: Transportation and travel became harder and more expensive. The system had to be reorganised ◊ 31% of iron industry and 11% of iron ore production remained. ◊ Loss of great plough-lands (Bácska, Bánság, Csallóköz) Although the ratio of land/population increased. (less

people, more arable land) ◊ Loss of pastures ◊ Loss of forests (Hungary became importer from exporter) 2. Economic criris ◊ Hungary had to import the raw materials, had to pay the reparation and had to look after the refugee camps (Hungarian refugees from the detached territories). These processes were very expensive and caused inflation, decrease in living standards and unemployment. Reorganisation of economy was inevitable. 3. Making attempts to reorganise economy ◊ Hegedüs Lóránt (Teleki-government): He introduced independent Hungarian money in 1920, stopped the uncovered issue of money in 1921 and introduced new kind of taxes. The government didn’t (couldn’t) adjust to the restrictions, therefore the program failed. The inflation and the uncovered issue of money started again. ◊ Kállay Tibor (Bethlen-government from April, 1921): He decreased the number of state employees, introduced new taxes (tax reform). These reforms only temporarly solved the problems,

there was no improvement. 4. Solution, stabilisation ◊ Ask for a major loan from the League of Nations in 1923. Hungary got the loan with disadvantageous conditions and high interest rates. ◊ Foundation of an independent Hungarian National Bank in 1924 which handled the loan and the budget (introduction of pengő and fillér in 1927) ◊ Elaboration of a new tariff system which mainly protected the Hungarian industry ◊ Introduction and increase of taxes, decrease of the number of state employees again The stabilisation and the adaptation for the new situation ended in 1925. The process was successful and the other countries gave Hungary a vote of confidence which meant getting more private loans (The debt of Hungary was 4,3 billion pengő in 1931). The state of economy flourished until the Great Depression in 1929. RULE OF CHARLES ROBERT 1308-1342 The interregnum 1301-1308 - after the death of Andrew III (the last king from the Árpád dynasty) in 1301 years of anarchy

followed  - many candidates for the throne (this time interval from 1301-08 is the so called “interregnum”) - power struggle began between the barons of Hungary - Charles Robert (son of the king of Naples) wasn’t really supported by the Hungarian nobility - he relied on the Pope’s assistance and was crowned by the archbishop of Esztergom in 1301. - an other group of barons crowned Vencel (the 12 years old son of the Bohemian king from the Premysl dinasty) at Székesfehérvár - but soon afterwards he also became Bohemian king, and renounced the throne in the favour of Wittelsbach Otto - Otto was also crowned in 1305 but without allies he couldn’t strengthen his rule and have to leave the country Fights against the barons - still large territory of Hungary was under the domination of barons (Borsa Kopasz, Aba Amádé, the Kőszegi-s) - Charles had to fight against the oligarchs for the rule (=kiskirályok) - in the end in 1308 most of the oligarchs accepted Charles’ rule

 he was crowned again in 1310. - but Csák Máté refused it and in 1311 turned against the king - 1312 Battle of Rozgony – Csák Máté’s forces were defeated, but he baron himself continued the fights till 1321 - later in 1317 Charles also had to suppress the uprising of Borsa Kopasz Economic consolidation - Charles Robert wanted to rely on a new noble layer, who were loyal to him - to strengthen his power he restored the ratio of the royal landholdings to 50%  - also large amount of land of the defeated oligarchs was donated between his supporters (honour landholdings) - new noble families emerged and gain power such as the Garai, Szécsi, Kanizsi, Bánffi, Lackfi and Báthory families - introduced the banderial army, but also hired mercenary soldiers, and Kuman light cavalries - the territories desolated after the Tartar invasion were now resettled by German, Polish and Moravian settlers (sometimes they gained ten years of immunity from tax to help their settle in) - in

the Árpád-era the main source of the kings’ income was the royal landholdings  - to fix the royal income and because of the developing commodity production (=árutermelés) and the spread of the monetary economy (=pénzgazdálkodás) Charles introduced a new economic policy based on regales or royalties - urbura (=bányabér) was the tax of mines (1/10 of gold and 1/8 of silver) The landowners – to avoid taxation – kept their mines in secret  in 1327 Charles Robert, in order to inspire the landowners open new mines, ordered to gave back the 1/3 of the tax to them. - minting money Only the king was allowed to mint money, who wanted to make an acceptable currency, which wouldn’t devaluate (no income from exchange fee, but it supported external trading) - tricesima (=harmincadvám) The tariff was 1/30 of all commercial affairs. - gate tax Was mainly collected from the peasantry after every gate, where a chart could go through. - census (tax of townships and royal

landholdings) - also levied tax on the church (1/3 of the papal income) Visegrád meeting 1335 - Vienna had stable right (=árumegállító jog) for any good transported through the city  - the local traders gained most of the profit (discouraged the export of Hungarian goods towards the West) - Charles summoned a council with the Czech and Polish king - issued a trading agreement  established new trading routes protected by the royal power avoiding Vienna - in his foreign policy the king’s aim was to strengthen Hungary’s position with dynastical marriages - also agreed that Louis (son of Charles) would inherit the Polish throne after the death of Kázmér III - Charles didn’t launch campaigns the peaceful years helped the development of the economy, and craftsmanship  foundation of guilds agriculture was also improving, Hungary’s population was constantly increasing after Charles Robert’s death in 1342 his son Louis inherited a strong and powerful country RULE

OF LOUIS (THE GREAT) I. 1342-1382 - wanted to be a emperor (such as Alexander the Great) by occupying Poland and the Kingdom of Naples his younger brother (Andrew) married with Johanna, but he was assassinated and never been crowned Louis launched campaign against Naples in 1347 to revenge his brother’s death they captured Naples, but both the Pope and the city of Venice turned against him since the distance was so huge after the second useless campaign in 1450 he finally gave up his idea in 1370 Kázmér III. died and Louis became Polish king  personal union of Hungary and Poland - the constant wars (against Venice for the Dalmatic cities, the Turks and other heretics caused high expenses Louis had to rely on the nobles’ army (=nemesi felkelés) in his conquests  the noble families emerging under the era of Charles became more and more powerful he needed greater income so he had to levy taxes  in some areas nobles introduced the ninth the higher taxes favoured for the

wealthier nobles against the lesser ones - Louis to protect middle nobility against the barons in 1351 modified the Magna Charta issued by Andrew II. - gave equal rights for all nobles - Law of Entailment (=ősiség törvénye) it declared the immunity of noble landholdings (could not be sold) - introduction of ninth in the whole country - continued his father’s policy (especially supporting the development of cities) Louis’ rule was strong enough to control the power of the barons, but he had no male heir for the throne after his death, strife began for the throne Az Anjouk Magyarországon: Károly Róbert és Nagy Lajos Az Árpád-ház utolsó uralkodója, III. András 1301-ben bekövetkezett halála után az anarchia évei következtek. A II András uralma alatt elkezdődött birtokadományozás mindenki számára láthatóan "meghozta gyümölcsét". A megerősödött hatalmú bárókat joggal nevezik kiskirályoknak: a központi hatalom gyöngesége folytán

saját birtokaikon uralmuk szinte korlátlan volt. A királyi hatalom jószerével csak az ország közepén érvényesült. Az 130I-1308-ig terjedő időszakot interregnumnak nevezik, jóllehet a "királynélküliség" felfogás kérdése. Királyunk már 1301-ben is volt, amikor az első számú trónkövetelőt, Károly Róbertet, a nápolyi király fiát egy kisebb csapat Esztergomba kísérte, ahol az érsek megkoronázta. Károly Róbertnek ekkoriban belső szövetségesei alig voltak, inkább a pápára számított, aki viszont tó1e remélte a pápaság befolyásának növekedését Magyarországon. Néhány hónappal később, augusztusban a bárók úgyszintén koronáztak, de ók Vencelt, a cseh király fiát ültették a trónra. Választásukban leginkább az befolyásolta őket, hogy a tizenkét esztendős királyfitól egyelőre nem kellett félteni hatalmukat. Igyekeztek is minél inkább elzárni Vencelt a hatalom gyakorlásától, úgyhogy apja 1304-ben haza

is vitette, s a fiú egy év múlva formálisan is lemondott a magyar trónról rokona, Wittelsbach Ottó bajor herceg javára. (A fiatal III Vencelt egyébként 1306-ban meggyilkolták, vele halt ki a cseh államalapítás óta uralkodó Premysl-dinasztia.) Ottót 1305 decemberében koronázták meg, de szövetségesek híján végül hazament Bajorországba. Károly ellenben szövetségesekre tett szert, különösen azután, hogy a püspöki kar nagy része átpártolt hozzá. Budát csak rajtaütéssel tudta bevenni, s csupán 1308-ban sikerült a pápa követének, Gentilis bíborosnak rávennie a legnagyobb hatalmú tartományurakat arra, hogy elismerjék királyuknak. Legitim királlyá azonban csupán a harmadik, a "szent" korona által végzett koronázási ceremónia (1310) után lett, a tényleges királyi hatalomhoz pedig a Kassa melletti Rozgonynál vívott győztes csata (1312), valamint a tartományurakkal való végleges leszámolás és a Csák Máté halála

(1321) utáni években jutott. Megváltozott hatalmi helyzetének biztos jele, hogy királyi székhelyét Temesvárról Visegrádra helyezte át. A konszolidálódott viszonyokat az államháztartás rendbehozatalára használta fel. Az Árpád-korban az állami-királyi jövedelmek fő forrása a királyi magánföldbirtok, az ún. dominiális jövedelem. (ld dominium) Kisebb részét azok a pénzjövedelmek alkották, amelyeket a király uralkodói jogán (regále) szerzett. 1 Károly gazdasági reformjának lényege, hogy az Árpádokkal ellentétben uralkodói jövedelmét a regálékra alapozta. Erre késztette a fejlődő árutermelés és a vele együtt terjedő pénzgazdálkodás, valamint a királyi uradalmak korábbi súlyos veszteségei Nem mondott le a jogtalanul elidegenített királyi birtokokról sem, a levert tartományurak földjének jelentékeny részével is a királyi birtokállományt gyarapította, s ezek egy részét honorként, használatra adta legfőbb

tisztségviselőinek. Gazdasági reformjai serkentették az árutermelést és pénz gazdálkodást. Nagyszabású reformjait úgy hajtotta végre, hogy közben fennen hangoztatta: csak a régi rendet állítja vissza. Az ország vezetésében minden jelentős tisztség új kezekbe került, visszaállt a királyi birtokok 50 százalékos aránya. A várak birtoklása a hivatalhoz kapcsolódott, ami a királyi akarat érvényesítését könnyítette meg. A tatárjárás következtében elnéptelenedett területek betelepítése új lendülettel indult meg, elsősorban német telepesekkel, akik berendezkedésükig gyakran tíz évi adómentességet élveztek. A Felvidékre a németeken kívül sok morva és lengyel telepes érkezett. Az udvari bevételek fokozása céljából az Anjouk számos várost és falut vontak ki a földesurak fennhatósága alól. A szabad királyi városok csoportja a fallal is körülvett településekbó1 alakult ki A városfejlődést azonban nem lehetett

pusztán adminisztratív intézkedésekkel gyorsítani. Somogy és Zala térségében egyáltalán nem voltak városok, de a másutt meglévőkben élő polgárság súlya sem vetekedhetett a nyugat-európai polgárságéval. A világviszonylatban kiemelkedő magyar arany termelés pénzügyi reformot tett lehetővé. A nemesfémkitermelés fokozására alapította Károly Róbert a Felvidéken Körmöcbányát, mely évszázadokra a bányavárosok központja maradt. Az uralkodói jövedelmek növekedésére eltörölték a bányamonopóliumot, s a termelés növelésére érdekeltté tett tulajdonosok jelentős illetéket fizettek a termelés után. Az új magyar aranyforint Európa megbecsült pénzévé vált. A kincstár helyzete jelentősen javult a sóregálék bevezetése révén, az újjászervezett harminc adv ám a kereskedelem hasznát fölözte le, a kapuadó a pénzbeváltás jövedelmét pótolta. Az Anjouk gyakori háborúskodás a vélhetően nem ingatta meg a kincstár

anyagi helyzetét, hiszen Károly Róbert és utóda, 1. (Nagy) Lajos egyaránt a nemesi felkelést vette igénybe, ami ellenkezett ugyan az Aranybullában leírt jogokkal, viszont megfelelt a tényleges hatalmi helyzetnek. A pezsgő gazdasági élet föllendítette a külkereskedelmet is. Magyarország hátrányos helyzetben volt Bécs árumegállító joga miatt. Előnyösebb helyzetet sikerült teremteni az 1335-ös visegrádi király találkozón, ahol Károly Róbert Luxemburgi János cseh és III. Kázmér lengyel királlyal kötött kereskedelmi egyezményt Károly Róbert így halálakor nemzetközileg elismert, belpolitikailag szilárd államot hagyott fiára, 1. Lajosra 1. Lajos az ország erejét hódító háborúkra használta fel A nápolyi trónért folytatott két hadjárata inkább izgalmakban bővelkedett, mintsem eredményekben; a távoli országot nem sikerült megszerezni. Meghódította viszont Bulgária északi részét, Szerbiát és Boszniát. Ahogy a

betelepített területeken is egyre sűrűbb lett a lakosság, a földesurak már kevésbé voltak „kiszolgáltatva” jobbágyaiknak, fokozták a terheket. A szolgáltatások növekedése főleg a kevésbé tehetős, tehát kevesebb jobbággyal rendelkező földesuraknak állt érdekében, az ő birtokaikról volt a leggyakoribb a jobbágyok elvándorlása. Nagy Lajos 1351-ben vitathatatlanul a kevésbé módos földesurak védelmében intézkedett, amikor elrendelte a kilenced egységes beszedését. Így jogilag is egységes jobbágyság jött létre Az 1351. évi törvények az Aranybullát újították fel, s az azonos jogú nemesség elvének megfogalmazásán kívül kimondták a nemesi birtok elidegeníthetetlenségét (az ősiség törvénye). A nemzetség kihalása után a birtok a királyra száll vissza. A Nagy Lajos halála utáni évtizedekből arra következtethetünk, hogy a köznemességet védő törvényeket, a kilencedet és az ősiséget a király a hatalomból

ismét nagyobb részt kérő bárók ellensúlyozására hozta; velük szemben kereste a köznemesek szövetségét. III/4 Bolshevik dictatorship The Bolshevik dictatorship Formation of the Bolshevik government • After the Russian revolution a ProvisionalGovernment was established • 1917: Lenin came back from emigrationwanted permanent revolution: the fall of the Provisional Government, socialist revolution lead by the soviets (councils of the soldiers&workers)only the Bolsheviks accepted • The power/influence of Bolsheviks increased • The Bolsheviks&the Red Guard overthrew the government Bolshevik Rule • Communist Party ruled • Supported workers: employment-insurance, 8-hour work/day • Opposed the rich: ranks were abolished, church lands were confiscated, military officers were elected • Made peace (Russia quit the war): unbeneficial conditions: lost many territories • People weren’t satisfiednew Civil War Civil war (1918-20) (Reds

(Bolsheviks) vs Whites) Reds Whites Held central area of Western Russia Scattered around the Reds Controlled railway linesquick mobilization Communication problems Stay in power (unified) Different aims Aims Strong leader: Trotsky – courageos, tactician No good leaders Leader Tough discipline No trust btw. Generals, no cooperation Tension in the army • Foreign powers supported the Whites, to prevent the spread of Bolshevism • No military help, people believed that Whites were used by foreign powers • The Reds won the civil war (end:1922, from that on:Soviet Union) 1920-21: Polish-Russian War • Poland attacked Russia, Russia stopped the attackcounter-attack • Bolsheviks thought that the Polish workers would join them against revolusion • This didn’t happenRussia lost the war&realized they couldn’t unite the workers War Communism: policy of the Bolshevik government • Widespread nationalization of factories • Government decided what to produce (mainly

armaments were stimulated) • Requisition: peasants had to hand in the surpluspeasants didn’t produce so muchstarvation all around Russia • The use of money&trade was abolished Revolts started against the government (starvation, production fell radically) Lenin introduced a New Economic Policy (NEP) NEP 1 III/4 Bolshevik dictatorship • Freedom to trade, keep&sell surplus (no requisitioning) • Smaller factories were returned to their formal owner • The use of money was reintroduced NEP was successful: acceptable standard of living was created Lenin had strokes, became disabledPower struggle started (1922) • The Reds were lead by a strong leader: Trotsky (good tactician, courageous), they had only 1 aim: to stay in power, they held the central part of W-Russ. • The Whites were scattered around the Reds, no good leaderReds won • Stalin became the general secretary of the partyemployed his supporters • 1929: Stalin became the leader of

Russia • Stalin’s aim: industrialization, defend Russia (hostile world) • Stalin’s ideology: Marxism: communism would come after proletar dictatorship, and it was inevitable Industrialization • State planning: what, when, where should be produced, determined prices&wagesconditions of the workers improved (though wages were low) • 5-Year-Plans o production targets, which often were unrealistic o norms were created, which had to be reached (by the workers) o 3 were made (3. was stopped because of WW2) o concentrated on heavy industry&armaments o great increase in iron, oil, steel, coal production o less successful in agriculture&consumer goods o show-off projects (Moscow metro, dams) o production increased, but many goods with defects (poor quality) Collectivization: land is to be in communal ownership • reason: large farms were more effectivebackwardness could be reduced • grain collecting by the state was easier • methods: o use of force, resistors

could be sent to Gulag (labour camps) o dekulakistion (Kulak=rich peasant): to Gulag/loss of property/killed • effects: o Kulaks resisteddekulakization o riots, destruction of buildings, tools, animals slaughtered o bad harvests, but grain was still collected by the stategreat famine 2 III/4 Bolshevik dictatorship Propaganda • Means: o Radio o Newspapers (censored) • Stalin was depicted as an unmistakable ruler • Personality cult was created • Economy was claimed to be rapidly developingmanipulation of ppl • People didn’t know about foreign conditionsno base to compare their sit. Purges • Stalin’s political opponents&later everybody suspicious (even his supporters) fell victim to purges • Many people were sent into labour camps (Gulag), or executedgeneral fear • Persecution of religious people, many intellectuals&military leaders were killed • Secret polices: dealt with the accusations (many ppl accused others with untrue crimes to

gain any benefit) Social mobility (labour force had to be replaced, because of purges) Party members&state officials had good living conditions • Insurance, more product, better house, healthcare • holiday 3 The Compromise: -the freedom fight was defeated -the achievements of the fight were abolished -Haynau was empowered to ‘punish’ the Hungarians -terror (e.g 6th October Arad, numerous executions) -Haynau was removed by the Austrians -there were two concepts how to organize the ‘consolidation’: 1. theory of Windischgrätz: -to create a federal state in which provinces are in a loose alliance -his ideas were not accepted 2. theory of Schwarzenberg: -centralization -no autonomy given to nationalities (e.g: Hungarians, Croats, Romanians) -empire governed in German language -this way was accepted -total absolutism reintroduced in 1851 (the entire Constitution of Olmütz was abolished) -after Schwarzenberg’s death, Francis Joseph did not appoint a new prime minister

and governed himself -the rate of capitalist development increased The Bach-era: (1851-1859) -named after Hungary’s imperial domestic minister: Alexander Bach -Croatia and Transylvania became separate provinces -the remaining territories were split into seven parts (inc. Temesi Bánság and Szerb Vajdaság) -administration was centralized -loads of officials were appointed from Austria (Bach-hussars) -a large army was stationed in Hungary to defeat all possible revolts -a secret police was founded (zsandárság) to maintain order -German became the official language -germanisation in education, together with strong catholic influence -the liberation of serfs was finished in the era with the same conditions written in the April laws, however, the officials did not consider the changes during the fight (e.g: the abolition of tenth on grapes), so the peasants grew discontent -the liberation of serfs also created hostility/tension btw serfs and landlords -during the process a great

portion of the nobility went bankrupt -the internal tariff system was abolished -agriculture, railway system and industrial production developed Types of resistance: -open resistance: -conspiracies organized, but spies and the Gendarmerie made them impossible -passive resistance: -the main character was Deák Ferenc -the majority of the leading layer did not take up offices and condemned the governing system whenever they could -they considered the April Laws as a constitution which should be reintroduced -many of the nobles had to give up the passive resistance, otherwise they would have gone bankrupt -emigration: -the emigrants turned foreign countries’ attention towards the monarchy which generated international ‘hostility’ towards the Austrians -their leader was Kossuth Way to the Compromise: -the Hungarian elite got ready for the Compromise: -nobles and intellectuals who had no land were in extremely bad position, because their income could only come from offices, which

their passive resistance made ‘forbidden’ to take -landowners conditions were not good either, as they didn’t get the expected amount of redemption/reparation (kárpótlás) -no hope of international support for another freedom fight against Habsburgs -factors which made Francis Joseph change the Bach-system: -the nationalities were not satisfied, they wanted more freedom and autonomy -the economy of the empire declined -however, industry and agriculture both flourished, the financing of army, ‘zsandárság’, spies and the vast numbers of officials continuously increased statedebts -Austria also weakened due to: -the Crimean War, in which she lost Russia’s support -she couldn’t lead her non-German provinces into the Zollverein -her defeat in the Austrian-Italian war (1859) loss of land in Italy -20th October 1860, October Diploma: -Francis Joseph dismissed Bach and restored certain elements of the Hungarian self-government (e.g Diet), but restricted the power of the diet

that was to be created -Deák’s followers rejected the diploma -1861 February: Patent of February -an imperial assembly was created which was responsible to the emperor -Hungary got fewer seats than it would have deserved on the basis of her population -Diet of 1861 -the diet rejected the formation of the imperial assembly -F.J dissolved the diet and introduced the provisory (absolutism) -intermediate period -Schmerling is the prime minister -1865 Deák’s Easter Report -declared that the Hungarians are ready to negotiate with the Habsburgs -F.J fired Schmerling -negotiations started -Prussian - Italian - Austrian war began -Austria was defeated -she lost the possibility to lead confederation of German states -negotiations became faster -diet was held in 1865 -1867 F.J appointed Andrássy Gyula as prime minister -1867 F.J was crowned to the king of Hungary The Compromise: -the empire reorganized on dualist basis -only the emperor and foreign, military and financial affairs were

common with the Austrians, the 2 parts had their separate parliaments, governments & local administration -the ruler could command the army (except for the conscription and tax rates, which the diet determined) -these affairs were controlled by a 60-60 person delegation which was impartial in every other case -the system became constitutional monarchy (a system led by a ruler and a parliament together) -administration based on counties (again) -ruler had the right of preliminary control of bills -nationality laws: -nationalities were free to use their own language in local administration and in lower level education -nationalities did not get collective rights, only the Hungarian nation was accepted -foundation of national associations was enabled -Jews were emancipated -economic compromise: -the whole empire became a common market -common currency remained -tax systems were synchronized -common expenses were set in the ratio: Austria 70% - Hungary 30% (which was fair

considering the country’s population and economic state) -education became compulsory until the age of 12 (1868) -compromise with the Croats: -the Croats gained domestic autonomy -they remained to be a separate province -Croatian became the official language -the C. government could delegate 42 members to the Hungarian diet Deák – Kossuth debate: -Deák and Kossuth used to cooperate, but Deák was less radical -Deák withdrew from politics during the fights therefore he didn’t have to emigrate -Kossuth carried on his radical theories, he believed that the freedom fight was betrayed and could be restarted at any time. He was afraid that Habsburg control of foreign policy and army would result in an expansionist policy on the Balkans which would ‘earn’ us hostile neighbors & would aggravate the disagreement with the nationalities of the Dualist empire. -Deák disagreed Kossuth’s beliefs -Kossuth wanted Hungary to become totally independent, while Deák realized that we

needed the Austrians to help us avoid German and Russian attempts & pointed at the fact that there was no foreign support for an independent Hungary Evaluation: The Compromise didn’t grant the total independence of Hungary, however, it fulfilled the Hungarian leading layers’ expectations (territorial integrity, Hun. administration inside the country, economic development and protection against German and Russian attempts). THE GREAT DISCOVERIES Historical background: - Catholic Europe formed a relatively small territorial and closed economic unit - the Western European feudal societies at the 14th century get into an economic crisis: wars, peasant uprisings, epidemics, overpopulation. - urging need of food, lack of resources/raw material - not enough precious metal for the developing countries - the technological development also contributed to the explorations  new investments such as: cannon (protection, defence ) magnetic compass, astrolabe (better navigation)

improved shipbuilding (caravels instead of galleys - using wind power instead of manpower) broaden/wider knowledge in cartography and astronomy - the Portugal prince Henry the Navigator established academy for sailors - Turkish invasion  Muslims occupied the ancient trading routes  new ways were needed - lack of luxury products and spices from the East Explorers: Bartolomeu Diaz: 1487 reached the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa Vasco Da Gama: 1498 reached the western shores of India Christopher Columbus: 1492 discovered America. Magellan: 1519-1522 Portuguese sailor who first sailed around the world Amerigo Vespucci: realised Columbus’ mistake: he had reached America instead of India Conquistadors: Cortez Alvarado Pizzaro Almagro – 1519 Mexico (Aztec empire) – 1523 Guatemala – 1532 Peru (Inca empire) - 1532 Chile Consequences of the explorations: - colonies were established slavery appeared new products (potato, maize, tobacco, chocolate, tea, etc.) improving living

standards  increasing population trading routes shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic  world wide trading  base of capitalism (decrease of importance of Italian cities) - economical effects: - inflow of large amount of gold and silver into Europe  inflation (devaluation of gold and silver)  mercantilism  - co.-s by the ocean became extremely rich  Europe divided into western and eastern region  - new kind of division: developed ↔ less developed states - economy based on investment  capitalism appeared - new social layer the entrepreneurs (business affairs, risk + competition for higher profit) - cities offered jobs for the poor, business for merchants, better living standards  moving from rural areas into urban centres Enlightment Bases of enlightment - Development of natural sciences: Discoveries of Copernicus, Kepler and Galilei in astronomy, mechanics, matematics Descartes thought that the pure mind and logics can come to know the truth

Spinoza told that God and nature are one. Observing the gravity and the laws of mechanics, Newton told that the university can be described by the laws of nature.  Newtonism Changes in society - In France enlightment became a fashion among the aristocrats Literacy was important  people talked about literature, philosophy, history in salons Enlightment became the main philosophy at the end of the 18th century Montesquieu - French writer, philosopher ideal state-form  constitutional monarchy like in Britain 1748: A törvények szelleméről (his book about the function of the state)  Theory about the division of power  Judiciary, legislative and executive powers work independently from each other, but the state is based on the control of the three powers by each other  the constitution of the USA is based on this idea Voltaire - French writer, philosopher master of philosophical narratives attacked the dogmas that hindered the development  primary target: the

church, although he didn’t deny the existence of God Letters of England, Candide, Philosophic letters Encyclopedia - 1751-1772 Gathered all knowledge of mankind in 28 books In the making of the cyclopedia almost all representatives of enlightment took part Editors: Denis Diderot, Voltaire, Rousseau and D’Alembert  they tried to describe the world according to the new philosophy Rousseau (1712-1778) - he wanted the direct power of the people  he rejected Montesquieu’s thoughts about the division of power he described a direct democracy, where all civilian took part in the decisions, where there is no need for control. No need for division of power. Direct democracy is needed - He thought that the prehistoric people were much more happier then the modern one, because there were no social differences, and the problem of the property did not existed too. New Heloise, Emlie, vagy a nevelésről, Társadalmi szerződés Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) - German

writer, philosopher He made a conclusion that the individual can only unfold its own power of creation in a developed society, where the language and the culture is important. Freemasons - equality, brotherhood, freedom first movements started in London in 1717 they mixed the ideologies of enlightment with mysticism Everyday Life in the Kádár-era Welfare in socialism • Ratio of people employed in agriculture decreased considerably in the last 3rd of 20th century • Ratio of people of industrial workers reached its peak in 1970, then decreased • On the other hand: in services, trading, medical care, culture, education, administration the number of employed people increased • The number of people living in poverty decreased considerably – in relation to the former millions of people, ’only’ 100,000s of people lived in penury • What’s new? – commuters appeared because jobs were created faster than flats were built; use of plastic tunnel for plants; many new

flats built by the people • Almost all indexes showed development in this era ♦ Improvement in flats and houses ♦ Continuous supply of commodities and luxury articles (TV, Radio, fridge, PC, car) ♦ All the people were involved in social insurance ♦ Imrovement in the level of education ♦ Chances for travelling abroad, holidays The price of welfare • Political leadres improved living standards to stabilize the system but meanwhile they neglected important things like improvement of telecommunication or roadsystem • Political leaders did not count with long term consequences of their steps ♦ Expenses on social insurance grew 8 times bigger between 1960-80, and these expenses further increased when the developement of economy slowed down ♦ Introduction of general pension-system also had drawbacks – ratio of pensioners increased from 5,8% to 31% between 1952-99 ♦ People often had to work in the ’2nd economy’, that meant small industry, small trading, secondary

jobs, smuggling, racketeering, illegal jobs, production on state-owned machines for theirselves (75% of people involved in 2nd economy)  Between 1960-80 – life-expectancy worsened – especially among middle-aged men  Number of deviants increased ♦ More suicides ♦ More alcoholics (1988 – 0,5 million) Education • Breakthrough in primary education – almost all adults finished 8 classes • But: least number of university students in Europe • The state restricted access to universities – only 35-40% of students won access Formation of family-life • Number of divorces increased – between 1950-88 it doubled • Ratio of married people increased, marriages at younger ages • Number of children decreased, but the ratio of women without a child also decreased • 1-2 children in an average family • leadership wanted to increase the number of children  introduced and edvocating policy ♦ increased capacity of kindergardens ♦ GYES introduced Pleasure time

and sports • Disappearance of sports and activites done by only one social layer • New forms of entertainment were created • People did sports with their relatives and friends • Sports were not supported so much any more – after 16 gold medals in Helsinki, no considerably good results • Most of the people still did not do any sports and bad eating habits were also characteristic, so 60% of people were ovarweight Consumers’ culture • Western effect on consumers • Farmer trousers, rock music, long-haired boys, mini-skirts caused disapproval of older generations • Hungarian industry tried to provide people with these articles – farmers were produced in Hungary • Westwern products that were hard to get access of were usually smuggled – orkan-jacket, farmer, chewing-gum, discs, casettes, watches, calculators Values and thinking • Education, culture and spread of information were very much determined by the ’marxist-leninist’ ideologies • They also wanted to

have influence on religion – the party wanted to end the church, but as surveys showed, still more than 50% of the people were religious • Influence of church decreased, though marriages and funerals were still done in the church II. Population, settlement, way of life / 2 -the consequences of the Industrial Revolution The consequences of the industrial revolution Definition: a rapid economic development from the slower, expensive manufacture to the cheaper mass production in factories with machines (quantitative change), first appeared in textile industry (spinning Jenny and weaving machines). Inventions spread to transportation, home and agriculture, but later used for war purposes. A requirement for the first industrial revolution at the end of 18th and beginning of the 19th century, was the change in agricultural production. • • • • • • • • New equipment: faster and more efficient production More surplus Rotation of corps Stabling Fertilization New m

achines - steam power (steam engine by James Watt, steam boat by Robert Fulton, steam locomotive by Stephenson 1814) Smaller labor f orce needed: first, lower wages, then high level of unemployment, consequence: fewer people needed in agriculture, more could move to cities, to work in factories In factories assembly lines -> quicker production The inventors of the first industrial revolution were not scientists, but rich p eople, who invested money in new machines. The first industrial revolution started in England Why in England? • • • • • • had many natural resources isolated, many good ports, overseas trade well-developed trading between mother country & colonies strong banking system free competition meant that people were more interested in to produce more with the enclosure they had a strong textile industry The mechanization made industries flourishing, and from manufactures industries emerged. This was the most important economic change during that era;

the others are only the consequences of this chain reaction. There was a demographic boom in this era, and the so called wageworker l ayer appeared. Decrease in travel times to about ¼. Initially new industries employed only a little part of the labor force from agriculture, so unemployment and low wages appeared in this area as well. A new layer of entrepreneurs appeared who financed the industrialization. Also the so called middle class appeared • inventions improved their living conditions • increase in their number • had a say in politics: supported by liberal Whigs in England By the end of the 18th century, the European scenery, that was built up economically and culturally, faced to depression. The balance between the human race and the environment shifted. (Environmental consequence) • Demographic boom, urbanization, crowdedness • Increase of industrial production in iron, coal, steel • Mechanization of production system History – standard level oral exam Page-1

II. Population, settlement, way of life / 2 -the consequences of the Industrial Revolution • Standardization to have the machines repaired easily • Agricultural production on the base of capital All contributed to this shift. The move of the people was determined by the industrial f acilities, which were initially located next to river ways. Later, because of the development of iron smelting they shifted towards the mines, which territories were re-formed radically. These were dirty, epidemic overloaded, crowded industrial towns, which was suitable for the spread of cholera. This made the British to create the first health-care decrees (1848). Because of the urbanization, the environment was under grater pressure, the biosphere was damaged roughly. As cities enlarged, the forests were cut out in huge territories But also other fields of environmental destruction appeared, such as the vast number of buffalo hunting in order to gain space for cows. Environment of new cities •

Quantitative and qualitative development – huge, and vast number of buildings were constructed • Crowdedness, not enough space there • Not sufficient air and light source • New inventions for hygiene, e.g lamp, pipe lines, WC Features of the industrial towns • Major elements: industry, railway and the slums, these represent the industrial town. The industry • Core of the town • All other fields of life subdued to this • In the first state of capitalism, there were no police, hospital, water and food supply, education or sewage system.  very poor and unbearable conditions • Rivers used as sewage canal, water supply for industries and for vital human water supply  high pollution of water-life, no attempt of solving this problem raised at that time Railway • Major way of transport • In most of the cases located at the heart of the city  also pollution (visual, environmental and audio) • Enormous territories hold away from life area – the place for

building houses The slums • The fast rate of urbanization desired immediate and huge number of accommodation for workers • One room – one house idea • Overcrowded houses, no light and comfort at all • Rubbish an d vas t m aterials covering the streets, high epidemic viability  crowdedness meant close contact, easy epidemic spreading • Rats spreading Plague, fleas overswarm beds, cooties scattering typhus, flies slurring foods • Water system not widespread at all • Higher morality rate in comparison to the countryside • Females, children, unskilled workers also employed • Accidents common -> immediately lost their job History – standard level oral exam Page-2 II. Population, settlement, way of life / 2 -the consequences of the Industrial Revolution Social consequences: • People o pposed t he machines, revolts started where they destroyed the machines, that take away their bread • The first movement was the Chartism in England till 1836, for the

interest of the workers. Chartism wanted sweeping changes to the political system of Britain and above all it wanted it Six Points (The Charter) introduced: o o o o o o • • Every man over 21 to have the right to vote A secret ballot to be introduced A MP did not have to own property of a certain value or above to become a MP All MPs to be paid to allow working men to serve in Parliament All constituencies to be equal in terms of population size Elections to Parliament to be held every year so that MPs would have to answer to their voters if they had not performed well. (only that point was rejected – one year is not enough) The first industrial laws in England, 1840 Social development, new ideas, theories o Utopist socialism: Saint-Simon, Fourier and Owen Wanted the industrialists to rule, everybody to work, world is a factory (SaintSimon), phalanster theory (Fourier), no private property (Owen) o Petty bourgeois socialism: first appeared in France, where the majority was from

middleclass in the production side. The state has to bear the burdens of the workers; national workshops should be set up, because it is the duty of the state to provide jobs. Main character was Louis Blanc, who supported the idea of general franchise. o Scientific socialism (tried to use scientific means to prove their ideas): Marx and Engels, proletarian revolution to liberate the working class, create proletarian dictatorship   • • • History is the continuous fight between social layers, the aim is the elimination of social layers – revolution is the only solution Materialism Workers organized the so-called trade unions to negotiate with the employee about wages and work conditions, their weapon was the strike -> stop production Art and style: classicism: brings back ancient Greco-Roman patterns of art (columns, domes, tymphanon ) Romanticism: likes mystical, heroic middle ages, big emotions, goes back to go this style, historical, dynamic (English Parliament,

Byron, Shelley, Poe, Hugo) The second industrial revolution reformed heavy industry, the large capital earned from the first industrial revolution was invested in the transformation of heavy industry. The new inventions had great role in industries, production of more, and more modern goods, create co mfort a nd s urplus, but had also a great role in military ap plication. (Chemical warfare, fighters, bomber-reconnaissance aircrafts, tanks, weapons) Great d ivision appeared in the whole world. The so called center a nd p eripheries differentiated, some countries lived in luxury, while others suffered from famine. According to some ideologies, the second industrial revolution is still in practice today, from other perspective it is the third, or fourth industrial revolution that is present. History – standard level oral exam Page-3 Policies of István I. (nincs ellenőrizve!!!) István I.  Son of Géza and Sarolt  In Hungary at the time two inheritance laws were in use:

 Primogeniture: first born son inherits  Seniority: the oldest able man inherits from the clan-head ↓  3 opponents: 1. Koppány: great grandson of Árpád, claimed throne on the basis of seniority 2. Gyula of Transylvania 3. Ajtony ↓  Battle of Veszprém: Koppány was defeated by István, and he was cut into 4, sent to 4 different parts of the country as a threaten and warning  31 Dec 10000 István got the crown from Sylvester II. (the pope with the approval of the Holy Roman emperor) ↓ principality was replaced by feudal kingdom (patrimonial kingdom: power based on lands, 2/3 of lands were the property of the king) 3 important areas of domestic organization: - county system - Church - law codes Administrative system: - Royal centers (counties) were created - Head of the counties was called ispán (bailiff/comes) - Ispán - was the judge - Controlled the admisnitration - Could send the people to war - Controlled half of the population of the country - Collected

taxes - - Other part of the population: ‘udvarnokok’ - Task: they had to supply the royal cmanor houses  king traveled around from manor house to manor houseudvarnokok supplied him (permanent home: Esztergom) Taxes and tarrifs were introduced Royal court Made new laws in order to strengthen the system (1002, 1009) - Compulsory to go to Church every Sunday - Harsh punishments to criminals - Protection of private property Church: - Tithe to the Church - Every 10 villages had to built - Country was divided into 10 church districts (bishoprics) - 2 important bishoprics: archbishoprics: Esztergom, Kalocsa  Hungarian Church wasn’t controlled by german church - eliminate the representatives of the old religion - monasteries ►István had to make religion compulsory because - in European empires/countries it was already spread - pagans were not tolerated II/1. The medieval cities in Hungary Veszprémi Balázs II/1. The medieval cities in Hungary Major factors of

the medieval cities in Europe in general: 1. Location: o o o o o o o o Cross-roads - trading River passing facilities ( bridges, fords) Estuary of rivers Close to raw materials Next to river – trading Important trade route crossing – traders had a great role Around churches – religious influence Harbors – trading and transport 2. Structure, outline of the cities, living conditions o o o o o o o Encircled by city wall Narrow alleys, streets, houses close to each other, crowdedness No sewer system, infections, epidemics, high death rate, no hygiene City center: around the Church, around the houses of patricians Around the city center: guilds, houses of craftsman – poorer regions Cities became trade and handicraft centers Around the cities: land of the rich burghers/citizens– cultivated by the plebeians 3. Privileges of the cities o o o o o o o Right to have local government, autonomy Right to elect judges, local jurisdiction Collection of tax – pay in one amount to the

king, usually annually Pay tax only to the king, nothing to landlords Staple right Right to elect priest – influence over the Church Right to hold markets, weekly or monthly, some had the right to hold national fair 4. Community Three main social layer: patricians, craftsman and plebeians Burgher – free men who dealt with his own money Leading layer: patricians, judges or mayor offices Majority are artisans ie craftsmen Many plebeians, cultivating the land of the rich, had very few rights, living at the periphery of the city o The serf moving to the city cannot be taken back to the landlord after one year and a day o o o o o 5. Guilds o Guild: organization of craftsmen in the same craft o Ensured the supervision of the market ( quantitative and qualitative) o Limited the number of craftsmen in the same craft: only the number that was needed in the city was allowed o Craftsmen out of the guilds: the muddlers – persecution of them Page 1. II/1. The medieval cities in Hungary

o No division of labor o Supplied the city and its surroundings only Veszprémi Balázs Development of towns in medieval Hungary Two types of cities in Hungary: • Borough towns – not independent from the landlord, had to pay tax to him as well, majority dealt with agriculture, rural outline of the city, no city wall, landlord had a word in jurisdiction • Free royal cities (factors explained below) • Most important free royal cities: Buda, Pozsony, Sopron, Nagyszombat, Kassa, Bártfa, Eperjes In the 12th cities there were only few cities in Hungary. The most developed one was Esztergom. It was a trade center with staple right and also the royal capital The second most significant city was Székesfehérvár. It had the oldest city privileges the so called Right of Fehérvár. It included 4 privileges: right to elect a judge and jury, autonomy, hospites could freely settle there and had freedom from paying tariffs within the country. After a Tartar Invasion (1241-42) in

Hungary Béla IV. (1235-70) wanted to rely on other layers besides the barons. Therefore he deliberately supported the towns He gave them privileges so he gave a charter to towns where fairs/markets were held, tariff free trading, free judge and city council elections. Thinking about the future defence of the country, the king let them build walls around the towns to protect themselves against future attacks. The king invited foreigners to move into these towns such that German hospites. Some mining towns became significant already at that time e.g Selmecbánya (silver), Besztercebánya (copper) Charles Robert (1308-1342) made economic reform in Hungary. During his reign evolved the so called boroughs from the marketplaces. It attracted the serf population because these towns could pay their tax annually in one amount (lump sum) which was less per capita than on the lands of the landlords. As these towns were on the lands of the landlords therefore the noblemen had the right to

influence the jurisdiction, but these towns got the right to elect the judges and the jury independently. In the 14th century some of the boroughs were directly under the king’s rule. Therefore Charles Robert deliberately protected and developed these, from which some became free royal towns. Eg Buda got from Béla IV tax exception disregarding the thirtieth tariff (tricesima). Buda had the staple right, could choose freely its priests, judges, people could decide independently about their bequest and Buda did not have to accomodate the royal officials if they did not want it. The burghers had to give the king 10 heavy cavalry soldiers in case of wars. At the highest level of jurisdiction the so called chief treasurer decided about the free royal towns. Luxemburg Sigismund (1387-1437) when he got the throne, he had 44% of all royal castles, by 1396 he distributed lands among his supporters (the League) and this ratio reduced to 20,7%. Afterwards he wanted to favour his new supporters

not the barons, and therefore he created laws in order to protect his still weak allies, the towns as well as because he saw a great economic potential in them. Therefore in 1405 he invited the representatives of royal cities and privileged places and discussed with them the laws about the towns. With these laws Sigismund wanted to create the country’s economic unity which later on enabled the towns to represent themselves in politics, but at that time the production and trade was not developed enough. He created a unified measuring system (the one used in Buda) which made trade easier and taxation could be organised easier. He lowered tariffs to improve trading He put tax on the exchange of currency to prevent the frequent introduction of a new currency. Alliances were Page 2. II/1. The medieval cities in Hungary Veszprémi Balázs created among greater towns e.g union of Saxon mining cities Körmöc-, Selmec-, Besztercebánya. The most significant free royal cities were: Buda,

Pozsony, Sopron, Nagyszombat, Kassa, Bártfa, Eperjes. Still Sigismund mortgaged some cities (Cities of Szepesség) to the King of Poland because of the great costs of his wars. During Matthias’ rule (1458-90) the increasing ratio of the royal income came from the boroughs, though it was still insignificant (about 10%) compared to other incomes. He developed two towns (Buda, Visegrád) to set them as an example for other towns as the representative of renaissance culture. He was to support towns, as they provided important income and symbolised his centralised rule. 15th century Rulers supported the cities and boroughs as they needed their help. Still, cities and boroughs needed the support of rulers even more as the level of economic development and esp. goods production was too low to enable their financial strengthening. The average city had about 1-6 thousand inhabitants, only Buda and Pest had more than ten thousand. More and more Germans settled here There were many boroughs,

about 500. They were little different from villages as most of their inhabitants lived from agriculture. Page 3. The battle at Mohács Long-term causes: - after the peasant uprising in 1514, the revenge was fixed in laws as well: - serfs were bound to the soil - had to pay one forint a year to their landlord - had to do one day labour service a week - because of the revenge the leaders did not concentrate on the defence against the Turks - there was no real Hungarian army, as the Black Army disappeared - not effective fortification system (wooden forts, lack of soldiers) Short-term causes: - in 1516 Ulászló II died, and his 9 years old son, Lajos II became the king - Lajos II m arried H absburg M ária, but t he H ungarians c ould not get a ny help f rom t hem, because t hey ha d t o c oncentrate on t heir o wn oppos itions i n E urope ( League of Cognac – against the HRE) - i n 1521 Nándorfehérvár, Zimony and Szabács were occopied, which m eant f ree way into Hungary

Turkish attack - on the East, the Turks were able to create co-operation and the Ottoman Empire became one of the most powerful at the time - Hungarian borders were only defended by hundreds of people, who could not stop the Turks outside the borders - i n A ugust t he ki ng s tarted t o r ecrute a n a rmy, but i t c onsisted of onl y 25000 pe ople ( the leaders were Tomori Pál and Szapolyai György) The battle - in 1526 Suleiman’s army started to get across the Dráva - t he Hungarian army was much weaker than the Turkish, in number and quality as well. H soldiers were not so well-trained, and T. had better equipment - the H. troop could not find a suitable place for the battle (the T were hidden in the hills,but they could watch H.) - Hungarians had to wait for a long time which was tiring, and the end of the day the sun was shining in their face - They only planned one sudden attack to move the Turks from their position, but it failed - Many leaders died, the king as well,

that’s why the army could not be reorganized - Suleiman w as a fraid of a gimmick, h e waited f or th e arrive o f th e major f orces, th en occupied Buda Consequences - a new king was elected (Szapolyai as János I) by the Székesfehérvár diet - the Habsburg and Turkish interests opposed in Hungary - the main consequence of the battle was the tripartition of Hungary The main issues of the Reform-era Serfdom: • the outbreak of cholera caused the discontent of peasants which resulted in the cholera uprising but they were defeated • attention was directed to serfs that their problems (several taxes, disintegration of serfplots, increased number of cotters) needed to be solved, reforms were needed • the nobility also realized the need for the solution of the problems of peasants, new, liberal politicians (Kölcsey, Deák) were elected to participate in the diet • in his book Stadium Széchenyi suggested establishment of right of property for everyone, equality

before law, appropriate legal defence • according to Széchenyi: corvée is harmful for the landlords because it is not efficient, solution: abolition of serfdom • Kossuth suggested equal rights and burdens for everyone • according to Kossuth: peasants should be allowed to buy land, availability of credit, compulsory redemption of serfdom and the abolition of the law of entailment are needed for it • Kossuth: the problem of cotters should be solved by law • followers of Táncsics Mihály: compulsory redemption of serfdom without compensation to nobles • the diet approved of the voluntary redemption of serfdom and other minor concessions for serfs • diet: everybody is free to own land and to take offices Nobility: • main problem according to Széchenyi: landlords did not have money and could get loans at very high interest rates (usury), solution: credit, wrote a book with the title Credit • in his book Stadium Széchenyi suggested abolition of

Fiscalitas, abolition of law of inheritance (i.e law of entailment), availability of credit, nobles should pay tax • diet: laws facilitating credit were created Political rights: • nobility had the right to vote, peasantry not • Kossuth: general taxation, nobles should also pay tax • Kossuth: universal suffrage should be introduced • Kossuth: representatives of common people in the county assembly and political rights for common people • achievement: diet decided that nobles owning serfplot-sized land have to pay taxes The argument of Széchenyi and Kossuth: • Széchenyi was an aristocrat and was devoted to making Hungary catch up with Western Europe, in 1825 he offered his income of one year to the building of MTA (Academy of Sciences) • Kossuth was from a less wealthy noble family • they had common aims (making Hungary a strong, modern country not independent from Austria, provision of freedom and good living standards) but wanted to carry them out

by different means • Kossuth wanted rather industrial while Széchenyi wanted rather agricultural development • Széchenyi was more concerned with economic progress and the interests of the nobility while Kossuth with social progress and the interests of the common people • Széchenyi wanted slow, gradual development while Kossuth wanted fast, more radical changes • Széchenyi: cooperation with Austria while Kossuth: split if it is needed for reforms • Széchenyi: reforms should be controlled by aristocrats while Kossuth: by middle nobility • the liberal public opinion wanted fast changes and approved of the ideas of Kossuth Internal divisions between reformers: • followers of Széchenyi • followers of Kossuth • fontolva haladók: aristocrats wanting gradual and moderate reforms • centralists: Eötvös József was an important member, wanted to abolish the county system and decrease the independence of counties • followers of Táncsics

Mihály: compulsory redemption of serfdom without compensation to nobles Economic situation: • great increase in population (peaceful period, medicines, hygiene) • most important branch was agriculture: development but only in manors (new plants, animals, intensive animal breeding, rotation of crops) and no consolidation of lands • main exports: wool, wheat, cattle, leather, wine • industrialization began, increased demand for manufactured products, development of manufacturing industry started in food, textile, iron and construction industry, machines were used • most of the factories were established by Hungarian capitalists, many factories developed from small workshops, factory owners became rich • centre of trade was Pest Suggestions concerning economy: • in his book Stadium Széchenyi suggested development of transportation, abolition of monopolies, guilds and limitations • reformers supported industrial development • Kossuth: industry should

be developed • Kossuth: the government should protect native industry by tariffs Achievements in economy: • Védegylet: it was the idea of Kossuth, the members bought only Hungarian products • Széchenyi planned and organized the regulation of Tisza and Danube • Széchenyi planned and organized the building of the Chain Bridge (first permanent bridge connecting Pest and Buda), fare for passing should be paid by nobles as well • Széchenyi established the first steam-powered mill in Pest • Széchenyi launched the first steamships on Lake Balaton • Széchenyi planned the network of railway lines whose building began in 1846 • law of free factory establishment, the diet approved of it Nationalism concerning the Hungarian population: • old meaning: the privileged people (nobles) belonged to the nation • new meaning: same language, loyalty to government, same culture, same historical roots, same living place and same religion are the criteria for

belonging to the nation • criteria in Hungary: living place, language, history and culture • Kossuth: the language of the state should be Hungarian (in parliament and local executives) • law about the official language in 1844: parliament (laws in Hungarian), schools and all the authorities should use the Hungarian language Nationalism concerning the nationalities in Hungary: • Kossuth and Wesselényi offered equal political rights to the nationalities: right to vote and own property, equality before law, in return they asked loyalty • the nationalities were not offered the use of their own language in official affairs and they were not offered collective rights • problem with the law about official language: some people including the Austrian government did not speak Hungarian • nationalities did not like it because they did not see why they should learn Hungarian, and they wanted to use their own language • nationalities wanted self-government, which

was rejected by Hungary • conflicts started between Hungarians and non-Hungarians The development of democracy in Athens The strengthening of the demos: - in the 8-7th century B.C: greek colonisation → new markets, developing trade (export good: ceramics) → economical strengthening → increased influence & importance of demos (especially traders and craftsmen) - the hoplites became the main force of the army, who were mainly people from the demos → strenghtening of the demos Archon Draco (621 B.C): - codified the common laws - introduced very harsh laws, that affected every people this way aristocrats couldn’t use them for promoting their own interests - divided society on the basis of wealth (size of land) → this favoured the aristocracy - didn’t solve the problems of the demos, since the wealthier ones were still unable to hold offices; debt slavery still existed Archon Solon (594 B.C): - abolished all the debts of the demos - abolished debt slavery (these

two measures were called seisactheia) - divided society into four classes according to their yearly earnings: - income more than 500 mérő - income between 300-500 mérő - income between 200-300 mérő - income less than 200 mérő →this division was the basis for the amount of tax payed, the military service and political rights - all the adult citizens could attend the assembly and the work of the people’s court (heliaia) - only those from the first three classes could hold offices - created the bule (council of the fourhundred) to which all the four classes could delegate 100-100 people - with his measures Solon laid down the fundamentals of democracy - all citizens had to take side in debates concerning the community Peisistratus (560-527 B.C): - he was a tyrant, who seized power illegitimately → his system is called tyranny - helped the demos and weakened the aristocracy - started building schemes, this way creating jobs for a lot of people - created courts that operated

in the countryside, making people visit the city more rare, this way attending the assembly fewer times (this helped him remain strong in his position) Archon Cleisthenes (508 B.C): - divided society on a regional basis: → divided the city-state into three sectors (sea-coast, inner territories and the city) → organised 10-10 thirds in every sectors → from all the sectors one-one third was selected randomly, and these randomly selected thirds formed one phyle (military, political and administrative unit) - the significance of the phyle system: → since in the sea-coast and in the city the demos was in majority, in all the ten phyles aristocrats remained in minority - every phyle could send 50-50 people over the age of thirty into the bule - every phyle had an elected military commander, the strategos, who could be reelected - made the ecclesia the most poerful body; every citizen over the age of twenty could attend it; its task was to create laws and decide about war - he

very much weakened the areiospagus (assembly of the former archons) - to prevent tyranny happening again he introduced ostracism: → the assembly was asked yearly to vote for the politician, who wants to create tyranny, in a secret voting → the one who got the most votes was banished for ten years from Athens → the votes were valid only if at least 6000 people participated in the voting - Cleisthenes created the institutions of democracy, but only the 10% of the population got political rights, the other 90% (women, foreigners and slaves) didn’t. The golden age of democracy in Athens, Perikles: - Perikles was a relative of Cleisthenes, and his name symbolized democracy, even in the ancient times - in the 5th century, B.C he was elected 20 times as a strategos, and he was in this title once for 15 years continuously - he was very popular, since he was very talented and his suggestions were mainly in favour of the poor - he managed to make the poor people be paid for taking part

in the work of the people’s court, and for going to theatres, this way manual workers could take part in public affairs - he started new building schemes, this way rebuilding the city, and creating jobs for the people - large part of the common expenditures were made to be paid by the rich, this was called leiturgia The tripartition of Hungary Domestic causes of the tripartition: • after the peasant uprising led by Dózsa György (1514) there was chaos in Hungary, the king Ulászló II was weak, gave approval to anything in order to maintain his position • there was no effective defence, the Black Army gradually disappeared • chief captains took over the organization of defence • barons were very powerful, exploited the peasants, they collected the tax instead of the king and had their own armies, so it was not possible to centralize the the country, disintegration • social and political division of the country: opposition between nobles and peasants •

difficulties of the Hungarian fortification system: it was 800 km long int he South, needed a lot of money to be maintained but actually there was not enough money for that, not many stone forts; there was a lack of soldiers, most of the soldiers were light cavalry and not very trained, no significant infantry and artillery, no money for mercenaries, it was not possible to launch a crusade against the Turks • after the death of Ulászló II the son of Charles V (HRE) Louis II became the king Foreign causes of the tripartition: • the Turkish Empire had a powerful, well-equipped army of a vast number of soldiers, they occupied Syria, Iraq, Egypt, had great reinforcement supply, could continue the expansion to the West, posed an imminent threat for Hungary • in 1521 the Turks entered Hungary, Nándorfehérvár and Szabács fell, the Turks had an open way to expand further • League of Cognac in 1526: the pope, Venice, Florence and Milan wanted to make an agreement with the

Turks against the HRE which had to deal with this affair and therefore could not help Hungary The period of 1526-1541 and the tripartition: • in 1526 the Turks defeated the Hungarians at Mohács, the king Louis II also died after the battle, conclusion: the Turkish army was much stronger than the Hungarian one, which meant serious threat • the interests of Habsburgs and the Turks confronted in Hungary • voivode of Transylvania Szapolyai János was the leader of the largest intact army which was stationed at the Tiszántúl • the nobility was misled by the retreat of the Turks and was dealing with the election of a new king • Szapolyai was elected to be the king (became János I) by the diet in Székesfehérvár in 1526 • the supporters of Habsburgs elected Ferdinand I to be the king in Pozsony at the same time and they expected that Hungary would get support against the Turks by electing him, this division made it more difficult to resist the Turks •

initially Ferdinand was supported by his brother Charles V who was the emperor of the HRE but later he was preoccupied by the fights against France and could not help Ferdinand • the destruction made by the Turks concerned one fourth of the territory of Hungary, and it was obvious that the future of Hungary depended on the Turkish and the Habsburg Empires • Szapolyai tried to follow a friendly policy with Ferdinand but was refused • in 1527 Ferdinand received a mercenary army from Charles V and drove out Szapolyai from Hungary, Szapolyai fled to Poland and asked help from Suleiman • Suleiman regarded the Habsburgs the main enemy and supported Szapolyai • in 1529 the Turkish army of 200000 led by Suleiman reconquered Buda and reached Vienna • Vienna resisted and while the Turks were retreating Ferdinand reconquered the whole North-Dunántúl except Esztergom • the other part of Hungary remained under the rule of János I, which meant that the country split

into two parts • both Ferdinand and János I wanted to maintain their rule with foreign help, Ferdinand turned to Charles V and János I turned to the pope, England and France but was unsuccessful • in 1532 Suleiman launched a campaign against Vienna, he approached from the Dunántúl but the advance was stopped at Kőszeg • the fort of Kőszeg was defended by Jurisics Miklós, a supporter of the Habsburgs • Jurisics pretended surrender to win time and when the Turks headed for Vienna there was already a Habsburg army of 90000 waiting for them at Bécsújhely • Suleiman decided not to fight and retreated back to home while plundering the area • the Habsburg army did not cross the Hungarian borderline which made the supporters of Ferdinand disappointed • the power struggle continued for a while but in 1538 Ferdinand and Szapolyai decided to make the Treaty of Várad which included that after the death of Szapolyai the entire country would be ruled by

Ferdinand • János I married Izabella (Jagello dynasty, Polish) and they had a son called János Zsigmond, and János I made his supporters swear that his son would get the throne • after the death of János I Fráter György called the diet and János Zsigmond was elected to be the king (became János II), Suleiman also regarded him as the king • the aim of Fráter György was to maintain and unite Hungary • in 1541 the army of Ferdinand attacked Buda in order to take control as agreed in the Treaty of Várad • Fráter György asked help from the Turks and then the large Turkish army defeated the army of Ferdinand • Suleiman invited the Hungarian leaders into his tent and while they were there the Turkish army occupied Buda without fight • the area along the danube became part of the Turkish Empire • Suleiman made Izabella and János II move to Lippa and they could rule Transylvania and the Tiszántúl in return for tax • the Northern areas, the

Dunántúl, Croatia and Slavonia remained under Habsburg rule • these meant that Hungary was split into three parts Conseqences of the tripartition: In the Hungarian Kingdom: • this part of Hungary was ruled by the Habsburgs • Ferdinand I established central offices in Hungary like in Austria • the governing council dealt with administration • economy was controlled by the Hungarian Chamber which worked in Pozsony and was subordinated to the Chamber of Vienna • the Hungarian estates were ignored, the diets lost their importance, only role: to vote taxes In the Transylvanian Principality: • population: Hungarians, Rumanians, Seklers, Saxons • religions: catholic, orthodox, protestant (lutherans and calvinists) • Union of Kápolna in 1437: agreement of the different nations that all of them would participate in the Transylvanian Parliament except for the Rumanians • the Transylvanian Principality was established by Fráter György who tried to

unite the Western and Eastern parts of Hungary • in 1541 he made an agreement with Ferdinand I that Ferdinand I would get the Hungarian throne if he drove out the Turks • in 1542 an army was sent by Ferdinand I to reconquer Buda but it was unsuccessful, so Fráter György began to establish his rule in Transylvania (Partium also belonged to it) • the leader of the state was János Zsigmond but actually Fráter György made all the decisions • Transylvania was not completely independent, it had to pay tax to the Turks, to make a decision the consent of the Turks was needed, the Turks controlled the foreign policy • In 1551 Fráter György attempted to unite Hungary by inviting Habsburg forces to Transylvania, because of this the Turks launched an attrack and drove out the Habsburgs In the area ruled by the Turkish Empire: • the Turks expanded further successfully and occupied many forts because the Habsburgs were preoccupied by France • the occupied areas

were divided into administrative districts called vilayets (led by a pasha), and vilayets were divided into sanjaks (led by a bey) • the pasha of Buda was the governor of Hungary • leaders: defterda in taxation, mufti in religion, khadi in legal cases • the occupied land and the people living on it (rayas) belonged to the sultan, who donated lands to officials and spahis (cavalry soldiers), these lands could not be inherited, the landlords exploited the people living there, some of the lands remained under the direct control of the sultan (slightly better conditions for people) • taxation was carefully organized, people had to pay tax in kind and in cash (haradz for nonMuslims, gate tax and several other taxes), corvée also had to be performed • double taxation: tax had to be paid to Turkish and Hungarian landlords as well • the Turkish occupation generally meant a decline, especially in villages • only borough-towns (Kecskemét, Gyöngyös, Nagykőrös)

showed great improvement • decline in agriculture, extensive animal breeding became widespread Turning-points in the second WW Introduction  Alliance systems created violating Versailles-Treaty  Berlin-Rome axis – 1936 – German-Italian alliance  Anticomintern Pact – 1937 – German-Italian-Japaneese alliance  But: European great powers could still trust Soviet Union  It became clear that the Brittish wanted to avoid conflicts with Geramany Revision of Versailles-Treaty Hitler became more and more free to take actions  Anschluss – 1938 – to unite all Germans  Munich conference – Sudetaland to Germany  The two sides in the following war became clear  1939 march – Slovakia declared her independence  Czechoslovakia, thatwas guaranteed by Germany as well seized to exist, therefore on this excuse German troops could and did enter Prague and this way the CzechoMoravian Protectorate was created  Turning-point in western policy 

Chamberlain trusted Hitler no more, Engluish started to prepare for war, for the first time in history, they inroduced general and compulsory enlistment during peace  Since it became clear that the Germans wanted to attack Poland next, Brittish and French promised to give help in case of German attack  Western powers started negotiation with the Soviets but without any result because they did not trust each other The war  1939 aug. 23th – Non-agression pact between Germans and Soviet Union  decisive question answered – Soviat Union was going to take part in the war on the side of Germany  also called – Molotov-Ribbentrop-Pact  the territory between the two powers was divided into spheres of interest  Hitler’s power and confidence grew, Western powers were left alone  1939 sept.1st – German troops attack Poland, later joined by Soviets  Poland disappeared from the map, and was divided between Soviet Union and Germany  Since Britain and France

were surprised by this alliance of communists and nazis, they weren’t prepared for war yet though they had to declare war on Germany, there was no actual fighting on the wstern frontPhoney War  The fear of western powers grew because the collapse of poland suggested that the Germans were strong and because USA decalred her neutrality  1940 april – German attack on Denmark and Norway  failure of English and French troops as well  end of Phoney-War – Western front opened  the failure caused a government crisis in Britain, Winston Churchill was put on power  1940 may 10th – German attack on W-front  allied forces split after Germans occupied even the neutral Netherland and Belgium  battle at Dunkerque – Brittish pushed to the shore, but they managed to evacuate soldiers and equipment  the way to France was open to Germany  German occupation of France – Paris  France fell, Britain remained the only real enemy of Hitler  France

occupied, poppet-state created on central and southern France led by Pétain – Vichy-state  Fear of britain – though Britain had a greater fleet than Italy and Germany together, it was possible that the Germans would be able to use the French fleet as well, which would have meant a turning-point in power-relations  Britain decided to fight instead of armistice  Seeing German success, Mussolini joined war  Britain pushes back German air-force in the Battle for Britain  Hitler failed to occupy the whole of Europe  Sucess of radar stations  Britain was strong enough to resist Hitler’s attack, but the bombardment still caused serious destruction  German attack on Soviet Union – 1941 june 22nd  end of Anticomintern-Pact  Germans sterted a two-front war, and lost a very important ally  Western powers could now negotiate with Soviets against Germany  Hard to occupy Soviet Union – huge territory, sufficient support and supply  Germans needed

help of their allies Hungarians as well  September – Kiev fell, siege of Leningrad  Turning-point – december – in mOscow the Russians pushed German troops backBlitzkrieg broke down in Russia  Japaneese planes bomb Pearl Harbor – USA military centre – 1941 dec. 7th  Warships of USA destroyed  USA and Japan joined the war on opposing sides  End of American isolationist policy  Rise of alliance of USA, GB, USSR – the Allied powers  Turning-point on Pacific-Ocean – 1942 june  USA fleet defeated Japaneese fleet at the island of Midway  USA started island-hopping – pushed back and defeated Japaneese from island to island  USA slowly gained dominance in Pacific region  Turning-point in Africa - 1942  In november English troops led by Montgomery defeated Rommel’s troops at ElAlamein in Egypt  USA – Eisenhower – occupied French colonies in North-Africa  As an answer Germany occupied Vichy-state  1943 may – African

axis-powers capitulate  Englishtroops freed in Africa they could return to Europe  invaded Italy and Sicily  Mussolini fell new Italian leadership asked for armistice 1944 june – Rome freed  Turning-point on East – another German attack  At Stalingrad German army was stopped by Soviets and in 1943 february 2nd they capitulated – psychological victory  real defeat of Germans in USSR – tank-battle of Kursk – 1943 july  turning-point on western front – antifascist coalition  1942 jan 1st – creation of UNO  the first meeting – decided to open front in N-France in 1944  1944 june 6th – D-Day – led by Eisenhower, France was liberated Allied forces reached the borders of Germany attack on Germany from all sides in 1945  success Hitler committed suicide, Mussolini exeucuted  German capitulation – 1945 may 8-9 end of WW II. in Europe  End of war in Pacific region  1945 aug 6th – nuclear bomb thrown on

Hiroshima  1945 aug 9th – nuclear bomb thrown on Nagasaki  Soviet attack on Japaneese powers in N-China  1945 september 2nd – capitulation of Japan  End of WW II. World War 1. 1. Causes of the war – international relations • • • • • • • • • • • First allies -> Dreikaiserbund (1872-73)  not quite strong : Germany, Austria, Russia  rivalry between Austria and Russia over the Balkans 1st Balkan Crisis  the Balkan territories needed „guards” against Turkey as a consequence of the war collapse of the Dreikaiserbund -> Dual Alliance (1879)  Germany and Austria  Only was about the case of war against Russia 2nd Dreikaiserbund (1881)  most important : Austria can annex Bosnia Herzegovina Triple Alliance (1882)  Germany, Monarchy, Italy  France occupied Tunesia -> Italian interests hurt Bulgarian Crisis (1885-86)  Russia wanted more power -> Reinsurance Treaty (1887) -> Bismarck was desperate to keep

Russian friendship 1st and 2nd Mediterranean Agreement (1887)  Bismarck induced peace on Mediterranean and Middle East by Britain, Italy, Monarchy Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902)  meant threat to Russia Russo-Japanese War (1904-05)  Northern part of China was the base of the problems -> Monarchia Entente Cordial (1904)  Britain, France, later Russia Anglo-Russian Agreement (1907)  Triple Entente around Germany 2. Causes of the war – direct causes • • • Anglo-German naval race (1898-1900)  Germany’s secret navy building  Good relation -> rivalry  First the Britains were fallen behind -> by 1909 they took over Germany 2nd Moroccan Crisis  that could be the a place for the war though the crisis was solved peacefully -> but depended on German-British antagonism  1st Balkan War –> Turkey’s weakness was shown  Bulgarian-Serbian discontent  ’Powder Keg” (Bulgaria + Austria <-> Serbia + Russia) assasination of Frank

Ferdinand  1914 Jun 28, Sarajevo in Bosnia -> Gavrilo Prinzcip murdered him • •  Austria claimed Serbia was involved in it  Ultimatum was sent -> Germany gave Asutria a ’Blank Cheque’ meaning they will support them whatever they do  Ultimatum was refused -> war was declared  Russian mobilisation -> Germany declared war onher Schliffen-plan  To quickly end the war -> though it ws a failure -> 2 fronts were formed The participants Entente Central Powers France Germany Great Britain Monarchy Russia Turkey Neutral Greece Rumania Italy USA Bulgaria 3. The main events 1914 Western Front Sept. 5-10 : Germany against Paris through Belgium -> battle at Marne -> trench warefare Britain -> victory at sea against Germany Eastern Front June 28 : assasinationa at Sarajevo June 28 : ultimatum -> Monarchy -> to Serbia Russia’s advance from East-Russia and Galicia -> joint forces : Germany + Monarchy -> August 28-30 : Tannenberg

1915 May : Italy enters the war -> victory of Monarchy -> Isonzo, Doberdo Sept. 6-15 : Lake Mazuri -> moderate German victory Galicia -> victory of the Monarchy Serbia <-> Monarchy trench warefare Turkey - > new front at the Kaukázus May : Germany + Monarchy -> breakthrough at Gorlice Sept : Bulgaria + Monarchy -> occupation of Serbia, Montenegro and Albania 1916 Oct : Greece enters the war -> British-France landing May 31 : battle at Jütland -> British-German June : Russian counterattack sea battle -> draw Aug : Rumania occupies Transylvania Feb-Dec : siege of Verdun (Germany <-> France) Dec : Germany + Monarchy -> stopped Russia > reoccupation of Transylvania June : British counterattack at Somme 1917 1918 ’Unlimited submarine warefare’ by Germany Febr : Bolshevik revolution at Russia -> the front disappears Apr : USA enters the war ->joint Entente attack on Germany -> resistance -> Monarchy defeats Italy

Wilson’s suggestions Sept 29 : Bulgaria has left the war June : Italy + Monarchy -> defeat Oct 30 : Turkey has left the war Aug 8 : victory of Entente at Amiens Nov 3 : Monarchy has left the war Nov 11 : Germany has left the war 4. The nature of the war • • • Land warefare  Main question : Why couldn’toffensive campaigns win the war?  Too strong defensive and trench system 1. effective machineguns 2. even bombardment couldn’t destroy them 3. network of trenches, supplies, blind allies  Slowed movement of soldiers 1. much equipement to carry 2. barbed wire 3. no man’s land was absolutely destroyed -> hard to move 4. easy targets  The moral weakened to attack  No sudden/surprise attacks were expected  No proper information about the situation as generals’ headquarters were well behind the frontlines  Tanks 1. hot inside 2. not too safe, broke down frequently 3. hard to control 4. very slow 5. but in the end only weapon against trenches

War at sea  More significant  Submarines -> very effective, almost caused Britain to surrender  Convoy-system -> dubmarine problems were solved  Germany suffered from difficulties of supply, had severe shortages -> British blocade was successful  It was decisive in the war War at air  Just collecting information, reconnaissence  Bombings were insignificant 5. General effects in homefronts • Economy  War industry boomed  Consumer goods production -> shortages of goods, food  Labour shortage  Governmental intervention in economy  War had to be financed -> loans, printing of bank notes -> inflation  Foreign trade declined  Overseas trade increased • Society  Shortages in many fields  Rationing -> black market developed  Summer time introduced -> reduce electricity consumption  Pubs were closed at noon in GB  Women’s emancipation introduced -> they realized women can do a lots of work  Trade

unions more acknowledged • Politics  Systems, dynasties, countries collapsed  Ministries/governments had more independence, decreased role of the Parliament  Censorship -> governmental views were published only, war propaganda  Elections were cancelled  Monarchy, Russia : Parliament suspended  Germany : increasingly the military leaders dominated politics, too 6. The peace • The aims of the great powers dominated (France, Britain and USA) • Based on to dismember Germany • Compensation and territorial losses from the loser countries • Mainly unjust treaties -> Versailles Treaty (1919), Versailles Settlement (1919-20) • Th League of Nations (1919) was formed