Nyelvtanulás | Angol » Practical English grammar exercises


Év, oldalszám:1998, 342 oldal


Letöltések száma:2409

Feltöltve:2009. január 15.

Méret:1 MB




Letöltés PDF-ben:Kérlek jelentkezz be!


Nincs még értékelés. Legyél Te az első!

Tartalmi kivonat

A PRACTICAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES CONTENTS Articles PEG chapter I 1 Articles: a/an 2 Articles: the 3 Articles: a/an, the 4 Articles and possessive adjectives 5 a/an and one 1 2 4 6 7 Auxiliary verbs PEG chapters 10-16 6 Auxiliary verbs 7 Auxiliaries conjugated with do/does/did 8 Auxiliary verbs 9 Auxiliary verbs 10 Additions to remarks, using auxiliary verbs 11 Agreements and disagreements with remarks, using auxiliary verbs 12 Question tags after negative statements 13 Question tags after affirmative statements 14 Question tags: mixed 15 Auxiliaries followed by full or bare infinitive 16 Auxiliaries: mixed 17 have: possessive 18 have: various uses 19 The have + object + past participle construction 20 be 21 it is/there is 22 can and be able 23 may 24 must and have to 25 must not and need not 26 need not and dont have to etc. 27 must, cant and neednt with the perfect infinitive Present and past tenses 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 24 25 27 28 29 30 31 33 PEG

chapters 17-18 28 The simple present tense 29 The simple present tense 30 The present continuous tense 31 The simple present and the present continuous 32 The simple present and the present continuous 33 The simple past tense 34 The simple past tense 35 The past continuous tense 36 The simple past and the past continuous 37 The simple past and the past continuous 38 The present perfect tense 39 The present perfect and the simple past 40 The present perfect and the simple past 41 The present perfect and the simple past 42 The present perfect continuous tense 43 The present perfect and the present perfect continuous 44 for and since Future forms PEG chapter 19 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 The present continuous tense as a future form The be going to form The present continuous and the be going to form The future simple The present continuous and the future simple will + infinitive and the be going to form will + infinitive and the be going to form The future

continuous tense will + infinitive and the future continuous wont + infinitive and the future continuous negative Second person interrogative: will you and other forms shall and will Time clauses The future perfect tense Time clauses would and should would and should 34 35 36 38 39 41 42 43 44 45 47 48 50 51 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 64 65 67 68 69 71 72 73 74 75 76 Conditionals PEG chapter 21 62 Conditional sentences: type 1 63 Conditional sentences: type 2 64 Conditional sentences: type 3 65 Conditional sentences: mixed types 66 Conditional sentences: mixed types 67 Mixed tenses and verb forms Infinitive PEG chapter 23 68 Full or bare infinitive 69 Full or bare infinitive 70 Infinitive represented by to 71 too/enough/so . as with infinitive 72 Various infinitive constructions 73 Perfect infinitive used with auxiliary verbs 74 Perfect infinitive used with auxiliaries and some other verbs Gerund, infinitive and participles PEG chapters 23-6 75 The gerund 76 Gerund and

infinitive 77 Gerund and infinitive 78 Gerund and infinitive 79 Infinitive, gerund, present participle 80 Using participles to join sentences 81 Misrelated participles Passive PEG chapter 30 82 Active to passive 83 Active to passive 84 Passive to active 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 84 85 87 88 90 91 92 93 94 95 97 98 100 101 102 103 Indirect speech PEG chapter 31 85 Indirect speech: statements 86 Indirect speech: statements 87 Indirect speech: questions 88 Indirect speech: questions 89 Indirect speech: questions 90 Indirect speech: commands, requests, advice expressed by object + infinitive 91 Indirect speech: commands, requests, advice 92 Indirect speech: commands, requests, advice 93 Indirect speech: commands, requests, invitations, offers, advice 94 Indirect speech: questions, requests, invitations, offers, advice 95 Indirect speech: commands and questions with if-clauses and time clauses 96 Indirect speech: suggestions 97 Indirect speech: mixed types 98 Indirect to direct speech

Purpose PEG chapter 33 104 105 106 107 109 109 111 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 120 99 Infinitive used to express purpose 100 Clauses and phrases of purpose some, any etc. and relatives PEG chapters 5 and 8 101 some, any and compounds, e.g somebody, anything, somehow 102 Relatives: defining, non-defining and connective 103 Relatives: defining, non-defining and connective 104 Relatives: non-defining and connective 105 what and which 106 whatever, whenever, whoever etc. 107 Relative clauses replaced by infinitives Prepositions PEG chapter 9 122 123 125 126 127 129 129 130 132 108 Prepositions: at, to; preposition/adverb: in 109 Prepositions and prepositions/adverbs: at, by, in, into, of, off, on, out (of), to, under, with 110 Prepositions and prepositions/adverbs: at, by, during, for, from, in, of, on, over, since, till, under, with 111 Prepositions and prepositions/adverbs: about, at, away (adverb only), by, for, from, in, into, on, out, to, under, up, with, over 112 Use and

omission of prepositions 113 till/until, to, for, since, then, after, afterwards Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives PEG chapters 11-15 114 Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives 115 Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives 116 Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives Present, past and perfect tenses PEG chapters 17-18 117 The simple present and the present continuous 118 The simple present and the present continuous 119 The simple past and the past continuous 120 The simple past and the past continuous 121 The simple past and the past continuous 122 The present perfect with for and since 123 The present perfect and the simple past 124 The present perfect and the simple past 125 The present perfect simple and continuous 126 The simple past and the past perfect, simple and continuous 127 Questions 128 Questions 129 Mixed tenses, letters 130 Mixed tenses: letters 131 Mixed tenses: telephone conversations Future forms PEG chapter 19 132 The present continuous and the future simple 133 135 136 137 139 141

143 145 147 150 151 151 153 155 157 160 162 163 164 165 167 168 169 172 174 176 178 179 133 The present continuous and be going to 134 be going to and will + infinitive 135 The future continuous and will + infinitive 136 The future continuous and will (mostly negative) 137 The future perfect 138 The present simple and continuous, the future simple and conditional Conditionals PEG chapter 21 139 Conditional sentences: type 1 140 Conditional sentences: type 1 141 Conditional sentences: type 2 142 Conditional sentences: type 2 143 Conditional sentences: type 3 144 Conditional sentences: type 3 145 Conditional sentences: mixed types 146 Conditional sentences: mixed types 147 will and shall 148 would and should 180 181 182 183 185 186 187 189 191 192 193 194 196 Gerund, infinitive and present participle PEG chapters 23-6 149 Gerund, infinitive and present participle 150 Gerund, infinitive and present participle Unreal pasts and subjunctives PEG chapters 28-29 151 Unreal pasts and

subjunctives 152 would rather + subject + past tense 153 wish + subject + past, past perfect or conditional The passive PEG chapter 30 154 Active to passive 155 Active to passive 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 156 Active to passive with phrasal verbs 157 Active to passive with changes of construction Indirect speech PEG chapter 31 158 Indirect speech: statements 159 Indirect speech: statements 160 Indirect speech: questions 161 Indirect speech: questions, advice, requests, invitations, suggestions 162 Indirect speech: commands, requests, invitations, advice 163 Indirect speech: commands, requests, advice, suggestions 164 Indirect speech: mixed types 165 Indirect speech: sentences with let 166 Indirect speech: sentences with must, neednt and have to 167 Indirect speech to direct speech 205 207 209 211 213 214 215 218 219 221 222 223 Time clauses PEG chapters 32,34 168 Time clauses 169 Time clauses 170 when, whenever and as (= while, because) Phrasal verbs PEG chapter 38 171

Combinations with get and be 172 Combinations with look and keep 173 Combinations with go and come 174 Combinations with take and run 175 Combinations with turn, call and break 176 Combinations with give, put and make 177 Combinations with clear, cut, fall, hold, let and hand 178 Mixed combinations 179 Mixed combinations 180 Mixed combinations 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 181 Mixed combinations 182 Mixed combinations with compound prepositions/adverbs 183 Substituting phrasal verbs for other expressions 184 Substituting phrasal verbs for other expressions 185 Combinations with off and on 186 Combinations with up 187 Combinations with out 188 Combinations with down, away and over 189 Mixed combinations used in a connected passage 190 Mixed combinations used in a connected passage 240 241 242 243 245 246 Exercises Articles Articles: a/an PEG 1-4 Insert a or an if necessary. 1 My neighbour is . photographer; lets ask him for advice about

colour films 2 We had . fish and chips for lunch ~ That doesnt sound . very interesting lunch 3 I had . very bad night; I didnt sleep wink 4 He is . vegetarian; you wont get meat at his house Hell give you nut cutlet ~Last time I had . nut cutlet I had indigestion 5 . travel agent would give you information about hotels 6 Wed better go by . taxiif we can get taxi at such hour as 2 am 7 . person who suffers from claustrophobia has dread of being confined in small space, and would always prefer . stairs to lift 8 Do you take . sugar in coffee? ~ I used to, but now Im on . diet Im trying to lose weight 9 . man suffering from shock should not be given anything to drink 10 Youll get . shock if you touch live wire with that screwdriver Why dont you get . screwdriver with insulated handle? 11 It costs fifty-five and . half pence and Ive only got fifty pence piece ~ You can pay by . cheque here ~ But

can I write . cheque for fifty-five and half pence? 12 . Mr Smith is old customer and honest man ~ Why do you say that? Has he been accused of . dishonesty? 13 Im not . wage-earner; Im self-employed man I have business of my own ~ Then youre not . worker; youre capitalist! 14 When he was charged with . murder he said he had alibi 15 . friend of mine is expecting baby If its girl shes going to be called Etheldreda. ~ What . name to give girl! 16 I have . hour and half for lunch ~ I only have . half hourbarely time for smoke and cup of coffee 17 I hope you have . lovely time and good weather ~ But Im not going for . holiday; Im going on business 18 He looked at me with . horror when I explained that I was double agent 19 I wouldnt climb . mountain for Ј1,000! I have horror of heights 20 I have . headache and sore throat I think Ive got cold ~ I think youre getting . flu 21 . Mr Jones

called while you were out (neither of us knows this man) He wants to make . complaint about article in the paper He was in very bad temper 22 If you go by . train you can have quite comfortable journey, but make sure you get . express, not train that stops at all the stations 23 . few people know (hardly anyone knows) that there is secret passage from this house to . old smugglers cave in the cliffs 24 Im having . few friends in to coffee tomorrow evening Would you like to come? ~ Id love to, but Im afraid Im going to . concert 25 Its time you had . holiday You havent had day off for month 26 He broke .leg in skiing accident Its still in plaster 27 I want . assistant with knowledge of French and experience of office routine. 28 I see that your house is built of . wood Are you insured against fire? 29 The escaping prisoner camped in . wood but he didnt light fire because smoke rising from the wood might attract .

attention 30 I had . amazing experience last night I saw dinosaur eating meat pie in London park. ~ You mean you had . nightmare Anyway, dinosaurs didnt eat meat 31 Ill pay you . hundred week Its not enormous salary but after all you are completely unskilled man. 32 If you kept . graph you could see at glance whether you were making profit or . loss 33 . little (hardly anything) is known about the effect of this drug; yet chemist will sell it to you without . prescription 34 I have . little money left; lets have dinner in restaurant 35 Would it be . trouble to you to buy me newspaper on your way home? 36 . man is reasoning animal Articles: the PEG 6-8 Insert the if necessary. 1 . youngest boy has just started going to school; eldest boy is at college 2 She lives on . top floor of an old house When wind blows, all windows rattle 3 . darkness doesnt worry cats; cats can see in dark 4 My little boys

say that they want to be . spacemen, but most of them will probably end up in . less dramatic jobs 5 Do you know . time? ~ Yes, . clock in hall has just struck nine ~ Then it isnt . time to go yet 6 He was sent to . prison for six months for shop-lifting When . six months are over hell be released; difficulty then will be to find work. ~ Do you go to . prison to visit him? 7 I went to . school to talk to headmistress I persuaded her to let Ann give up gymnastics and take . ballet lessons instead 8 . ballet isnt much use for girls; it is much better to be able to play piano 9 I am on. night duty When you go to bed, I go to work 10 Peters at . office but you could get him on phone Theres a telephone box just round . corner 11 He got. bronchitis and was taken to hospital I expect theyll send him home at . end of week ~ Have you rung . hospital to ask how he is? 12 Anns habit of riding a motorcycle up and down .

road early in morning annoyed . neighbours and in end they took her to court 13 He first went to . sea in a Swedish ship, so as well as learning navigation he had to learn . Swedish 14 . family hotels are hotels which welcome parents and children 15 On . Sundays my father stays in bed till ten oclock, reading Sunday papers 16 Then he gets up, puts on . old clothes, has breakfast and starts work in garden. 17 My mother goes to . church in morning, and in afternoon goes to visit friends. 18 Like many women, she loves . tea parties and gossip 19 My parents have . cold meat and salad for supper, winter and summer 20 During . meal he talks about garden and she tells him village gossip 21 We have a very good train service from here to . city centre and most people go to . work by train You can go by bus too, of course, but you cant get a season ticket on . bus 22 . dead no longer need help We

must concern ourselves with living We must build . houses and schools and playgrounds 23 Id like to see . Mr Smith please ~ Do you mean . Mr Smith who works in box office or other Mr Smith? 24 Did you come by . air? ~ No, I came by . sea I had a lovely voyage on Queen Elizabeth II 25 . most of stories that people tell about Irish arent true 26 . married couples with children often rent cottages by seaside for summer holidays. . men hire boats and go for trips along coast; children spend day on beach and . poor mothers spend most of time doing cooking and cleaning 27 Its usually safe to walk on . sand, but here, when tide is coming in, sand becomes dangerously soft. people have been swallowed up by it 28 When . Titanic was crossing Atlantic she struck an iceberg which tore a huge hole in her bow. captain ordered crew to help passengers into boats 29 Everywhere . man has cut

down forests in order to cultivate ground, or to use . wood as fuel or as building material 30 But . interference with nature often brings disaster tree-felling sometimes turns . fertile land into a dustbowl 31 . people think that lead is heaviest metal, but gold is heavier 32 Our air hostess said, . rack is only for light articles heavy things such as bottles must be put on . floor 33 . windows are supposed to let in light; but windows of this house are so small that we have to have . electric light on all time 34 There11 always be a conflict between . old and young young people want . change but old people want things to stay same 35 . power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely 36 You can fool some of . people all time, and all people some of time; but you cannot fool all . people all time Articles: a/an, the PEG 1-8 Insert a, an or the if necessary. 1 There

was . knock on door I opened it and found small dark man in blue overcoat and . woollen cap 2 He said he was . employee of gas company and had come to read meter 3 But I had . suspicion that he wasnt speaking truth because meter readers usually wear . peaked caps 4 However, I took him to . meter, which is in dark corner under stairs (. meters are usually in dark corners under stairs) 5 I asked if he had . torch; he said he disliked torches and always read meters by light of . match 6 I remarked that if there was . leak in gaspipe there might be explosion while he was reading . meter 7 He said, As . matter of fact, there was explosion in last house I visited; and Mr Smith, . owner of house, was burnt in face 8 Mr Smith was holding . lighted match at time of explosion 9 To prevent . possible repetition of this accident, I lent him torch 10 He switched on . torch, read meter and wrote

reading down on back of . envelope 11 I said in . surprise that meter readers usually put readings down in book 12 He said that he had had . book but that it had been burnt in fire in Mr Smiths house. 13 By this time I had come to . conclusion that he wasnt genuine meter reader; and . moment he left house I rang police 14 Are John and Mary . cousins? ~ No, they arent . cousins; they are brother and sister 15 . fog was so thick that we couldnt see side of road We followed car in front of us and hoped that we were going . right way 16 I cant remember . exact date of storm, but I know it was Sunday because everybody was at . church On Monday post didnt come because roads were blocked by . fallen trees 17 Peter thinks that this is quite . cheap restaurant 18 Theres been . murder here ~ Wheres . body?~ There isnt . body ~ Then how do you know theres been . murder? 19 Number . hundred and two, -

house next door to us, is for sale Its quite . - nice house with big rooms back windows look out on park 20 I dont know what . price owners are asking But Dry and Rot are agents You could give them . ring and make them offer 21 . postmans little boy says that hed rather be dentist than doctor, because dentists dont get called out at . night 22 Just as . air hostess (there was only one on the plane) was handing me cup of coffee . plane gave lurch and coffee went all over person on other side of . gangway 23 There was . collision between car and cyclist at crossroads near my house early in . morning cyclist was taken to hospital with concussion . driver of car was treated for shock witnesses say that car was going at . seventy miles hour 24 Professor Jones, . man who discovered new drug that everyone is talking about, refused to give . press conference 25 Peter Piper, .

student in professors college, asked him why he refused to talk to . press 26 Were going to . tea with Smiths today, arent we? Shall we take car? ~ We can go by . car if you wash car first We cant go to Mrs Smiths in car all covered with . mud 27 He got . job in south and spent next two years doing work he really enjoyed. 28 It is . pleasure to do business with such efficient organization 29 . day after day passed without news, and we began to lose hope 30 Would you like to hear . story about Englishman, Irishman and Scotsman? ~ No. Ive heard stories about Englishmen, Irishmen and Scotsmen before and they are all . same 31 But mine is not . typical story In my story Scotsman is generous, Irishman is logical and . Englishman is romantic ~ Oh, if its . fantastic story Ill listen with pleasure 32 My aunt lived on . ground floor of old house on River Thames She was very much afraid of .

burglars and always locked up house very carefully before she went to . bed She also took precaution of looking under bed to see if burglar was hiding there. 33 . modern burglars dont hide under beds, said her daughter Ill go on looking just . same, said my aunt 34 One morning she rang her daughter in . triumph 1 found burglar under bed . last night, she said, and he was quite young man 35 . apples are sold by pound These are forty pence pound 36 It was . windy morning but they hired boat and went for sail along coast. In - afternoon wind increased and they soon found themselves in difficulties. Articles and possessive adjectives PEG 1-8,62-3 Insert a, an, the, or my, his, her, our, your, their if necessary. 1 He took off . coat and set to work 2 Why are you standing there with . hands in pockets? 3 At most meetings . people vote by raising right hands 4 The bullet struck him in . foot 5 They tied . hands

behind back and locked him in a cellar 6 He took . shoes off and entered on tiptoe 7 Someone threw . egg which struck the speaker on shoulder 8 I have . headache 9 I have . pain in shoulder 10 The windscreen was smashed and the driver was cut in . face by broken glass 11 He was . very tall man with dark hair and small beard, but I couldnt see eyes because he was wearing . dark glasses 12 He tore . trousers getting over a barbed wire fence 13 Brother and sister were quite unlike each other. He had fair wavy hair; hair was dark and straight. 14 She pulled . sleeve to attract his attention 15 She pulled him by . sleeve 16 Hands up! said the masked man, and we all put . hands up 17 Ask . woman in front of you to take off hat 18 He stroked . chin thoughtfully 19 If youre too hot why dont you take off . coat? 20 I saw him raise . right hand and take oath 21 The lioness bit him in . leg 22 You should change . wet shoes, or

youll catch another cold 23 There was a shot and a policeman came out with . blood running down face 24 We shook . hands with host 25 He fell off his horse and injured . back 26 The barman seized the drunk by . collar 27 Leave . coats in cloakroom; dont bring them into theatre 28 He fell down a flight of stairs and broke . rib 29 He pointed to a woman in . green dress 30 He is . thoroughly selfish man; he wouldnt lift finger to help anyone 31 Youll strain . eyes if you read in bad light 32 She was on . knees, scrubbing kitchen floor 33 He has . horrible job; I wouldnt like to be in shoes 34 Youve got . shirt on inside out 35 Pull up . socks, said his mother 36 I hit . thumb with a hammer when I was hanging the picture a/an and one PEG 4 Insert a/an or one if necessary. 1 . of my friends advised me to take taxi; another said that there was quite good bus service. 2 . friend of mine lent me book by Meredith Ive only

more chapter to read Would you like . loan of it afterwards?~ No, thanks. I read of his books few years ago and didnt like it Besides I have . library book to finish If I dont take it back tomorrow Ill have to pay fine 3 . man I met on the train told me rather unusual story 4 Most people like . rest after hard days work, but Tom seemed to have inexhaustible supply of energy. 5 Ive told you . hundred times not to come into room with hat on 6 Its unlucky to light three cigarettes with . match ~ Thats only . superstition Only idiot believes in superstitions 7 He says . caravan is no good; he needs cottage 8 . plate is no good; we need dozen 9 Last time there was . fog here plane crash-landed in field near the airport The crew had . lucky escape man broke his leg; the rest were unhurt 10 Youve been . great help to me; day I will repay you 11 My car broke down near . bus stop There was man waiting for bus so I

asked him for . advice 12 He took . quick look at my car and said, Buy new 13 There was . woman there The rest were men ~ There shouldnt have been even . woman It was meant to be stag party 14 Dont tell . soul! Not even your wife! ~ Of course not! Id never tell . secret to woman 15 Most of the staff had been there for only . very short time, but man had been there . year and half, so he knew little more than the rest 16 Could you lend me . dictionary, please? Im trying to do crossword puzzle ~ Im afraid Ive only got . dictionary, and Toms borrowed it 17 . chop wont be enough for Tom; hell want two; hes small man but hes got big appetite. 18 1 want . volunteers for dangerous job, said the captain There was . long silence Isnt there even . man who will take risk? he asked . voice called out from the back, Will there be reward? 19 I have . flat on the top floor You get lovely view from there 20 . day a new

director arrived He was ambitious, bad-tempered man, and the staff took . instant dislike to him 21 Suddenly . bullet struck street lamp little to Bills left He looked up and saw . man with gun standing at open window 22 Bill fired back twice. bullet hit the wall, the other broke pane of glass He heard . angry shout 23 . dayit was dry day with good visibilityTom was driving along country road in . borrowed car 24 Youre making . mistake after another Have you hangover, or something? ~ No, but I had . very bad night last night The people next door were having party. ~ . bad night shouldnt have such effect on your work I often have three bad nights in succession. I live in very noisy street Auxiliary Verbs Auxiliary verbs PEG 106-7 Auxiliaries here are used both alone and as part of various tenses of ordinary verbs. Read the following (a) in the negative (b) in the interrogative. These sentences, except for nos. I and 13,

could also be used for question tag exercises (see Exercise 13) Note: 1 may for possibility rarely begins a sentence. Instead we use do you think (that) + present/future or is + subject + likely + infinitive: Tom may know. Do you think (that) Tom knows? Is Tom likely to know? 2 Use neednt as the negative of must. 1 It may cost Ј100. 2 Men should help with the housework. 3 Tom would pay her. 4 They could play the guitar. 5 Were seeing Mary tomorrow. 6 She ought to keep it in the f ridge. 7 You can understand it. 8 The police were watching the house. 9 You can go with him. 10 Theyve got a house. 11 Your boss will be angry. 12 Tom should pay the fine. 13 They may come tonight. 14 They were cleaning their shoes. 15 He must write in French. 16 You have read the instructions. 17 These pearls are made by oysters. 18 The ice was thick enough to walk on. 19 This will take a long time. 20 They may (permission) take the car. 21 Youve made a mistake. 22 Ann would like a skiing holiday. 23 24

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 We must do it at once. Tom could come. They were in a hurry. There is enough salt in it. You could see the sea from the house. Ann will be able to drive you. They had written to him. We must cook it in butter. It is freezing. She ought to accept the offer. There11 be time for tea. Im right. He may be at home. He used to live here. Auxiliaries conjugated with do/does/did PEG 106-7, 123, 126 (see also Exercise 17) Some auxiliaries when used in certain ways make their negative and interrogative according to the rule for ordinary verbs, i.e with do Sometimes either form is possible. Make the sentences (a) negative and (b) interrogative, using do/does/did. 1 They have eggs for breakfast. 2 He needs a new coat. 3 He used to sell fruit. 4 They have to work hard. 5 She does the housework. 6 He needs more money. 7 He had a row with his boss. 8 She had a heart attack. 9 Her hair needed cutting. 10 He does his homework after supper. 11 She has a singing

lesson every week. 12 She had to make a speech. 13 He does his best. 14 He has to get up at six every day. 15 The children have dinner at school. 16 She dared him to climb it. 17 You did it on purpose. 18 He has his piano tuned regularly, (see 119) 19 He dares to say that! 20 They had a good time. 21 The drink did him good. 22 My watch needs cleaning. 23 24 25 26 27 28 He had an accident. You had your house painted. She used to make her own clothes. You do the exercises. He had difficulty (in) getting a job. He dared to interrupt the president, did he? (Omit final did he?) Auxiliary verbs PEG 106-7 Put the following verbs into the past tense. (Auxiliaries are used both by themselves and as part of certain forms and tenses of ordinary verbs.) Use had to as the past tense of must and didnt need as a past tense of neednt. 1 He isnt working hard. 2 She doesnt like cats. 3 I cant say anything. 4 We must read it carefully. 5 He wont help us. 6 He can lift it easily. 7 It isnt far from

London. 8 Isnt it too heavy to carry? 9 He neednt pay at once. 10 He hopes that Tom will be there. (He hoped ) 11 How much does this cost? 12 He says that Ann may be there. (He said :) 13 How old is he? 14 Do you see any difference? 15 I do what I can. 16 How far can you swim? 17 I must change my shoes. 18 Tom dares not complain. 19 I dont dare (to) touch it. 20 Have you time to do it? 21 Are you frightened? 22 Must you pay for it yourself? 23 The letter neednt be typed. 24 We hope that hell come. (We hoped ) 25 He says that she may not be in time. (He said that she ) 26 Do you understand what he is saying? I dont. 27 There are accidents every day at these crossroads. 28 She thinks that it may cost Ј100. (She thought that it ) 29 Doesnt Mr Pitt know your address? 30 They arent expecting me, are they? 31 He thinks that the snakes may be dangerous, (see 28) 32 33 34 35 36 She wants to know if she can borrow the car. (She wanted to know if) Cant you manage on Ј100 a week?

Tom is certain that he will win. Can you read the notice? No, I cant. I dont think that the bull will attack us. Auxiliary verbs PEG 108 Answer the following questions (a) in the affirmative (b) in the negative, in each case repeating the auxiliary and using a pronoun as subject. Do you need this? ~ Yes, I do/No, I dont. Can Tom swim? - Yes, he can/No, he cant. Note also: Is that Bill? ~ Yes, it is/No, it isnt. Will there be time? ~ Yes, there will/No, there wont. Use neednt in 7 and 15. Use must in 26 and 35 1 Is the water deep? 2 Do you know the way? 3 Can you swim? 4 Does he come every day? 5 Is that Tom over there? 6 Are you Toms brother? 7 Must you go? 8 Are you enjoying yourselves? 9 Did he see you? 10 Would Ј10 be enough? 11 May I borrow your car? 12 Is this the front of the queue? 13 Will she be there? 14 Do you play cards? 15 Should I tell the police? 16 Can you cook? 17 Are you ready? 18 Could women join the club? 19 Is your name Pitt? 20 Were they frightened? 21 Will his

mother be there? 22 Ought I to get a new one? 23 Should I tell him the truth? 24 Was the driver killed? 25 Have you any money? 26 Need we finish the exercise? 27 Used he to ride in races? 28 Would you like to see him? 29 Is this yours? 30 Do you want it? 31 Can I take it? 32 Will you bring it back tomorrow? 33 Are you free this evening? 34 Am I in your way? 35 Need I wear a tie? 36 Was that Bill on the phone? Additions to remarks, using auxiliary verbs PEG 112 Part I Add to the following remarks using (and) so + the noun/pronoun in brackets + the auxiliary. If there is an auxiliary in the first remark repeat this; if not use do/does/did He lives in London. (I) He lives in London and so do 1 He had to wait. (you) He had to wait and so had you 1 I have read it. (John) 2 He is a writer, (she) 3 Tom can speak Welsh, (his wife) 4 She ought to get up. (you) 5 I should be wearing a seat belt. (you) 6 John will be there. (Tom) 7 The first bus was full. (the second) 8 I bought a ticket,

(my brother) 9 You must come. (your son) 10 This bus goes to Piccadilly. (that) 11 Im getting out at the next stop. (my friend) 12 He used to work in a restaurant. (1) Part 2 Add to the following remarks using (and) neither/nor + the auxiliary + the noun/pronoun in brackets. He isnt back. (she) He isnt back and neither is she 13 I havent seen it. (Tom) 14 You shouldnt be watching TV. (Tom) 15 You mustnt be late. (1) 16 He cant come. (his sister) 17 I dont believe it. (Ann) 18 Alice couldnt understand. (Andrew) 19 Im not going, (you) 20 This telephone doesnt work. (that) 21 Toms car wont start. (mine) 22 I hadnt any change. (the taxi driver) 23 He didnt know the way. (anyone else) 24 My father wouldnt mind. (my mother) Part 3 Contrary additions. Add to the following remarks using but + noun/pronoun + the auxiliary or do/does/did. Make a negative addition to an affirmative remark: She thanked me. (he) She thanked me but he didnt. Make an affirmative addition to a negative remark:

She cant eat oysters. (I) She cant eat oysters but I can Use neednt as the negative of must, and must as the affirmative of neednt. 25 John was seasick. (Mary) 26 He wasnt there, (she) 27 You must go. (your brother) 28 My sister can speak German. (I) 29 Alexander didnt want to wait. (James) 30 Bill neednt stay. (Stanley) 31 A cat wouldnt eat it. (a dog) 32 He will enjoy it. (his wife) 33 I havent got a computer, (my neighbour) 34 This beach is safe for bathing, (that beach) 35 I must leave early, (you) 36 You dont have to pay tax. (I) Agreements and disagreements with remarks, using auxiliary verbs PEG 109 Part I Agreements with affirmative remarks. Agree with the following remarks, using yes/so + pronoun + the auxiliary or do/does/did. To express surprise, use Oh, so . He has a good influence on her. - Yes, he has 1 We must have a large room. 2 I was very rude. 3 She always wears dark glasses. 4 She may be a spy. 5 Tom could tell us where to go. 6 Theres a snake in that basket. 7

He needs six bottles. 8 This boat is leaking! 9 His revolver was loaded. 10 This restaurant might be expensive. 11 They used to have a parrot. 12 The fog is getting thicker. Part 2 Agreements with negative remarks. Agree with the following remarks, using no + pronoun + the auxiliary. Elephants never forget. ~ No, they dont 13 Cuckoos dont build nests. 14 He didnt complain. 15 It isnt worth keeping. 16 He cant help coughing. 17 The ice wasnt thick enough. 18 The lift wouldnt come down. 19 This flat hasnt got very thick walls. 20 They dont have earthquakes there. 21 The oranges didnt look very good. 22 It hasnt been a bad summer. 23 I dont look my age. 24 He mightnt like that colour. Part 3 Disagreements with affirmative or negative remarks. Disagree with the following remarks, using oh no/but + pronoun + auxiliary. Use a negative auxiliary if the first verb is affirmative and an affirmative auxiliary if the first verb is negative. He wont be any use. ~ (Oh) yes, he will She worked

here for a year. - (Oh) no, she didnt 25 Youre drunk. 26 I didnt do it on purpose. 27 They werent in your way. 28 I wasnt born then. 29 Shed rather live alone. 30 You gave him my address. 31 I can use your bicycle. 32 That five pound note belongs to me. 33 He didnt mean to be rude. 34 Children get too much pocket money. 35 Exams should be abolished. 36 She promised to obey him. Question tags after negative statements PEG 110 Add question tags to the following statements. Bill doesnt know Ann. Bill doesnt know Ann, does he? Ann hasnt got a phone. Ann hasn t got a phone, has she? this/that (subject) becomes it in the tag. there remains unchanged: That isnt Tom, is it? There wont be time, will there? All the tags, except the tag for no. 30, should be spoken in the usual way with a statement intonation. But they could also be practised with a question intonation The important word in the statement must then be stressed. 1 You arent afraid of snakes. 2 Ann isnt at home. 3 You dont

know French. 4 Tom didnt see her. 5 This isnt yours. 6 Mary wasnt angry. 7 Bill hasnt had breakfast. 8 You wont tell anyone. 9 I didnt wake you up. 10 Tom doesnt like oysters. 11 You dont want to sell the house. 12 It doesnt hurt. 13 People shouldnt drink and drive. 14 You arent going alone. 15 They couldnt pay the rent. 16 You dont agree with Bill. 17 There wasnt a lot to do. 18 I neednt say anything. 19 That wasnt Ann on the phone. 20 You didnt do it on purpose. 21 This wont take long. 22 She doesnt believe you. 23 It didnt matter very much. 24 He shouldnt put so much salt in it. 25 Mary couldnt leave the children alone. 26 You arent doing anything tonight. 27 You wouldnt mind helping me with this. 28 George hadnt been there before. 29 The children werent surprised. 30 You wouldnt like another drink. 31 Tom doesnt have to go to lectures. 32 Bill hasnt got a car. 33 Bill couldnt have prevented it. 34 I neednt wait any longer. 35 There werent any mosquitoes. 36 The fire wasnt started

deliberately. Question tags after affirmative statements PEG110 Add question tags to the following statements: Tom goes to Bath quite often, doesn t he? He told you about his last trip, didn t he? It was very cold last night, wasn t it? Be careful of the contractions s and d: Hes ready, isn t he? Hes finished, hasn t he? Hed seen it, hadnt he? Hed like it, wouldnt he? These should be practised mainly with a statement intonation, but they could also be said with a question intonation. See notes to previous exercise 1 The children can read French. 2 Hes ten years old. 3 Bill came on a bicycle. 4 The Smiths have got two cars. 5 Your grandfather was a millionaire. 6 Tom should try again. 7 It could be done. 8 Your brothers here. 9 Thats him over there. 10 George can leave his case here. 11 This will fit in your pocket. 12 His wife has headaches quite often. 13 Shes got lovely blue eyes. 14 The twins arrived last night. 15 Mary paints portraits. 16 Bill puts the money in the bank. 17

Bill put the money in the bank. 18 Prices keep going up. 19 Ive seen you before. 20 Bills written a novel. 21 His mothers very proud of him. 22 The twins used to play rugby. 23 Tom might be at home now. 24 We must hurry. 25 Youd been there before. 26 Youd like a drink. 27 The boys prefer a cooked breakfast. 28 Mary ought to cook it for them. 29 That was Ann on the phone. 30 The Smiths need two cars. 31 Youll help me. 32 He used to eat raw fish. 33 There11 be plenty for everyone. 34 Youd better wait for Bill. 35 Youd come if I needed help. 36 You could come at short notice. Question tags: mixed PEG 110 See notes to Exercises 12 and 13. Note that a statement containing words such as none, nobody, hardly/hardly any etc. is treated as a negative statement: He hardly ever makes a mistake, does he? When the subject is nobody/anybody/everybody etc., the pronoun they is used in the tag: Nobody liked the play, did they? Add question tags to the following statements. 1 You take sugar in

tea. 2 But you dont take it in coffee. 3 The lift isnt working today. 4 It never works very well. 5 The area was evacuated at once. 6 There was no panic. 7 Though everybody realized the danger. 8 There was a lot of noise. 9 But nobody complained. 10 Mary hardly ever cooks. 11 She buys convenience foods. 12 Shed save money if she bought fresh food. 13 Mr Smith usually remembered his wifes birthdays. 14 But he didnt remember this one. 15 And his wife was very disappointed. 16 He ought to have made a note of it. 17 Neither of them offered to help you. 18 They dont allow pet dogs in this shop. 19 But guide dogs can come in. 20 He hardly ever leaves the house. 21 That isnt Bill driving. 22 Nothing went wrong. 23 Lions are loose in this reserve. 24 So wed better get back in the car. 25 Itd be unpleasant to be attacked by a lion. 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 And it wouldnt be any use running away. It is a pity Ann didnt come with us. Shed have enjoyed it. They should have planned the

expedition more carefully. Lives were lost unnecessarily. She warned him not to ride the stallion. But he never takes advice. There used to be trees here. There isnt any point in waiting. Hell hardly come now. Your central heating doesnt work very well. Auxiliaries followed by full or bare infinitive PEG 246 Put to where necessary before the infinitives in brackets. 1 You neednt (come) tomorrow. 2 People used (travel) on horseback. 3 Ill have (hurry). 4 You ought (take) a holiday. 5 Ill (lend) him some money. 6 You are (go) at once. 7 We didnt have (pay) anything. 8 There wont (be) enough room for everyone. 9 You can (see) the windmill from here. 10 He was able (explain). 11 We may have (stay) here all night. 12 He used (spend) a lot of time in his library. 13 He didnt dare (say) anything. 14 Dont (move). 15 Well (look) for a hotel. 16 You neednt (look) for a hotel; Ill be able (put) you up. 17 The doctor said that I ought (give up) smoking. 18 He used to drink quite a lot. 19 He

should (be) ready by now. 20 May I (ask) you a question? 21 I shant be able (do) it till after the holidays. 22 I didnt need (say) anything. 23 How dare you (open) my letters! 24 They ought (warn) people about the dangerous currents. 25 I should (say) nothing about it if I were you. 26 You are not (mention) this to anyone. 27 Why do they (obey) him?~ They dont dare (refuse). 28 You must (look) both ways before crossing the road. 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Your map may (have been) out of date. You ought (have finished) it last night. I must (say) I think you behaved very badly. I will have (carry) a tent. Weve got (get out). It might (kill) somebody. Ought you (be) watching TV? Shouldnt you (be) doing your homework? Auxiliaries: mixed PEG chapters 11-16 Fill each of the following gaps with a suitable auxiliary or auxiliary form. 1 2 3 4 5 Schoolboy to friend: I left my book at home. I share yours? Im taking swimming lessons. I hope to to swim by the end of the month You .

better take off your wet shoes Im sorry Im late. I to wait ages for a bus Teacher: You . (obligation) read the play, but you (no obligation) read the preface. 6 I knew he was wrong but I . (hadn t the courage) to tell him so 7 Youre getting fat. You to cut down on your beer drinking 8 He . to smoke very heavily Now he hardly smokes at all 9 The new motorway . opened this afternoon, (plan) 10 Ive come without any money. you possibly lend me Ј5? 11 Ann: . we meet at Piccadilly Circus? 12 Tom: It . be better to meet at the theatre We miss one another at Piccadilly 13 . you like to come canoeing with me next weekend? 14 Mary: I . to pay 20p for this little chap on the bus yesterday 15 Ann: My little boys under three so I . (No obligation Use present tense) to pay for him. 16 The plane . landed (unfulfilled plan) at Heathrow, but it has been diverted to Gatwick. 17 Youve spelt it wrong. There be another s 18 You . told me! (Im disappointed that you

didnt tell me) 19 We . to take a taxi Otherwise well be late 20 At the holiday camp we . to get up at six and bathe in the river Then we . come back and cook an enormous breakfast, (routine actions) 21 Tom . know the address (Tom probably knows) 22 Tom . know the address (Im sure that Tom knows) 23 Ive lost my umbrella! I . left it on the bus! (deduction) 24 Theatre regulations: At the end of the performance the public . (are permitted to) leave by all exit doors. 25 If I . you Id get a taxi 26 Did you paint it yourself or did you . it painted? 27 You . (negative) to be driving so fast Theres a speed limit here 28 You . (request) get me some aspirin when youre at the chemists have: possessive PEG 122 In British English, have meaning possess is not normally conjugatec with do except when there is an idea of habit. / havent (got) a watch, (present possession) How many corners has a (a characteristic rather than a habit cube? He doesn t usually have time (habit)

to study. In the past, did is used for habit; otherwise either form is possible: Did you have/Had you an umbrella when you left the house? In other English-speaking countries, however, the do forms are used almost exclusively. It would therefore be possible to use do/did forms throughout the following exercises (except in no. 27), but students are asked to use have not/have you forms where they could be used. Where both are equally usual this will be noted in the key Fill the spaces with the correct forms of have, adding got where possible. Only one space will be left in each clause, but note that got may be separated from have by another word. When a negative form is required (negative) will be placed at the end of the example. 1 He is standing there in the rain and . even the sense to put up his umbrella, (negative) 2 He . a cold in the head ~ Thats nothing new; he always . a cold 3 I . brainwaves very often, but I one now (1st verb negative) 4 It is no good arguing with

someone who . a bee in his bonnet 5 Why dont you say something? You . an excuse? (negative) 6 You . this toothache yesterday? 7 How many letters . the alphabet? 8 The houses in your country . flat roofs? 9 You . the time? ( = Do you know the time?) No, I a watch, (negative) 10 You ever . an impulse to smash something? 11 He . Ј1,000 a year when his father dies 12 Air passengers usually . much luggage, (negative) 13 You . any objection to sitting with your back to the engine? 14 Oysters . always pearls in them (negative) 15 Your door . a little hole through which you can peep at callers? (negative) 16 You . a match on you? ~ No, I dont smoke so I never . matches 17 What is your opinion? ~ I . an opinion? (negative) 18 That cup . a crack in it 19 You . any suspicion who did it? 20 This desk . a secret drawer? ~ No, modern desks ever . secret drawers (negative) 21 When you go to a place for the first time, you ever . a feeling that youve

been there before? 22 Babies . teeth when theyre born? 23 How many sides . a pentagon? 24 Our cat . kittens every year ~ How many she . each time? 25 They say that if children . complete freedom when they are young, they inhibitions when they grow up. (2nd verb negative) 26 You . mosquitoes in your country in summer? 27 You . children?~ Yes, I . two, a boy and a girl 28 You . a motor cycle? ~ No, I only . an ordinary bicycle, but I a motor cycle next year 29 Why do you suddenly want to back out? You . cold feet? 30 Customer: You . any mushrooms today? Shopkeeper: We usually . them but Im afraid we any at the moment (last verb negative) 31 I think I know the man you mean. He one blue eye and one brown one? (negative) 32 Children nowadays . far too much pocket money I any when I was at school (2nd verb negative) 33 We were always getting lost in the desert. ~ You . compasses? (negative) 34 Red-haired people always . bad tempers? 35 Do you

think we should eat this meat? It . a very nice smell (negative) 36 The stairs are on fire! You . a long rope? have: various uses PEG 123 have can mean take (a meal/lesson/bath, etc.), entertain (guests), encounter (difficulty, etc.), enjoy (a time/journey, etc) When used in these ways: (a) have usually forms its negative and interrogative with do. (b) have can be used in the continuous tenses. Put the correct form of have into the following sentences. Use am having, is having, etc., as a future form 1 We . some friends in for dinner tomorrow night 2 You . a good journey yesterday? 3 Dont disturb him; he . a rest 4 We . lunch early tomorrow 5 How many lessons he . a week? ~ He usually . four 6 You . earthquakes in your country? 7 What time you . breakfast? ~ We usually . it at 800 8 What you . for breakfast? ~ We . toast and coffee 9 Why you . a cooked breakfast? (negative) ~ Its too much trouble. 10 Why were they making such a noise? They . an

argument 11 You . a thunderstorm yesterday? 12 Come in, we . a debate 13 You . a cup of coffee? ~ Yes, please. 14 We . a meeting tomorrow to discuss safety precautions 15 The tree just missed the roof, we . a very lucky escape 16 How did you damage your car? You . an accident? 17 I . a look at that house tomorrow If I like it Ill buy it 18 We . very bad weather just now 19 I . a very interesting conversation with the milkman when my neighbour interrupted me. 20 English people always . roast beef for lunch on Sundays? 21 It is difficult to learn a foreign language when you . an opportunity of speaking it. (negative) 22 The farmers . a lot of trouble with foxes at present 23 On the whole women drivers . so many accidents as men drivers (negative) 24 You . anything to eat before you left home? ~ Oh yes, I . bacon and eggs 25 You . any difficulty getting into your flat last night? 26 Are you enjoying yourself? ~ Yes, I . a wonderful time 27 How often he .

a singing lesson? 28 You . a good night? ~ No, I slept very badly. 29 Why were they late? ~ They . a puncture 30 We . a party here next week Would you like to come? 31 Why didnt you speak to her? ~ I . a chance (negative) 32 We . a lecture next Monday 33 I . tea with her tomorrow 34 He . an operation next week 35 He ever . nightmares? 36 When he got tired of it I . a try ~ You . any luck? ~ Yes, I caught a great big fish. The have + object + past participle construction PEG 119 Part I Fill in the spaces by inserting the correct form of have. Use am/is/are having as a future form. (get can be used instead of have, but is more colloquial) 1 I . my house painted That is why there is all this mess 2 My hair looks dreadful; I think I . it set tomorrow 3 The attic was dark so last year we . skylight put in 4 That dead tree is dangerous. I it cut down tomorrow 5 We . just central heating installed The house is warm! 6 I cant read Greek so I . the

documents translated My nephew is helping with the translation. 7 . you the film developed or did you develop it yourself? 8 Why .he all his shoes specially made? He says that he has to because his feet are different sizes. 9 . you your milk delivered or do you go to the shop for it? 10 If you hate cleaning fish why . you them cleaned at the fishmongers? (negative) 11 How often . you your brakes tested? 12 Im afraid its rather draughty here but 1. that broken pane replaced tomorrow Part 2 Fill in the spaces by inserting the correct form of have, the past participle of the verb in brackets and, where necessary, a pronoun. 13 Your ankle is very swollen. Youd better it (x-ray) 14 Your roof is leaking, you should . it (repair) 15 The trousers are too long; I must . (shorten) 16 No one will be able to read your notes. ~ I know; I . them (type) 17 Thats a good piano but you should . it (tune) 18 Why dont you . the document ? (photocopy) 19 He

didnt like the colour of the curtains so he . (dye) 20 He went to a garage to . the puncture (mend) 21 His arm was broken so he had to go to hospital to . (set) 22 The battery is all right now. I just it (recharge) 23 Its a beautiful photo. Im going to (enlarge) 24 Be careful of those knives. I just (sharpen) Part 3 Rewrite the sentences using a have + object + past participle construction and omitting the words in bold type. I employed a plumber to examine my boiler. I had my boiler examined. 25 I pay a garage to service my car. 26 The tap keeps dripping so I must send for a plumber to see to it. 27 I paid a watchmaker to clean my watch. 28 An artist is painting her portrait. She 29 They arranged for the police to arrest the man. 30 He paid a lorry driver to tow the car to a garage. 31 They are employing builders to build a garage. 32 I pay a window cleaner to clean my windows every month. 33 I went to an oculist and he tested my eyes for me. 34 The

old gypsy is telling Toms fortune. Tom 35 I asked the fishmonger to open the oysters for me. 36 I went to a jeweller and he pierced my ears for me. be PEG 113-17, 290, 293, 300, 302 This is a general exercise which includes infinitives, subjunctives, conditionals, and some examples of the be + infinitive construction When this last construction or a passive construction is required the second verb is given in brackets at the end of the sentence. Why are all those dogs wearing harness? ~ They . as guide dogs for the blind, (train) They are being trained as guide dogs for the blind. Fill the spaces in the following sentences by inserting the correct form of be with, where necessary, the past participle or present or perfect infinitive of the verb in brackets. Remember that, in the passive, be can be used in the continuous tenses. 1 They are cutting down all the trees. The countryside (ruin) 2 The Prime Minister . a speech tonight, (make) 3 If I . you Id go on to the next

exercise 4 . late once is excusable but late every day is not 5 He ordered that all lights . (extinguish) 6 How long you . here? 7 My flat was full of dust because the old house just opposite . (pull down) 8 He asked where he . it (put) I told him to put it on the mantelpiece. 9 It . difficult to read a newspaper upside down? {Use negative) 10 You . here till I return That is an order (stay) 11 He suggests that prominent people . to contribute (ask) 12 Even if you . to go on your knees to him I dont think it would make him change his mind. 13 I. on a catering course when I leave school My parents have arranged it (go) 14 What is happening now? ~ The injured man . out of the arena (carry) 15 Its better . too early than too late 16 I wish you . here I miss you very much 17 Why did you leave him behind? You . him with you (Those were your instructions.) (take) 18 She is learning Italian. She by a professor from Milan, (teach) 19 I know I . half an

hour late yesterday but I half an hour early tomorrow ~ Id rather you . punctual every day (see 297) 20 It is impossible . right every time 21 He . here by seven but now its nine and theres no sign of him (be) 22 They decided that voting papers . to all members (send) 23 There . eggs for breakfast tomorrow? 24 If only 1. there! (But I wasnt) 25 The Queen . the new hospital next week (open) 26 I couldnt see the man who was guiding us and I didnt know where we . (take) 27 It . a trilogy but in the end the author found that he had only enough material for two volumes, (be) 28 You . very angry if I refused? 29 The matter . discussed in tomorrows debate 30 His mare . in tomorrows race but he said this morning that she was sick and wouldnt be running after all. (run) 31 The house wasnt ready; it still . and there were pots of paint an ladders everywhere, (paint) 32 They decided that an expurgated edition . for use in schools (print) 33 His works are immensely

popular; they . into all the major European languages (translate) 34 It is high time you . in bed 35 I had my instructions and I knew exactly what I . (do) 36 If this report . believed, we are going to have a very severe drought it is/there is PEG 67,116-17 Insert it is/there is in the spaces. In some sentences, contracted plural, negative and interrogative forms, or the past or future tense are required. 1 Whats the time?- . 330 ~ And whats the date?~ . the 24th 2 How far. toYork?~ . 50 miles 3 . very stormy last night ~ Yes, . storms all over the country 4 . freezing very hard ice on the lake tomorrow 5 As. sunny she decided to take the children to the sea 6 Why dont you go for a walk? . a pity to stay in when so nice outside 7 . not any shadows because not any sun 8 . going to be a bus strike tomorrow ~ . all right if a fine day; but if wet . long queues on the Underground 9 . not any glass in the windows; that is why so

cold in the room 10 . very wet yesterday; impossible to go out 11 . a lot of rain last week floods everywhere 12 . a thick fog last night several accidents on the motorway 13 . foolish to drive fast when foggy 14 . difficult to find your way round this town so many streets all looking exactly alike. 15 Come on, children! . time to get up! nearly breakfast time 16 . lunch time when we get to York, so lets have lunch there~ No, . not be time for lunch because our train to Edinburgh leaves York at 1315 17 . a funny smell here turpentine? 18 . all sorts of stories about Robin Hood, but not known exactly who he was or what he did. 19 . said that if you break a mirror youll be unlucky for seven years 20 As he had very bad sight . difficult for him to recognize people 21 Can I have a Telegraph, please? said the customer. Im afraid . not any left, said the newsagent But a Guardian on the rack beside you. Why not take that? just as good 22 . not

necessary to carry your passport everywhere with you but advisable to carry some document of identity. 23 . a guard outside the door and bars on the windows . impossible to escape 24 . a garage behind the hotel? ~ Yes, but . rather full I dont think room for your car 25 One night . a heavy fall of snow which blocked all the roads Luckily . plenty of food in the house 26 . a hotel in the village, so we decided to stay there . a charming village and I was very happy there, but my children were bored because . nothing to do in the evenings 27 . five flats in the buildingone on each floor Mines on the top floor no lift but . supposed to be good for the figure to run up and down stairs, ? 28 . a pity you havent another bedroom ~ Yes, but . quite a big loft, which I am thinking of turning into a bedroom a skylight so . not a ventilation problem 29 . all sorts of legends about these caves said that smugglers hid their goods here and that . an

underground passage leading to the village inn 30 Tell me something about King Lear. ~ . the story of a king who divided his kingdom between his daughters foolish to give away your property like that. never certain that your family will behave generously to you in return. 31 Has Tom any more children?~ Yes. , a daughter, Ann ~ Oh yes, . Ann who opened the door to us yesterday, ? 32 He thought that . better to say nothing about his change of plan 33 . a long time before I got an answer Then one day a letter arrivedwell, not really a letter, for . only one sentence on the paper 34 . a pond beside your house? Yes, ~ How deep . ? 35 Weve done all we can. nothing to do now but wait 36 Just cross out that word and goon. not necessary to begin again (or. no need to begin again) can and be able PEG 136-8 Part I can, used to express ability with could, shall/will be able Fill the following spaces, using can for present, could for past and shall/will

be able for future. There is no need to use other able form in this section Put to where necessary before the infinitives. 1 . you stand on your head? ~ I . when I was at school but I now (2nd verb negative) 2 When Ive passed my driving test I . hire a car from our local garage 3 At the end of the month the Post Office will send him an enormous telephone bill which he . pay (negative) 4 I . remember the address, (negative) ~ . you even remember the street? (negative) 5 When the fog lifts we . see where we are . 6 Youve put too much in your rucksack; you never . carry all that 7 When I was a child I . understand adults, and now that I am an adult I understand children, (negative, negative) 8 When you have taken your degree you . put letters after your name? 9 Dont try to look at all the pictures in the gallery. Otherwise when you get home you remember any of them. (negative) 10 When I first went to Spain I . read Spanish but I speak it (2nd verb

negative) 11 .you type?~ Yes, I . type but I do shorthand, (2nd verb negative) 12 Im locked in. I get out! (negative) ~ . you squeeze between the bars? (negative) ~ No! I . ; Im too fat (negative) Part 2 could and was able In some of the following sentences either could or was able could be used. In others only was/were able is possible. Fill the spaces and put to where necessary before the infinitives. 13 He was very strong; he . ski all day and dance all night 14 The car plunged into the river. The driver get out but the passengers were drowned. 15 I was a long way from the stage. I see all right but I hear very well (2nd verb negative) 16 We . borrow umbrellas; so we didnt get wet 17 . you walk or did they have to carry you? 18 I had no key so I . lock the door (negative) 19 I knew the town so I . advise him where to go 20 When the garage had repaired our car we . continue our journey 21 At five years old he . read quite well 22 When I arrived

everyone was asleep. Fortunately I wake my sister and she let me in. 23 The swimmer was very tired but he . reach the shore before he collapsed 24 The police were suspicious at first but I . convince them that we were innocent Part 3 PEG 222 C, 223 B, 283-4 This section includes examples of could used for polite requests and as a conditional. 25 . I speak to Mr Pitt, please?~ Im afraid hes out at the moment. you ring back later? 26 If you stood on my shoulders . you reach the top of the wall? ~ No, Im afraid I . (negative) 27 If I sang . you accompany me on the piano?~ No, 1., 1 play the piano! (negative, negative) 28 If a letter comes for me . you please forward it to this address? 29 She made the wall very high so that boys . climb over it (negative) 30 They took his passport so that he . leave the country, (negative) 31 . you tell me the time, please? ~ Im afraid 1. I havent got a watch (negative) 32 If you had to, . you go without food for a week?~

I suppose I . if I had plenty of water 33 . you lend me Ј5? ~ No, I . (negative) 34 They used to chain valuable books to library desks so that people . take them away (negative) 35 He says that he saw Clementine drowning but . help her as he swim (negative, negative) 36 If you had had the right tools . you have repaired the engine? may PEG 127-33, 285, 288, 340 Insert the correct form of may/might except in 10 and 36, where a be allowed form is necessary. 1 It - . rain, youd better take a coat 2 He said that it . rain 3 We . as well stay here till the weather improves 4 . I borrow your umbrella? 5 You . tell me! (I think I have a right to know) 6 Candidates . not bring textbooks into the examination room 7 People convicted of an offence . (have a right to) appeal 8 If he knew our address he . come and see us 9 . I come in? ~ Please do. 10 When he was a child he . (they let him) do exactly as he liked 11 I think I left my glasses in your office.

You ask your secretary to look for them for me. (request) 12 He . be my brother (I admit that he is) but I dont trust him 13 I . never see you again 14 He. be on the next train We as well wait 15 If we got there early we . get a good seat 16 The police . (have a right to) ask a driver to take a breath test 17 You ought to buy now; prices . go up 18 Ill wait a week so that he . have time to think it over 19 He isnt going to eat it; 1. as well give it to the dog 20 You . at least read the letter (/ think you should) 21 You . have written, (I am annoyed/disappointed that you didn t) 22 Wed better be early; there . be a crowd 23 Nobody knows how people first came to these islands. They have sailed from South America on rafts. 24 You . (have permission to) use my office 25 He said that we . use his office whenever we liked 26 I dont think Ill succeed but I . as well try 27 You ought to go to his lectures, you . learn something 28 If we can give him a blood

transfusion we . be able to save his life 29 Two parallel white lines in the middle of the road mean that you . not overtake 30 If I bought a lottery ticket I . win Ј1,000 31 If you said that, he . be very offended 32 I wonder why they didnt go. ~ The weather . have been too bad 33 Warning: No part of this book . be reproduced without the publishers permission 34 He has refused, but he . change his mind if you asked him again 35 . I see your passport, please? 36 He . (negative) drive since his accident (They havent let him drive) must and have to PEG 144-5 Fill the spaces in the following sentences by inserting must or the present, future, or past form of have to. 1 She . leave home at eight every morning at present 2 Notice in a picture gallery: Cameras, sticks and umbrellas . be left at the desk 3 He sees very badly; he . wear glasses all the time 4 1. do all the typing at my office 5 You . read this book Its really excellent 6 The children . play in

the streets till their mothers get home from work 7 She felt ill and . leave early 8 Mr Pitt . cook his own meals His wife is away 9 I hadnt enough money and I . pay by cheque 10 I never remember his address; I always . look it up 11 Employer: You . come to work in time 12 If you go to a dentist with a private practice you . pay him quite a lot of money 13 Father to small son: You . do what Mummy says 14 My neighbours child . practise the piano for three hours a day 15 Doctor: I cant come now. Caller: You . come; hes terribly ill 16 English children . stay at school till the age of 16 17 In my district there is no gas laid on. People use electricity for everything 18 Notice above petrol pump: All engines . be switched off 19 Mother to daughter: You . come in earlier at night 20 The shops here dont deliver. We carry everything home ourselves 21 The buses were all full; I . get a taxi 22 Notice beside escalators: Dogs and push chairs . be carried 23 Au

pair girls usually . do quite a lot of housework 24 Tell her that she . be here by six I insist on it 25 When a tyre is punctured the driver . change the wheel 26 Park notice: All dogs . be kept on leads 27 She . learn how to drive when her local railway station is closed 28 Railway notice: Passengers . cross the line by the footbridge 29 I got lost and . ask a policeman the way 30 Farmers . get up early 31 If you buy that television set you . buy a licence for it 32 When I changed my job I . move to another flat 33 Waiters . pay tax on the tips that they receive 34 Father to son: I cant support you any longer; you . earn your own living from now on. 35 Railway notice: Passengers . be in possession of a ticket 36 Whenever the dog wants to go out 1. get up and open the door must not and need not PEG 146 Use must not or need not to fill the spaces in the following sentences. 1 You . ring the bell; I have a key 2 Notice in cinema: Exit doors . be locked

during performances 3 You . drink this: it is poison 4 We . drive fast; we have plenty of time 5 You . drive fast; there is a speed limit here 6 Candidates . bring books into the examination room 7 You . write to him for he will be here tomorrow 8 We . make any noise or well wake the baby 9 You . bring an umbrella It isnt going to rain 10 You . do all the exercise Ten sentences will be enough 11 We . reheat the pie We can eat it cold 12 Mother to child: You . tell lies 13 You . turn on the light; I can see quite well 14 You . strike a match; the room is full of gas 15 You . talk to other candidates during the exam 16 We . make any more sandwiches; we have plenty now 17 You . put salt in any of his dishes Salt is very bad for him 18 You . take anything out of a shop without paying for it 19 You . carry that parcel home yourself; the shop will send it 20 You . clean the windows The window-cleaner is coming tomorrow 21 Mother to child: You . play with

matches 22 Church notice: Visitors . walk about the church during a service 23 1. go to the shops today There is plenty of food in the house 24 You . smoke in a non-smoking compartment 25 Police notice: Cars . be parked here 26 We . open the lions cage It is contrary to Zoo regulations 27 You . make your bed The maid will do it 28 I want this letter typed but you . do it today Tomorrow will do 29 Ill lend you the money and you . pay me back till next month 30 We . climb any higher; we can see very well from here 31 You . look under the bed There isnt anybody there 32 You . ask a woman her age Its not polite 33 Youve given me too much. ~ You . eat it all 34 We . forget to shut the lift gates 35 Mother to child: You . interrupt when I am speaking 36 If you want the time, pick up the receiver and dial 8081; you . say anything need not and dont have to etc. PEG 148-50 Replace the words in bold type by need not/need I? etc., or a negative or interrogative

have to form. Ive been invited to a wedding; but I cant go. Will it be necessary for me to send a present? Shall I have to send a present? 1 It isnt necessary for him to go on working. He has already reached retiring age {He . ) 2 Was it necessary for you to wait a long time for your bus? 3 It isnt necessary for me to water my tomato plants every day. 4 It will be necessary for them to get up early when they go out to work every day. 5 We had to stop at the frontier but we were not required to open our cases. 6 It wasnt necessary to walk. He took us in his car (We ) 7 My employer said, 1 shant require you tomorrow. (You come) 8 It is never necessary for me to work on Saturdays. 9 When I am eighteen Ill be of age. Then it wont be necessary to live at home if I dont want to. 10 New teacher to his class: It isnt necessary for you to call me Sir; call me Bill. 11 Will it be necessary for us to report this accident to the police? 12 When you buy something on the installment system you

are not required to pay the whole price at once. 13 Did you know enough English to ask for your ticket? It wasnt necessary to say anything. I bought my ticket at a machine 14 It isnt necessary to buy a licence for a bicycle in England. (We ) 15 Is it essential for you to finish tonight? 16 Is it necessary for people to go everywhere by boat in Venice? 17 Will it be necessary for me to sleep under a mosquito net? 18 Most people think that civil servants are not required to work very hard. 19 It wasnt necessary to swim. We were able to wade across 20 It isnt necessary for you to drive me to the station. I can get a taxi 21 Our plane was delayed so we had lunch at the airport. But it wasnt necessary to pay for the lunch. The airline gave it to us 22 Is it obligatory for us to vote? 23 When you were a child were you required to practise the piano? 24 I saw the accident but fortunately it wasnt necessary for me to give evidence as there were plenty of other witnesses. 25 Small boy to

friend: It wont be necessary for you to work hard when you come to my school. The teachers arent very strict 26 They had plenty of time. It wasnt necessary for them to hurry 27 Is it necessary for you to take your dog with you everywhere? 28 What time was it necessary for you to leave home? 29 I brought my passport but I wasnt required to show it to anyone. 30 I missed one day of the exam. Will it be necessary for me to take the whole exam again? 31 Is it really necessary for you to practise the violin at 3 a.m? 32 Everything was done for me. It wasnt necessary for me to do anything 33 Are French children obliged to go to school on Saturdays? 34 I was late for the opera. ~ Was it necessary for you to wait till the end of the first act before finding your seat? 35 He repaired my old watch so it wasnt necessary for me to buy a new one after all. 36 Were you required to make a speech? must, cant and neednt with the perfect infinitive PEG 152, 156, 159 must + perfect infinitive is

used for affirmative deductions. cant/couldnt + infinitive is used for negative deductions. neednt + perfect infinitive is used for a past action which was unnecessary but was performed. Fill the spaces in the following sentences by using one of these forms + the perfect infinitive of the verbs in brackets. 1 Did you hear me come in last night? ~ No, I . (be) asleep 2 I wonder who broke the wineglass; it . (be) the cat for she was out all day 3 You . (help) him ( You helped him but he didn t need help) 4 I had my umbrella when I came out but I havent got it now. ~ You . (leave) it on the bus 5 He . (escape) by this window because it is barred 6 I . (give) Ј10 Ј5 would have been enough 7 I saw a rattlesnake near the river yesterday. ~ You . (see) a rattlesnake There arent any rattlesnakes in this country 8 He is back already. ~ He . (start) very early 9 He returned home with a tiger cub. ~ His wife (be) very pleased about that. 10 I bought two bottles of milk. ~ You .

(buy) milk; we have heaps in the house 11 I phoned you at nine this morning but got no answer. ~ Im sorry. I (be) in the garden 12 I left my bicycle here and now its gone. ~ Someone . (borrow) it 13 When she woke up her watch had vanished. ~ Someone . (steal) it while she slept 14 Ive opened another bottle. ~ You . (do) that Weve only just started this one 15 The machine said, You weigh 65 kilos, and I said, Thank you. ~ You . (say) anything 16 I told him to turn left and he immediately turned right! ~ He . (understand) you 17 Perhaps he swam across. ~ No, he . (do) that; he cant swim 18 Do you remember reading about it in the newspapers? ~ No, I . (be) abroad at the time 19 He . (walk) from here to London in two hours It isnt possible 20 He was very sick last night. ~ The meat we had for supper . (be) good 21 There was a dock strike and the liner couldnt leave port. ~ The passengers . (be) furious 22 We went to a restaurant and had a very good dinner for

Ј3. ~ You . (have) a very good dinner if you only paid Ј3 23 I have just watered the roses. ~ You . (water) them Look, its raining now! 24 That carpet was made entirely by hand. ~ It . (take) a long time 25 The door was open. ~ It . (be) open I had locked it myself and the key was in my pocket 26 He said that he watered the plants every day. ~ He . (water) them If he had they wouldnt have died 27 He came out of the water with little red spots all over his back. ~ He . (be) stung by a jelly-fish 28 Weve sent for a doctor. ~ You . (send) for him I am perfectly well 29 Ive made two copies. ~ You . (make) two One would have been enough 30 There was a terrible crash at 3 a.m ~ That . (be) Tom coming in from his party 31 I had to get down the mountain in a thick fog. ~ That . (be) very difficult 32 I saw Ann in the library yesterday. ~ You . (see) her; she is still abroad 33 How did he get out of the house? He . (come) down the stairs for they were blazing. 34 You .

(lend) him your map He has one of his own 35 I spoke in English, very slowly. ~ You . (speak) slowly He speaks English very fluently 36 He was found unconscious at the foot of the cliff. He (fall) 200 metres Present and past tenses The simple present tense PEG 172 Read the following in the third person singular. Do not change the object if it is plural Note that after certain consonants a final es is pronounced as a separate syllable. See PEG 12 B: kiss, kisses /kis, kisiz/. 1 They wish to speak to you. (He) 2 Buses pass my house every hour. 3 They help their father. (He) 4 We change planes at Heathrow. 5 You watch too much TV. (He) 6 They worry too much. (He) 7 I cash a cheque every month. (He) 8 I always carry an umbrella. (She) 9 They wash the floor every week. (She) 10 His sons go to the local school. 11 These hens lay brown eggs. 12 Rubber balls bounce. 13 These figures astonish me. 14 Do you like boiled eggs? (he) 15 These seats cost Ј10. 16 They fish in the lake.

(He) 17 Elephants never forget. 18 They usually catch the 8.10 bus 19 They sometimes miss the bus. 20 I mix the ingredients together. 21 The rivers freeze in winter. 22 They fly from London to Edinburgh. 23 The carpets match the curtains. 24 They realize the danger. 25 I use a computer. 26 What do they do on their days off? ~ They do nothing. They lie in bed all day 27 The boys hurry home after school. 28 They push the door open. 29 They kiss their mother. 30 They box in the gymnasium. 31 They dress well. 32 Your children rely on you. 33 They snatch ladies handbags. 34 You fry everything. 35 The taxes rise every year. 36 They do exercises every morning. The simple present tense PEG 172 Read the following (a) in the negative (b) in the interrogative. In Nos. 2 and 14, have is used as an ordinary verb and should be treated as one 1 You know the answer. 2 He has breakfast at 8.00 3 He loves her. 4 Some schoolgirls wear uniforms. 5 He trusts you. 6 He tries hard. 7 The park closes at

dusk. 8 He misses his mother. 9 The children like sweets. 10 He finishes work at 6.00 11 He lives beside the sea. 12 He bullies his sisters. 13 This stove heats the water. 14 She has a cooked breakfast. 15 She carries a sleeping bag. 16 He usually believes you. 17 She dances in competitions. 18 You remember the address. 19 She plays chess very well. 20 He worries about her. 21 These thieves work at night. 22 He leaves home at 8.00 every day 23 Ann arranges everything. 24 She agrees with you. 25 Their dogs bark all night. 26 Their neighbours often complain. 27 Tom enjoys driving at night. 28 He engages new staff every Spring. 29 Tom looks very well. 30 They sell fresh grape juice here. 31 He charges more than other photographers. 32 She cuts her husbands hair. 33 They pick the apples in October. 34 The last train leaves at midnight. 35 He relaxes at weekends. 36 She refuses to discuss it. The present continuous tense PEG 164-7 Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous

tense. In No 25, have is used as an ordinary verb and can therefore be used in the continuous tense. 1 She (not work), she (swim) in the river. 2 He (teach) his boy to ride. 3 Why Ann (not wear) her new dress? 4 The airplane (fly) at 2,000 metres. 5 What Tom (do) now? He (clean) his shoes. 6 This fire (go) out. Somebody (bring) more coal? 7 It (rain)?~ Yes, it (rain) very hard. You cant go out yet 8 Why you (mend) that old shirt? 9 You (not tell) the truth. ~ How do you know that I (not tell) the truth? 10 Who (move) the furniture about upstairs? ~ Its Tom. He (paint) the front bedroom 11 Mrs Jones (sweep) the steps outside her house. 12 What you (read) now? I (read) Crime and Punishment. 13 It is a lovely day. The sun (shine) and the birds (sing) 14 Someone (knock) at the door. Shall I answer it? ~ I (come) in a minute. I just (wash) my hands 15 She always (ring) up and (ask) questions. 16 Why you (make) a cake? Someone (come) to tea? 17 Where is Tom? ~ He (lie) under the car. 18

Can I borrow your pen or you (use) it at the moment? 19 You (do) anything this evening? ~ No, Im not. Well, I (go) to the cinema Would you like to come with me? 20 We (have) breakfast at 8.00 tomorrow as Tom (catch) an early train 21 Ann usually does the shopping, but I (do) it today as she isnt well. 22 Why you (type) so fast? You (make) a lot of mistakes. 23 Mother (rest) now. She always rests after lunch 24 They (dig) an enormous hole just outside my gate. ~ What they (do) that for? ~ I dont know. Perhaps they (look) for oil 25 What (make) that terrible noise? ~ Its the pneumatic drill. They (repair) the road 26 The children are very quiet. Go and see what they (do) They (cut) up some Ј5 notes 27 What you (wait) for?I (wait) for my change; the boy just (get) it. 28 I cant hear what you (say); the traffic (make) too much noise. 29 She always (lose) her glasses and (ask) me to look for them. 30 Mother: What you (look) at? Something (happen) in the street? 31 Child: Yes. The house

opposite is on fire! Come and look Mother: I cant. I (bath) the babies Is the Fire Brigade here? 32 Child: Yes. Fire engines (rush) up and the firemen (jump) out and (unroll) their hoses 33 Smoke (pour) from the windows! People (stop) to watch. A policeman (try) to move them on. 34 An old man (climb) out of a first floor window! A fireman (help) him! Two boys (slide) down a rope! 35 A woman (wave) from the attic and a fireman (go) up a ladder to help her! 36 Now he (come) down again! He (carry) a baby! The crowd (cheer! The simple present and the present continuous PEG 164-74 Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or the present continuous tense. 1 Cuckoos (not build) nests. They (use) the nests of other birds 2 You cant see Tom now: he (have) a bath. 3 He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea. 4 What she (do) in the evenings? ~ She usually (play) cards or (watch) TV. 5 I wont go out now as it (rain) and I -(not have) an umbrella. 6 The last train (leave) the

station at 11.30 7 He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. 8 Ann (make) a dress for herself at the moment. She (make) all her own clothes. 9 Hardly anyone (wear) a hat nowadays. 10 Im afraid Ive broken one of your coffee cups. Dont worry. I (not like) that set anyway 11 I (wear) my sunglasses today because the sun is very strong. 12 Tom cant have the newspaper now because his aunt (read) it. 13 Im busy at the moment. I (redecorate) the sitting room 14 The kettle (boil) now. Shall I make the tea? 15 You (enjoy) yourself or would you like to leave now? I (enjoy) myself very much. I (want) to stay to the end 16 How you (get) to work as a rule? ~ I usually (go) by bus but tomorrow I (go) in Toms car. 17 Why you (put) on your coat? ~ I (go) for a walk. You (come) with me?Yes, Id love to come You (mind) if I bring my dog? 18 How much you (owe) him?I (owe) him Ј5. ~ You (intend) to pay him? 19 You (belong) to your local library? Yes, I do. You (read) a lot?- Yes,

quite a lot. How often you (change) your books? I (change) one every day. 20 Mary usually (learn) languages very quickly but she (not seem) able to learn modern Greek. 21 I always (buy) lottery tickets but I never (win) anything. 22 You (like) this necklace? I (give) it to my daughter for her birthday tomorrow. 23 I wont tell you my secret unless you (promise) not to tell anyone. I (promise) 24 You always (write) with your left hand? 25 You (love) him?No, I (like) him very much but I (not love) him. 26 You (dream) at night?Yes, I always (dream) and if I (eat) too much supper I (have) nightmares. 27 The milk (smell) sour. You (keep) milk a long time? 28 These workmen are never satisfied; they always (complain). 29 We (use) this room today because the window in the other room is broken. 30 He always (say) that he will mend the window but he never (do) it. 31 You (know) why an apple (fall) down and not up? 32 You (write) to him tonight? Yes, I always (write) to him on his birthday. You

(want) to send any message? 33 Tom and Mr Pitt (have) a long conversation. I (wonder) what they (talk) about. 34 You (believe) all that the newspapers say?No, I (not believe) any of it. ~ Then why you (read) newspapers? 35 This car (make) a very strange noise. You (think) it is all right?Oh, that noise (not matter) It always (make) a noise like that 36 The fire (smoke) horribly. I cant see across the room I (expect) that birds (build) a nest in the chimney Why you (not put) wire across the tops of your chimneys? Tom (do) that sometimes but it (not seem) to make any difference The simple present and the present continuous PEG 164-74 Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or present continuous tense. 1 What Tom (think) of the Budget? He (think) it most unfair. ~ I (agree) with him. 2 What this one (cost)?It (cost) forty pence. 3 You (hear) the wind? It (blow) very strongly tonight. 4 You (see) my car keys anywhere? No, I (look) for them but I (not see) them. 5 He never

(listen) to what you say. He always (think) about something else 6 This book is about a man who (desert) his family and (go) to live on a Pacific island. 7 You (understand) what the lecturer is saying? ~ No, I (not understand) him at all. 8 What you (have) for breakfast usually? ~ I usually (eat) a carrot and (drink) a glass of cold water. 9 When the curtain (rise) we (see) a group of workers. They (picket) factory gate 10 Why you (walk) so fast today? You usually (walk) quite slowly. ~ I (hurry) because I (meet) my mother at 4 oclock and she (not like) to be kept waiting. 11 I (wish) that dog would lie down. He (keep) jumping up on my lap ~ I (think) he (want) to go for a walk. 12 You (recognize) that man? ~ I (think) that I have seen him before but I (not remember) his name 13 Look at that crowd. I (wonder) what they (wait) for 14 This message has just arrived and the man (wait) in case you (want) to send a reply. 15 Stop! You (not see) the notice? ~ I (see) it but I cant read it

because I (not wear) my glasses. What it (say)? ~ It (say) These premises are patrolled by guard dogs. 16 She always (borrow) from me and she never (remember) to pay me back. 17 You (need) another blanket or you (feel) warm enough? 18 It (save) time if you (take) the path through the wood? ~ No, it (not matter) which path you take. 19 I (save) up because I (go) abroad in July. 20 I (think) it is a pity you dont take more exercise. You (get) fat 21 The plane that you (look) at now just (take) off for Paris, 22 Tom never (do) any work in the garden; he always (work) on his car. 23 What he (do) to his car now? ~ I (think) he (polish) it. 24 That film (come) to the local cinema next week. You (want) to see it? 25 How Peter (get) on at school? ~ Very well. He (seem) to like the life 26 Why Mrs Pitt (look) so angry? ~ Mr Pitt (smoke) a cigarette and (drop) the ash on the carpet. 27 This is our itinerary. We (leave) home on the 8th, (arrive) in Paris on the 9th, (spend) the day in Paris, and

(set) out that night for Venice. ~ That (sound) most interesting. You must tell me all about it when you (get) back 28 This story is about a boy who (make) friends with a snake which he (find) in his garden. Then he (go) away but he (not forget) the snake and some years later he (return) and (look) for it. 29 He (find) the snake who (recognize) its old friend and (coil) round him affectionately. But, unfortunately, the snake is by now a full-grown boa-constrictor and its embrace (kill) the poor boy. 30 The snake (feel) sorry about this?I (not know). The story (end) there 31 How you (end) a letter that (begin), Dear Sir? ~ I always (put), Yours truly, but Tom (prefer) Yours faithfully. 32 What the word catastrophe (mean)? ~ It (mean) disaster. 33 What you (wait) for?I (wait) for the shop to open. But it (not open) till 900 I (know) but I (want) to be early, as their sale (start) today 34 Why you (smoke) a cigar, Mrs Pitt? You (not smoke) cigars as a rule. ~ I (smoke) it because I

(want) the ash. This book (say) that cigar ash mixed with oil (remove) heat stains from wood. 35 Who (own) this umbrella? ~ I (not know). Everybody (use) it but nobody (know) who (own) it 36 You (mind) if I (ask) you a question? ~ That (depend) on the question. ~ It (concern) your brother. ~ I (refuse) to answer any question about my brother. The simple past tense PEG 175-6 Put the verbs in the following sentences into the simple past tense. 1 I go to work by bus. 2 I meet her on Tuesdays. 3 He always wears black. 4 I make cakes every week. 5 She gets up at 6.30 6 He understands me. 7 He shuts the shop at 6.00 8 She speaks slowly. 9 He leaves the house at 9.00 10 I read a chapter every night. 11 You eat too much. 12 I see him every day. 13 Tom sings in the choir. 14 He cries when he is hurt. 15 Who knows the answer? 16 I think I know it. 17 The curtain rises at 8.00 18 He takes the dog out twice a day. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 We buy them here. I

dream every night. Bluetits often lay eggs in that nesting box. He often feels ill. I know what he wants. I usually pay him Ј5. His dog always bites me. It smells odd. It costs 30p. My back hurts. I lie down after lunch. We drink water. His roses grow well. He rides every day. He often falls off. These dogs fight whenever they meet. He puts up his prices every year. He sleeps badly. The simple past tense PEG 175-6 Put the verbs in the following sentences into (a) the negative (b) the interrogative. 1 She saw your brother. 2 We heard a terrible noise. 3 He slept till 10.00 4 He looked at the picture. 5 They drank all the wine. 6 They set out early enough. 7 She thought about it. 8 The police caught the thief. 9 He hid the letter. 10 She found her watch. 11 His nose bled. 12 My mother chose this hotel. 13 She lent you enough money. 14 Keiko taught Japanese. 15 Tom hurt his foot. 16 He broke his arm. 17 His wife came at 8.00 18 He lost his wallet. 19 His son wrote a novel. 20 They flew

to New York. 21 Ann drew you a map. 22 Tom laid the table. 23 Mr Pitt fell downstairs. 24 She lost her way. 25 He forbade her to leave. 26 I sent it to the laundry. 27 Jack kept the money. 28 He rode slowly. 29 They spent it all. 30 She sold the car. 31 Jean rang the bell. 32 The sun rose at 6.00 33 The boys ran home. 34 He shook the bottle. 35 He forgave her. 36 They broadcast an appeal for money. The past continuous tense PEG 178 Put the verbs in brackets into the past continuous tense. 1 Detective: Im afraid I must ask you both what you (do) yesterday at 10.20 pm Mr X: I (play) chess with my wife. Mr Y: I (listen) to a play on the radio. 2 The children were frightened because it (get) dark. 3 It was a fine day and the roads were crowded because a lot of people (rush) to the seaside. 4 The airplane in which the football team (travel) crashed soon after taking off. 5 He usually wears sandals but when I last saw him he (wear) boots. 6 The house was in great disorder because he

(redecorate) it. 7 The director didnt allow the actors to travel by air while they (work) on the film. 8 The car had nobody in it but the engine (run). 9 Two children (play) on the sand and two fishermen (lean) against an upturned boat. 10 I was alone in the house at that time because Mr Jones (work) in the garage and Mrs Jones (shop). 11 He said that he was the captain of a ship which (sail) that night for Marseilles. 12 Are you going to Rome? I thought that you (go) to Milan. 13 My wife and I (talk) about you the other day. 14 When I first met him he (study) painting. 15 There was a strong smell and the sound of frying. Obviously Mrs Jones (cook) fish 16 Tom ate nothing for lunch because he (diet). He said that he (try) to lose 10 kilos 17 Who you (talk) to on the telephone as I came in? I (talk) to Mr Pitt. 18 As she (climb) the ladder it slipped sideways and she fell off it. 19 When I first met him he (work) in a restaurant. 20 He watched the children for a moment. Some of them

(bathe) in the sea, others (look) for shells, others (play) in the sand. 21 Where he (live) when you saw him last? 22 She (stand) at the bus stop. I asked her what bus she (wait) for 23 From the sounds it was clear that Mary (practise) the piano. 24 There had been an accident and men (carry) the injured people to an ambulance. 25 Two men (fight) at a street comer and a policeman (try) to stop them. ~ What they (fight) about? ~ Nobody seemed to know. 26 Tom (sit) in a corner with a book. I told him that he (read) in very bad light 27 I went into the garden to see what the boys (do). James (weed) and Alexander (cut) the grass. 28 They had taken off the wheel of the car and (mend) the puncture. I asked when it would be ready. 29 When I arrived at the meeting the first speaker had just finished speaking and the audience (clap), 30 The traffic (make) so much noise that I couldnt hear what he (say). 31 While he (learn) to drive he had twenty-five accidents. 32 He had a bad fall while he

(repair) his roof. 33 He was a little mad. He always (try) to prove that the earth was flat 34 While we (fish) someone came to the house and left this note. 35 The exam had just begun and the candidates (write) their names at the top of their papers. 36 Just as I (wonder) what to do next, the phone rang. The simple past and the past continuous PEG 175-81 Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or the past continuous tense. 1 I lit the fire at 6.00 and it (bum) brightly when Tom came in at 700 2 When I arrived the lecture had already started and the professor (write) on the overhead projector. 3 I (make) a cake when the light went out. I had to finish it in the dark 4 I didnt want to meet Paul so when he entered the room I (leave). 5 Unfortunately when I arrived Ann just (leave), so we only had time for a few words. 6 He (watch) TV when the phone rang. Very unwillingly he (turn) down the sound and (go) to answer it. 7 He was very polite. Whenever his wife entered the room he

(stand) up 8 The admiral (play) bowls when he received news of the invasion. He (insist) on finishing the game. 9 My dog (walk) along quietly when Mr Pitts Pekinese attacked him. 10 When I arrived she (have) lunch. She apologized for starting without me but said that she always (lunch) at 12.30 11 He always (wear) a raincoat and (carry) an umbrella when he walked to the office. 12 What you (think) of his last book? ~ I (like) it very much. 13 I (share) a flat with him when we were students. He always (complain) about my untidiness. 14 He suddenly (realize) that he (travel) in the wrong direction. 15 He (play) the guitar outside her house when someone opened the window and (throw) out a bucket of water. 16 I just (open) the letter when the wind (blow) it out of my hand. 17 The burglar (open) the safe when he (hear) footsteps. He immediately (put) out his torch and (crawl) under the bed. 18 When I (look) for my passport I (find) this old photograph. 19 You looked very busy when I

(see) you last night. What you (do)? 20 The boys (play) cards when they (hear) their fathers step. They immediately (hide) the cards and (take) out their lesson books. 21 He (clean) his gun when it accidentally (go) off and (kill) him. 22 He (not allow) us to go out in the boat yesterday as a strong wind (blow). 23 As I (cross) the road I (step) on a banana skin and (fall) heavily. 24 I still (lie) on the road when I (see) a lorry approaching. 25 Luckily the driver (see) me and (stop) the lorry in time. 26 How you (damage) your car so badly? ~ I (run) into a lamp-post yesterday. ~ I suppose you (drive) too quickly or were not looking where you (go). 27 As he (get) into the bus it (start) suddenly and he (fall) backwards on to the road. 28 I (call) Paul at 7.00 but it wasnt necessary because he already (get) up 29 When he (mend) the fuse he (get) a very bad shock. 30 When I (hear) his knock I (go) to the door and (open) it, but I (not recognize) him at first because I (not wear) my

glasses. 31 When I came in they (sit) round the fire. Mr Pitt (do) a crossword puzzle, Mrs Pitt (knit), the others (read). Mrs Pitt (smile) at me and (say), Come and sit down 32 While the guests (dance) thieves (break) into the house and (steal) a lot of fur coats. 33 The next day, as they (know) that the police (look) for them, they (hide) the coats in a wood and (go) off in different directions. 34 She was very extravagant. She always (buy) herself new clothes 35 Her mother often (tell) her that she (spend) too much money but she never (listen). 36 Whenever the drummer (begin) practising, the people in the next flat (bang) on the wall. The simple past and the past continuous PEG 175-81 Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or past continuous tense. 1 Mr Smith never (wake) up in time in the mornings and always (get) into trouble for being late; so one day he (go) to town and (buy) an alarm clock. 2 To get home he (have to) go through a field where a bad-tempered bull usually

(graze). 3 This bull normally (not chase) people unless something (make) him angry. Unfortunately, as Mr Smith (cross) the field, his alarm clock (go) off. 4 This (annoy) the bull, who immediately (begin) to chase Mr Smith. 5 Mr Smith (carry) an open umbrella as it (rain) slightly. He (throw) the umbrella to the ground and (run) away as fast as he could. 6 The bull (stop) and (begin) to attack the umbrella. While he (do) this Mr Smith escaped 7 When he (awake) she (sit) by the window. She (look) at something in the street, but when he (call) her she (turn) and (smile) at him. 8 Why you (interrupt) me just now? I (have) a very interesting conversation with Mr Pitt. 9 The murderer (carry) the corpse down the stairs when he (hear) a knock on the door. 10 When I (look) through your books I (notice) that you have a copy of Murder in the Cathedral. 11 As they (walk) along the road they (hear) a car coming from behind them. Tom (turn) round and (hold) up his hand. The car (stop) 12 When I

(arrive) at the station Mary (wait) for me. She (wear) a blue dress and (look) very pretty. As soon as she (see) me she (wave) and (shout) something, but I couldnt hear what she (say) because everybody (make) such a noise. 13 The prisoner (escape) by climbing the wall of the garden where he (work). He (wear) blue overalls and black shoes. 14 She said that the car (travel) at 40 k.ph when it (begin) to skid 15 She said that she (not like) her present flat and (try) to find another. 16 While he (make) his speech the minister suddenly (feel) faint. But someone (bring) him a glass of water and after a few minutes he (be able) to continue. 17 When I (see) him he (paint) a portrait of his wife. ~ You (like) it? ~ He only just (start) when I (see) it, so I couldnt judge. 18 I (take) my friend to a murder trial the other day. ~ Who (be) tried?A man called Bill Sykes. ~ Was he acquitted? I dont know. They still (listen) to the evidence when we (leave) 19 I (be) sorry that I (have to) leave the

party early, because I (enjoy) myself. 20 As we (come) here a policeman (stop) us. He (say) that he (look) for some stolen property and (ask) if he could search the car. 21 I (see) you yesterday from the bus. Why you (use) a stick? ~ I (use) a stick because I had hurt my leg that morning falling off a horse. ~ Whose horse you (ride)? 22 The floor was covered with balls of wool. Obviously Mrs Pitt (knit) something 23 Ann said that she (be) on holiday. I (say) that I (hope) that she (enjoy) herself 24 While he (water) the flowers it (begin) to rain. He (put) up his umbrella and (go) on watering. 25 I just (write) a cheque when I (remember) that I (have) nothing in the bank. 26 I (find) this ring as I (dig) in the garden. It looks very old I wonder who it (belong) to? 27 When I last (see) her she (hurry) along the road to the station. I (ask) her where she (go) and she (say), London, but I dont think she (speak) the truth because there (not be) any train for London at that time. 28 The

tailor said, Your suit will be ready on Monday. But when I (call) on Monday he still (work) on it. 29 The teacher (come) into the classroom unusually early and one of the boys, who (smoke) a cigarette, (have) no time to put it out. So he (throw) it into the desk and (hope) for the best. 30 A little later the teacher (notice) that smoke (rise) from this desk. You (smoke) when I (come) in? he (ask). 31 While I (swim) someone (steal) my clothes and I (have to) walk home in my swimsuit. 32 The men (say) that they (work) on the road outside my house and that they (want) some water to make tea. 33 He (say) that he (build) himself a house and that he (think) it would be ready in two years. 34 At 3 a.m Mrs Pitt (wake) her husband and (say) that she (think) that someone (try) to get into the house. 35 Why you (lend) him that book? I still (read) it. ~ Im sorry. I (not know) that you still (read) it 36 I (come) in very late last night and unfortunately the dog (wake) up and (start) to bark.

This (wake) my mother who (come) to the top of the stairs and (say), Who is there? I (say). It is me, but she (not hear) me because the dog (bark) so loudly, so she (go) back to her room and (telephone) the police. The present perfect tense PEG 182-9 Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect tense, and fill the spaces by repeating the auxiliary. You (wash) the plates? ~ Yes, I. Have you washed the plates? ~ Yes, I have. You (see) him lately? ~ No, I. Have you seen him lately?~ No, I havent. 1 Where you (be)? ~ I (be) to the dentist. 2 You (have) breakfast? ~ Yes, 1. 3 The post (come)? ~ Yes, it . 4 You (see) my watch anywhere? ~ No, Im afraid I . 5 Someone (wind) the clock? ~ Yes, Tom . 6 I (not finish) my letter yet. 7 He just (go) out. 8 Someone (take) my bicycle. 9 The phone (stop) ringing. 10 You (hear) from her lately? No, 1. 11 I just (wash) that floor. 12 The cat (steal) the fish. 13 You (explain) the exercise? ~ Yes, 1. 14 There arent any buses because the

drivers (go) on strike. 15 You (have) enough to eat? ~ Yes, I (have) plenty, thank you. 16 Charles (pass) his exam? ~ Yes, he. 17 How many bottles the milkman (leave)? ~ He (leave) six. 18 I (live) here for ten years. 19 How long you (know) Mr Pitt? ~ I (know) him for ten years. 20 Would you like some coffee? I just (make) some. 21 Mary (water) the tomatoes? ~ Yes, I think she . 22 You (not make) a mistake? ~ No, Im sure I . 23 Why you (not mend) the fuse? ~ I (not have) time. 24 You (dive) from the ten-metre board yet? ~ No, I. 25 You ever (leave) a restaurant without paying the bill? ~ No, I. 26 I (ask) him to dinner several times. 27 He always (refuse). 28 You ever (ride) a camel? 29 I (buy) a new carpet. Come and look at it 30 He (post) the letter? 31 Why he (not finish)? He (have) plenty of time. 32 I often (see) him but I never (speak) to him. 33 You ever (eat) caviar? ~ No, 1. 34 We just (hear) the most extraordinary news. 35 The police (recapture) the prisoners who escaped

yesterday. 36 I (not pay) the telephone bill yet. The present perfect and the simple past PEG 175-7, 182-9 (a) Fill the spaces by repeating the auxiliary used in the question, putting it into the negative where necessary. (b) Put the verb in brackets into the present perfect or the simple past tense. Have you seen that play? (a) Yes, I . Yes, I have. (b) Yes, I (be) there last night. Yes, I was there last night. 1 Have you wound the clock? 2 Have you ever eaten snails? 3 Has she fed the dog? 4 Have they repaired the road? 5 Have they done their homework? (a) Yes, I . (b) Yes, I (wind) it on Monda (a) No, I . (b) Yes, I (eat) some at Toms party last week. (a) Yes, I think she . (b) Yes, she (feed) him before lunch. (a) No, they . (b) They only (repair) part of it so far. (a) Yes, they (do) it all. (b) Yes, they (do) it before they left school. 6 Have you found the matches? (a) No, I . (b) No, I (not find) them yet. 7 Have you made the coffee? (a) Yes, I . (b) I

(make) some yesterday: we can use that. 8 Have you been here before? (a) No, I . (b) Yes, I (be) here several times. 9 Have you seen him lately? (a) No, I . (b) No, I (not see) him since Christmas. 10 Have you been to the opera this (a) Yes, I . week? (b) Yes, I (go) to Faust on Friday. 11 Have you ever driven this car? (a) Yes, I (drive) it once or twice. (b) Yes, I (drive) it when you were away. 12 Has he missed his train? (a) No, he . (b) Yes, he . It (go) five minutes ago 13 Have they been through Customs? (a) Yes, they . (b) Yes, their luggage (be) examined at Dover. 14 Has he spoken to her? (a) Yes, he . (b) Yes, he (speak) to her on Friday. 15 Have you spent all your money? (a) No, I only (spend) half of it. (b) Yes, 1. 16 How much have you saved (a) I (not save) anything. since Christmas? (b) I (save) Ј3. 17 Has his temperature gone down? (a) No, it . (b) Yes, it (go) down last night. 18 Have you seen his garden? 19 Have you paid the bill? 20 Have you ever

flown a plane? 21 Has your dog ever bitten anyone? last week. 22 Have you planted your peas? Tuesday. 23 Has he written to the paper? 24 Have you ever drunk vodka? (a) No, I (not see) it yet. (b) I (see) the house on Monday but I (not see) the garden. (a) Yes, I. (b) Yes, I (pay) it while you were away. (a) No, I . (b) Yes, I (fly) when I was at university. (a) Yes, he (bite) a policeman (b) Yes, he (bite) me twice. (a) Yes, I (plant) them on (b) No, 1. yet (a) Yes, he . (b) Yes, he (write) at once. (a) No, 1. (b) I (drink) it once in Russia but I (not drink) it since. The present perfect and the simple past PEG 175-7,182-9 Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the simple past tense. In some sentences the present perfect continuous (PEG 190) is also possible. 1 This is my house. ~ How long you (live) here? ~ I (live) here since 1970. 2 He (live) in London for two years and then (go) to Edinburgh. 3 You (wear) your hair long when you were at school? ~ Yes, my

mother (insist) on it. 4 But when I (leave) school I (cut) my hair and (wear) it short ever since. 5 Shakespeare (write) a lot of plays. 6 My brother (write) several plays. He just (finish) his second tragedy 7 I (fly) over Loch Ness last week. ~ You (see) the Loch Ness monster? 8 I (not see) him for three years. I wonder where he is 9 He (not smoke) for two weeks. He is trying to give it up 10 Chopin (compose) some of his music in Majorca. 11 When he (arrive)? ~ He (arrive) at 2.00 12 You (lock) the door before you left the house? 13 I (read) his books when I was at school. I (enjoy) them very much 14 I cant go out because I (not finish) my work. 15 I never (drink) whisky. ~ Well, have some now. 16 I (write) the letter but I cant find a stamp. 17 The clock is slow. ~ It isnt slow, it (stop). 18 Here are your shoes; I just (clean) them. 19 I (leave) home at 8.00 and (get) here at twelve 20 I (do) this sort of work when I (be) an apprentice. 21 He just (go) out. 22 He (go) out ten

minutes ago. 23 You (have) breakfast yet? ~ Yes, I (have) it at 8.00 24 I (meet) him last June. 25 You (see) the moon last night? 26 The concert (begin) at 2.30 and (last) for two hours Everyone (enjoy) it very much 27 The play just (begin). You are a little late 28 The newspaper (come)? ~ Yes, Ann is reading it. 29 The actors (arrive) yesterday and (start) rehearsals early this morning. 30 It (be) very cold this year. I wonder when it is going to get warmer 31 Cervantes (write) Don Quixote. 32 We (miss) the bus. Now well have to walk 33 He (break) his leg in a skiing accident last year. 34 Mr Pound is the bank manager. He (be) here for five years 35 Mr Count (work) as a cashier for twenty-five years. Then he (retire) and (go) to live in the country. 36 You (be) here before? ~ Yes, I (spend) my holidays here last year. ~ You (have) a good time? ~ No, it never (stop) raining. The present perfect and the simple past PEG 175-7,182-9 Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or

simple past tense. Fill the spaces by repeating the auxiliary used in the preceding verb. You (see) Mary on Monday? ~ Yes, I. Did you see Mary on Monday? Yes, I did. 1 Where is Tom?I (not see) him today, but he (tell) Mary that hed be in for dinner. 2 I (buy) this in Bond Street. ~ How much you (pay) for it? ~ I (pay) Ј100. 3 Where you (find) this knife? ~ I (find) it in the garden. ~ Why you (not leave) it there? 4 I (lose) my black gloves. You (see) them anywhere? ~ No, Im afraid 1. When you last (wear) them? ~ I (wear) them at the theatre last night. ~ Perhaps you (leave) them at the theatre. 5 Do you know that lady who just (leave) the shop? ~ Yes, that is Miss Thrift. Is she a customer of yours? ~ Not exactly. She (be) in here several times but she never (buy) anything 6 He (leave) the house at 8.00 ~ Where he (go)? ~ I (not see) where he (go). 7 He (serve) in the First World War. ~ When that war (begin)? ~ It (begin) in 1914 and (last) for four years. 8 Who you (vote) for at

the last election? ~ I (vote) for Mr Pitt. ~ He (not be) elected, (be) he? ~ No, he (lose) his deposit. 9 You (like) your last job? ~ I (like) it at first but then I (quarrel) with my employer and he (dismiss) me. ~ How long you (be) there? ~ I (be) there for two weeks. 10 I (not know) that you (know) Mrs Pitt. How long you (know) her? ~ I (know) her for ten years. 11 That is Mr Minus, who teaches me mathematics, but he (not have) time to teach me much. I only (be) in his class for a week 12 You (hear) his speech on the radio last night? ~ Yes, I . ~ What you (think) of it? 13 I (not know) that you (be) here. You (be) here long? ~ Yes, I (be) here two months. ~ You (be) to the Cathedral? ~ Yes, I (go) there last Sunday. 14 You ever (try) to give up smoking? ~ Yes, I (try) last year, but then I (find) that I was getting fat so I (start) again. 15 You (see) todays paper? ~ No, anything interesting (happen)? Yes, two convicted murderers (escape) from the prison down the road. 16 Mary

(feed) the cat? ~ Yes, she (feed) him before lunch. ~ What she (give) him? ~ She (give) him some fish. 17 How long you (know) your new assistant? ~ I (know) him for two years. ~ What he (do) before he (come) here? ~ I think he (be) in prison. 18 I (not see) your aunt recently. ~ No. She (not be) out of her house since she (buy) her colour TV 19 The plumber(be)here yet? ~ Yes, but he only (stay) for an hour. ~ What he (do) in that time? ~ He (turn) off the water and (empty) the tank. 20 Where you (be)? I (be) out in a yacht. ~ You (enjoy) it? ~ Yes, very much. We (take) part in a race ~ You (win)? ~ No, we (come) in last. 21 How long that horrible monument (be) there? ~ It (be) there six months. Lots of people (write) to the Town Council asking them to take it away but so far nothing (be) done. 22 I just (be) to the film War and Peace. You (see) it? ~ No, 1. Is it like the book? ~ I (not read) the book. ~ I (read) it when I (be) at school. ~ When Tolstoy (write) it? ~ He (write) it

in 1868. ~ He (write) anything else? 23 Hannibal (bring) elephants across the Alps. ~ Why he (do) that? ~ He (want) to use them in battle. 24 Where you (be)? ~ I (be) to the dentist. ~ He (take) out your bad tooth? ~ Yes, he . ~ It (hurt)?Yes, horribly. 25 She (say) that shed phone me this morning, but it is now 12.30 and she (not phone) yet. 26 I just (receive) a letter saying that we (not pay) this quarters electricity bill. I (not give) you the money for that last week? ~ Yes, you . but Im afraid I (spend) it on something else 27 How long you (be) out of work? ~ Im not out of work now. I just (start) a new job ~ How you (find) the job? ~ I (answer) an advertisement in the paper. 28 You (finish) checking the accounts? ~ No, not quite. I (do) about half so far 29 I (cut) my hand rather badly. Have you a bandage? ~ Ill get you one. How it (happen)? ~ I was chopping some wood and the axe (slip). 30 How you (get) that scar? ~ I (get) it in a car accident a year ago. 31 You (meet)

my brother at the lecture yesterday? ~ Yes, I . We (have) coffee together afterwards 32 He (lose) his job last month and since then he (be) out of work. ~ Why he (lose) his job? ~ He (be) very rude to Mr Pitt. 33 What are all those people looking at? ~ There (be) an accident. ~ You (see) what (happen)? ~ Yes, a motor cycle (run) into a lorry. 34 I (phone) you twice yesterday and (get) no answer. 35 Originally horses used in bull fights (not wear) any protection, but for some time now they (wear) special padding, 36 That house (be) empty for a year. But they just (take) down the For Sale sign, so I suppose someone (buy) it. The present perfect continuous tense PEG 190-1 Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect continuous tense 1 I (make) cakes. That is why my hands are all covered with flour 2 Her phone (ring) for ten minutes. I wonder why she doesnt answer it 3 He (overwork). That is why he looks so tired 4 There is sawdust in your hair. ~ Im not surprised. I (cut) down a

tree 5 Have you seen my bag anywhere? I (look) for it for ages. 6 What you (do)? ~ I (work) in the laboratory. 7 He (study) Russian for two years and doesnt even know the alphabet yet. 8 How long you (wait) for me? ~ I (wait) about half an hour. 9 It (rain) for two days now. There11 be a flood soon 10 We (argue) about this for two hours now. Perhaps we should stop 11 I (bathe). Thats why my hair is all wet 12 You (drive) all day. Let me drive now 13 How long you (wear) glasses? 14 The petrol gauge (say) Empty for quite a long time now. Dont think we should get some petrol? 15 Im sorry for keeping you waiting. I (try) to make a telephone call Rome 16 You (not eat) enough lately. Thats why you feel irritable, 17 He (speak) for an hour now. I expect hell soon be finished 18 That helicopter (fly) round the house for the last hour; do you think its taking photographs? 19 The radio (play) since 7 a.m I wish someone would turn it off 20 I (shop) all day and I havent a penny left. 21 We

(live) here since 1977. 22 Im on a diet. I (eat) nothing but bananas for the last month 23 The children (look) forward to this holiday for months. 24 That pipe (leak) for ages. We must get it mended 25 Tom (dig) in the garden all afternoon and I (help) him. 26 I (ask) you to mend that window for six weeks. When are you going to do it? 27 Someone (use) my bicycle. The chains fallen off 28 How long you (drive)? ~ I (drive) for ten years. 29 The trial (go) on for a long time. I wonder what the verdict will be 30 It (snow) for three days now. The roads will be blocked if it doesnt stop soon 31 Mary (cry)? ~ No, she (not cry), she (peel) onions. 32 The car (make) a very curious noise ever since it ran out of oil. 33 He walked very unsteadily up the stairs and his wife said, You (drink)! 34 Your fingers are very brown. You (smoke) too much 35 You usually know when someone (eat) garlic. 36 Ever since he came to us that man (try) to make trouble. The present perfect and the present perfect

continuous PEG 191-2 Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the present perfect continuous tense. (In some cases either could be used.) 1 We (walk) ten kilometres. 2 We (walk) for three hours. 3 You (walk) too fast. Thats why you are tired 4 I (make) sausage rolls for the party all the morning. 5 How many you (make)? ~ I (make) 200. 6 That boy (eat) seven ice-creams. 7 He (not stop) eating since he arrived. 8 The driver (drink). I think someone else ought to drive 9 I (pull) up 100 dandelions. 10 I (pull) up dandelions all day. 11 What you (do)? ~ We (pick) apples. 12 How many you (pick)? ~ We (pick) ten basketfuls. 13 I (sleep) on every bed in this house and I dont like any of them. 14 He (sleep) since ten oclock. Its time he woke up 15 He (ride); thats why he is wearing breeches. 16 I (ride) all the horses in this stable. 17 What a lovely smell! ~ Mary (make) jam. 18 The students (work) very well this term. 19 I only (hear) from him twice since he went away. 20 I

(hear) from her regularly. She is a very good correspondent 21 I (grease) my car. Thats why my hands are so dirty 22 I (polish) this table all the morning and she isnt satisfied with it yet. 23 I (work) for him for ten years and he never once (say) Good morning to me. 24 He (teach) in this school for five years. 25 I (teach) hundreds of students but I never (meet) such a hopeless class as this. 26 Why you (be) so long in the garage? ~ The tyres were flat; I (pump) them up. 27 I (pump) up three tyres. Would you like to do the fourth? 28 I (look) for mushrooms but I (not find) any. 29 He (cough) a lot lately. He ought to give up smoking 30 You (hear) the news? Tom and Ann are engaged! ~ Thats not new; I (know) it for ages! 31 I (try) to finish this letter for the last half-hour. I wish youd go away or stop talking ~ I hardly (say) anything. 32 The driver of that car (sound) his horn for the last ten minutes. 33 It (rain) for two hours and the ground is too wet to play on, so the match

(be) postponed. 34 He (hope) for a rise in salary for six months but he (not dare) to ask for it yet. 35 Mr Smith, you (whisper) to the student on your right for the last five minutes. You (help) him with his exam paper or he (help) you? 36 Why you (make) such a horrible noise? ~ I (lose) my key and I (try) to wake my wife by throwing stones at he window. ~ You (throw) stones at the wrong window. You live next door for and since PEG 187 Fill the spaces in the following sentences by using for or since. 1 Weve been fishing . two hours 2 Ive been working in this office . a month 3 Theyve been living in France . 1970 4 He has been in prison . a year 5 Ive known that . a long time 6 That man has been standing there . six oclock 7 She has driven the same car . 1975 8 Things have changed . I was a girl 9 The kettle has been boiling . a quarter of an hour 10 The central heating has been on . October 11 That trunk has been in the hall . a year 12 He has been very ill

. the last month 13 Ive been using this machine . twelve years 14 Weve been waiting . half an hour 15 Mr Pitt has been in hospital . his accident 16 He hasnt spoken to me . the last committee meeting 17 I have been very patient with you . several years 18 They have been on strike . November 19 The strike has lasted . six months 20 It has been very foggy . early morning 21 They have been quarrelling ever . they got married 22 Ive been awake . four oclock 23 Ive been awake . a long time 24 Weve had no gas . the strike began 25 Ive earned my own living . I left school 26 Nobody has seen him . last week 27 The police have been looking for me . four days 28 I havent worn low-heeled shoes . I was at school 29 He had a bad fall last week and . then he hasnt left the house 30 He has been under water . half an hour 31 That tree has been there . 2,000 years 32 He has been Minister of Education . 1983 33 Ive been trying to open this door . forty-five

minutes 34 He hasnt eaten anything . twenty-four hours 35 Weve had terrible weather . the last month 36 Nobody has come to see us . we bought these bloodhounds Future forms The present continuous tense as a future form PEG 202 Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous tense. 1 They are going to drill for oil here. They (start) on Monday 2 My uncle (make) a speech on Friday. 3 I (take) my sister to the ballet tomorrow. 4 She (call) for me at six. 5 He (play) at Wimbledon next summer. 6 I (meet) her at the station at ten. 7 The sales (not start) till Monday. 8 How you (get) to the party tomorrow? ~ I (go) by car. ~ Who (drive)? 9 The piano tuner (come) this afternoon. 10 You (give) him anything for his birthday? ~ Yes, I (give) him a dictionary. 11 The windows (be) cleaned today. Then well be able to see out 12 She (come) out of hospital next week. 13 We (have) dinner early tonight as we (go) to the theatre. 14 Where you (go) for your holidays this year? ~ I (go)

to Holland. 15 He (not give) a lecture tonight. 16 I (have) my photograph taken tomorrow. 17 I (buy) her a burglar alarm for a wedding present. 18 The elections (be) held next week. 19 I (have) lunch with my aunt on Thursday. 20 The committee (meet) next Wednesday. 21 My grandparents (celebrate) their golden wedding next week. 22 I (lend) him my car for his holidays. 23 The strikers (return) to work next week. 24 Smiths (open) a new branch in this street in July. 25 Weve bought a new house and (move) in very soon. 26 I (not take) up judo next winter. 27 They (get) married next week. 28 You (do) anything tonight? ~ Yes, I (go) to my carpentry class. 29 The Prime Minister (fly) to America tomorrow. 30 He (start) a new job on Friday. 31 The Queen (give) a garden party next week. You (go)? 32 My brother (be) released on Tuesday. I (meet) him outside the prison 33 I (catch) the 6.30 plane tomorrow ~ Where you (leave) your car? ~ I (not take) the car. 34 Her mother (send) her to France next

year. 35 I (go) to the dentist tomorrow. Miss Pitt (take) my class 36 I (lend) my flat to my American cousins next year. The be going to form PEG 203,206 Put the verbs in brackets into the be going to form. 1 You (miss) your train. 2 The pressure cooker (explode). 3 When you (pay) the bill? 4 She (dye) the old curtains blue. 5 We (make) this whisky bottle into a lamp. 6 What you (do) with this room? ~ I (paint) the walls in black and white stripes. 7 The umpire (blow) his whistle. 8 You (eat) all that? 9 That man with the tomato in his hand (throw) it at the speaker. 10 That door (slam). 11 The bull (attack)us. 12 It (rain). Look at those clouds 13 The cat (have) kittens. 14 The men in the helicopter (try) to rescue the man in the water. 15 That rider (fall) off. 16 These two men (cycle) across Africa. 17 The Lord Mayor is standing up. He (make) a speech 18 He (grow) a beard when he leaves school. 19 This aeroplane (crash). 20 I (stop) here for a moment to get some petrol. 21 You

(ask) him to help you? 22 Ive lent you my car once. I (not do) it again 23 I have seen the play. Now I (read) the book 24 Small boy: I (be) a frogman when I grow up. 25 I (not sleep) in this room. It is haunted 26 We (buy) a metal detector and look for buried treasure. 27 You (reserve) a seat? 28 I (plant) an oak tree here. 29 The dog (bury) the bone. 30 I (have) a bath. 31 I (smuggle) this out of the country, 32 There was very little blossom this spring. Apples (be) scarce 33 I dont like this macaroni. I (not finish) it 34 I (not stay) here another minute. 35 They (try) him for manslaughter when he comes out of hospital. 36 We (make) a lot of money out of this. The present continuous and the be going to form PEG 202-6 Planned future actions can be expressed by the present continuous tense with a time expression or by the be going to form with or without a time expression. The present continuous is mainly used for very definite arrangements in the near future. The be going to form can

be used more widely. Use the present continuous where possible in the following sentences and put the remaining verbs into the be going to form. 1 I (play) bridge tonight with Tom and Ann. 2 He (have) an operation next week. 3 Its very cold. I (light) a fire 4 We (have) some friends to lunch tomorrow. 5 Ive bought a piano; it (be) delivered this afternoon. ~ Where you (put) it? ~ I (put) it in the dining room. 6 You (go) to the auction tomorrow? ~ Yes, I (go) but I (not buy) anything. 7 Ive reminded you once; I (not do) it again. 8 I (have) my hair cut this afternoon. 9 My nephew (come) to stay with me next weekend. ~ Where you (put) him? ~ I (put) him in the room in the tower. 10 Our class (start) German next term. 11 I (spend) a few days in London next week. 12 The Town Council (build) a new school here. 13 What you (tell) the police? ~ I (tell) them the truth. 14 He (start) tomorrow. 15 The Queen (open) Parliament next month. 16 The Prime Minister (speak) on TV tonight. 17 This

shop (close) down next week. 18 When you (have) your next lesson? ~ I (have) it on Monday. 19 I (collect) my new dress this afternoon. 20 We (take) the children to the seaside this summer. 21 I (give) him a football for his next birthday. 22 She (sing) in her first big concert next month. He (go) to Spain for his holidays. ~ He (fly)? ~ No, he (go) by boat. 24 She (see) a specialist next week. 25 He (wash) the car? 26 He (ring) me up tonight. 27 The inspector (ask) you a few questions. 28 Her parents (give) a party for her next month. They (invite) sixty guests 29 Have you got a ticket for the big match on Saturday? ~ No, I dont even know who (play). ~ France (play) England. 30 They (launch) a ship this afternoon. You (come) to see it? 31 What you (do) with the money? 32 I (pick) you up at 6.30; dont forget 33 Where you (go) tonight? ~ I (go) out with Peter. He (call) for me at eight 34 I (compete) in the bicycle race tomorrow. 35 Mr Pitt has just phoned to say that he (not come) back

till Wednesday night. 36 I (read) you his answer to my letter of complaint. The future simple PEG 207-9 Put the verbs in brackets into the future simple. 1 I (know) the result in a week. 2 You (be) in Rome tonight. 3 You (have) time to help me tomorrow? 4 It (matter) if I dont come home till morning? 5 You (be) able to drive after another five lessons. 6 Do you think that he (recognize) me? 7 Unless he runs he (not catch) the train. 8 He (lend) it to you if you ask him. 9 I hope I (find) it. 10 If petrol pump attendants go on strike we (not have) any petrol. 11 He (believe) whatever you tell him. 12 I (remember) this day all my life. 13 Perhaps he (arrive) in time for lunch. 14 If he works well I (pay) him Ј10. 15 I wonder how many of us still (be) here next year. 16 If you think it over you (see) that I am right. 17 If you learn another language you (get) a better job. 18 I am sure that you (like) our new house. 19 Newspaper announcement: The President (drive) along the High

Street in an open carriage. 20 He (mind) if I bring my dog? 21 You (need) a visa if you are going to Spain. 22 If you open that trapdoor you (see) some steps. 23 You (feel) better when youve had a meal. 24 He (be) offended if you dont invite him. 25 She (have) Ј1000 a year when she is twenty-one. 26 If you put any more polish on that floor someone (slip) on it. 27 I wonder if he (succeed). 28 Papers (not be) delivered on the Bank Holiday. 29 I hope he (remember) to buy wine. 30 If you leave your roller skates on the path someone (fall) over them. 31 If they fall over them and hurt themselves they (sue) you. 32 Announcement: Mrs Pitt (present) the prizes. 33 If you want twenty cigarettes you (have) to give me more money. 34 Notice: The management (not be) responsible for articles left on the seats. 35 If I drop this it (explode). 36 What your father (say) when he hears about this accident? ~ He (not say) much but he not (lend) me the car again. The present continuous and the future

simple PEG 202, 207-9 Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous or the future simple using the present continuous where possible. (The be going to form could be used here instead of the present continuous, but for the sake of simplicity students are advised to use only the two tenses first mentioned.) 1 I am sure that I (recognize) him. 2 I (see) her tomorrow. I 3 He (play) in a tennis match on Friday. 4 She (come) back on Monday. 5 I (go) again next year. 6 We (know) tonight. 7 You pay and I (owe) you the money. 8 I (believe) it when I see it. 9 I (have) my car repainted next week. 10 I hope that you (have) a good time tomorrow. 11 His speech (be) broadcast tonight. 12 The window-cleaner (come) at eight tomorrow. 13 Tom (catch) the 7.40 train 14 Where you (meet) them?~ I (meet) them at midnight in the middle of the wood. 15 What horse you (ride) tomorrow? 16 Look! Ive broken the teapot. What Mrs Pitt (say)? ~ She (not mind); she never liked that one. 17 Ive left the

light on. It (matter)? 18 He (not forget) to come. 19 He (leave) in a few days. 20 I (remember) it. 21 If you drop that bottle it (break). 22 I never (forgive) him. 23 Im sure that you (like) him. 24 They (lay) the foundations next week. 25 You (see) a signpost at the end of the road. 26 He has cut my hair too short. ~ Dont worry; it (grow) again very quickly. 27 You (understand) when you are older. 28 The cat (scratch) you if you pull its tail. 29 I (be) back at 8.30 30 If he doesnt work hard he (not pass) his exam. 31 She (go) on a cruise next summer. 32 I (move) to a new flat next week. 33 I am sorry that the child saw the accident. ~ I dont think it matters. He soon (forget) all about it 34 I (wait) here till he comes back. 35 He (not write) to you unless you write to him. 36 There (be) a big meeting here tomorrow. will + infinitive and the be going to form PEG 201,203-6 Future with intention can usually be expressed by will + infinitive or the be going to form. Very often

either of these can be used, but when the intention is clearly premeditated the be going to form must be used, and when the intention is clearly unpremeditated we must list will + infinitive. Put the verbs in brackets into one of these two forms. (In some of the examples the present continuous could be used instead of the be going to form.) 1 The fire has gone out! ~ So it has. I (go) and get some sticks 2 Did you remember to book seats? ~ Oh no, I forgot. I (telephone) for them now 3 He has just been taken to hospital with a broken leg. ~ Im sorry to hear that. I (send) him some grapes 4 Ive hired a typewriter and I (learn) to type. 5 I see that you have got a loom. You (do) some weaving? 6 I cant understand this letter. ~ I (call) my son. He (translate) it for you 7 You (buy) meat? ~ No, I (not eat) meat any more. I (eat) vegetables 8 Youve bought a lot of paint. You (redecorate) your kitchen? 9 Why are you getting out the jack? ~ We have a puncture and I (change) the wheel. ~ I

(help) you. 10 Look what Ive just bought at an auction! ~ What an extraordinary thing! Where you (put) it? 11 Why are you peeling that bit of garlic? ~ I (put) it in the stew. 12 What you (do) when you grow up? ~ I (be) an acrobat in a circus. 13 What are you going to do with that dress?~ I (shorten) the skirt. 14 Will you lend me your season ticket? ~ No, I (not lend) it to you. It is against the law 15 That tree makes the house very dark. ~ Very well, I (cut) it down. 16 Ive just enrolled at the local technical college. I (attend) pottery classes next winter. 17 How do I get from here to London Bridge? ~ I dont know, but I (ask) that policeman. 18 Why are you carrying a corkscrew? ~ I (open) a bottle of wine. 19 Whys he putting the camera on a tripod? ~ He (take) a group photo. 20 My brother has just returned from America. ~ Oh good, we (ask) him to our next party. 21 Why have you set your alarm to go off at five-thirty? ~ Because I (get) up then. Ive got a lot to do 22 Im

turning this cupboard into a darkroom. I (develop) my own films 23 You look frozen. Sit down by the fire and I (make) you a cup of tea 24 Theyve brought a rope and they (tow) the car to a garage. 25 I havent bought any cigarettes because I (give) up smoking. 26 I have tried to explain but she doesnt understand English. ~ I (say) it to her in Finnish: perhaps shell understand that. 27 Ive come out without any money. ~ Never mind, I (lend) you some. How much do you want? 28 Do you see that car? They (raffle) it for charity. 29 Theyve hired a bulldozer. They (clear) away this rubble 30 Child: Ive torn my dress. Mother: I (mend) it for you. 31 Im catching the 6.30 train ~ So am 1. I (give) you a lift to the station 32 Ive bought some blue velvet and I (make) curtains for this room. 33 Why are you carrying that saw? ~ I (shorten) the legs of the dining room table. 34 Why are you taking that big basket? ~ I (buy) a lot of vegetables. 35 Ive planned my future for the next ten years. ~ That is

very clever of you. What you (do) when you leave the university? 36 Why are you putting that old loaf into a paper bag? ~ I (give) it to Mrs Pitt for her hens. will -i- infinitive and the be going to form PEG 205 Both will you and are you going to can introduce questions about future intentions. But will you very often introduces a request or invitation. For this reason are you going to is more usual than will you in questions about intentions, are you going to must of course be used when the intention is obviously premeditated. (See also Exercise 55) Put the verbs in brackets into one of these two forms. Where both are possible it will be noted in the key. (In some examples the present continuous tense could be used instead of the be going to form.) The exercise contains requests, invitations, and questions about intentions. 1 You (open) the door for me, please? ~ Yes, certainly. 2 You (do) the washing-up tonight? ~ No, I think it can wait till tomorrow. 3 Im looking for my easel. ~

You (paint) someones portrait? 4 You (read) this passage aloud, please, said the examiner. 5 You (eat) any more of this, or shall I tell the waiter to take it away? 6 You arent wearing your climbing boots. You (not climb) the mountain with the others? 7 You (listen) to me! said his mother angrily. 8 You (put) my car away from me, please? ~ Yes, certainly. 9 You (have) another cup of coffee? ~ No, thank you. 10 Why did you buy all these eggs? You (make) an enormous omelette? 11 Theres the phone again. Take no notice ~ You (not answer) it? 12 You (come) and see me after the class? I want to discuss your work with you. 13 I see that you have ordered the Guardian. You really (read) it? 14 You (buy) stamps? ~ Yes, I am. ~ Then you (buy) some for me, please? 15 You (lend) me your fishing rod? ~ Yes, of course. Where you (fish)? 16 You (finish) this book or shall I take it back to the library? 17 You (give) me lOp, please? ~ Yes, here you are. You (make) a telephone call? 18 You (leave)

that coil of barbed wire in the hall? Someone will fall over it if you do. 19 You (bath) your dog? ~ Yes, you (help) me? 20 You (drive), please? I dont like driving at night. 21 You (ride) that horse? He looks very bad-tempered to me. 22 You (eat) it raw? You will be ill if you do. 23 You (have) some of this cake? I made it myself. 24 You really (call) the fire brigade? I dont think it is at all necessary. 25 You (paint) the whole room by yourself? It will take you ages. 26 You (be) ready in five minutes? 27 Hostess: John, you (sit) here at the end of the table? 28 You (do) something for me? ~ Yes, of course; what is it? 29 You (be) angry if he refuses to help you? 30 Why have you brought your typewriter? You (work) this weekend? 31 You (call) me at six? I have to catch an early train. 32 You (walk) there in this rain? Youll get awfully wet. 33 You (sign) here, please? 34 What are all those notes for? You (give) a lecture? 35 Why do you want a candle? You (explore) the caves? 36 If I

catch some fish, you (cook) them for me? The future continuous tense PEG 211-13 This tense can be used 1 with a point in time to indicate that the action will begin before this time and continue after it. 2 with or without a time to express a future without intention. In this way it is very like the present continuous, but it is not, like the present continuous, restricted in time and is a more detached and casual way of expressing the future. It often implies that the action will occur in the ordinary course of events or as a matter of routine. (Except when used as in I, above, this tense can usually be replaced by one of the other future forms, though the exact shade of meaning may then be lost.) Put the verbs in brackets into the future continuous tense. 1 This time next month I (sit) on a beach. 2 When you arrive I probably (pick) fruit. 3 When we reach England it very likely (rain). 4 In a few days time we (fly) over the Pyrenees. 5 Ill call for her at eight. ~ No, dont; she

still (have) breakfast then. 6 I (wait) for you when you come out. 7 When you next see me I (wear) my new dress. 8 My son will be in the sixth form next year. ~ That means that old Dr Adder (teach) him mathematics. 9 Ill give Jack your message. I can do it easily because I (see) him tomorrow We go to work on the same train. 10 You (do) geometry next term. 11 Ill look out for you at the parade. ~ Do, but I (wear) uniform so you may find it hard to recognize me. 12 We have to do night duty here. I (do) mine next week 13 In a hundred years time people (go) to Mars for their holidays. 14 He (use) the car this afternoon. 15 I (see) you again. 16 Its a serious injury but he (walk) again in six weeks. 17 Ill come at three oclock. ~ Good, I (expect) you. 18 They are pulling down all the old houses in this street. I expect they (pull) down mine in a few years time. 19 Id like to see your new flat. ~ Well, come tomorrow, but it (not look) its best, for the painters still (work) on it. 20 Stand

there, they (change) the guard in a minute and youll get a good view. 21 Youd better go back now; your mother (wonder) where you are. 22 In fifty years time we (live) entirely on pills. 23 What do you think the children (do) when we get home? ~ I expect they (have) their supper. 24 The garden (look) its best next month. 25 It wont be easy to get out of the country. The police (watch) all the ports 26 What the tide (do) at six tomorrow morning? ~ It (come) in. 27 Ive just remembered that I left the bathroom taps on. I expect the water (flow) down the stairs by now. 28 You (need) your camera tomorrow or can I borrow it? 29 Weve just got to the top in time. The sun (rise) in a minute 30 Air hostess: We (take off) in a few minutes. Please fasten your safety belts 31 Wed better go out tomorrow because Mary (practise) the piano all day. 32 Dont ring her up at 6.00; she (put) the children to bed Ring later 33 We are making a house-to-house collection of things for the jumble sale. We

(come) to your house next week. 34 That football club has lost some of its players. They (look out) for new men 35 When I get home my dog (sit) at the door waiting for me. 36 Lets go down to the harbour; the fishing boats all (come) in because of the gale. will + infinitive and the future continuous PEG 201, 211-14 See note for previous exercise. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate future form, using will + infinitive or the future continuous. (Where alternative forms are possible they will be given in the key) 1 There is going to be a bus strike. Everyone (walk) to work next 2 Youve just missed the last train! ~ Never mind, I (walk). 3 Ill ring you tomorrow at six. ~ No, dont ring at six; I (bath) the baby then. Ring later 4 Mother: Your face is dirty. Child: All right, I (wash) it. 5 Will you have lunch with me on the 24th? ~ Id love to, but Im afraid I (do) my exam then. 6 I (work) for Mr Pitt next week as his own secretary will be away. 7 You (have) something to drink,

wont you? 8 Why did you take his razor? He (look) for it everywhere tomorrow. 9 I hope youll do well in the race tomorrow. I (think) of you 10 Notice on board ship: In the event of an emergency all passengers (assemble) on the boat deck. 11 I dont feel well enough to go to the station to meet him. ~ I (meet) him for you. But how I (recognize) him? ~ Hes small and fair, and he (wear) a black and white school cap. 12 I (leave) these flowers at the hospital for you. I (go) there anyway visit my cousin 13 You ought to try to get a ticket for the Spectators Gallery next week; they (debate) international fishing rights. 14 Youve left the light on. ~ Oh, so I have. I (go) and turn it off 15 Ive just been appointed assistant at the local library. ~ Then you (work) under my sister. She is head librarian there 16 I want to post this letter but I dont want to go out in the rain. ~ I (post) it for you. I (go) out anyway as I have to take the dog for a walk 17 The prima ballerina is ill so I

expect her understudy (dance) instead. 18 Today is Guy Fawkes Day; this evening people (let) off fireworks and (make) bonfires in the streets. 19 Military order: Sentries (remain) on duty till they are relieved. 20 This time next Monday I (sit) in a Paris cafe reading Le Figaro. ~ You (not read). Youll be looking at all the pretty girls 21 Wages have gone up, so I suppose prices (go up) too. 22 It is nearly autumn; soon the leaves (change) colour. 23 Mother (on phone): My son has just burnt his hand very badly. Doctor: I (come) at once. 24 Customer in restaurant: Waiter, this plate is dirty. Waiter: Im sorry, sir, I (bring) you another. 25 In a few years time we all (live) in houses heated by solar energy. 26 Its beginning to get dark; the street lights (go on) in a few minutes. 27 We (not play) poker at the party tonight; our hostess doesnt approve of cards. 28 Lets wait here; the swing bridge (open) in a minute to let that ship through. 29 Guest: May I use your phone to ring for a

taxi? Hostess: Oh, theres no need for that; my son (drive) you home. 30 Come on deck; we (enter) harbour in a few minutes. 31 Before you leave the office you (hand) the keys of the safe to Mr Pitt. Do you understand?~ Yes, sir. 32 Are you nearly ready? Our guests (arrive) any minute. 33 Loudspeaker announcement: The ship (leave) in a few minutes and all persons not travelling are asked to go ashore. 34 Now that the parking regulations have become stricter, more people (use) public transport and (leave) their cars at home. 35 Ive got rats in my basement and I dont know how to get rid of them. ~ I (bring) my dog round whenever you like. He (catch) them for you 36 Im afraid Ive just broken your goldfish bowl. ~ Never mind, I (put) the goldfish in the bath. wont + infinitive and the future continuous negative PEG 214 wont + infinitive (except when used as part of the ordinary future simple, shall/will) usually implies that the subject refuses to perform a certain action. The negative

future continuous tense merely states that a certain action will not take place. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate future form, using wont + infinitive or the future continuous negative. (Where other future forms are also possible this will be noted in the key.) 1 I dont like that man and I (not help) him. 2 He (not meet) her, because they will be in different places. 3 My husband (not cut) down the tree. He says that it is perfectly all right as it is 4 My husband (not cut) the hedge for some time, because hes got a lot of other jobs to do first. 5 Tom (not come) to our party, because he will be away on that date. 6 Peter says that he (not come) to our party. He doesnt approve of parties 7 She says that she (not lend) me the book, because I never give books back. 8 Mr Pitt (not speak) at the meeting tonight, because he has unexpectedly had to go to hospital. 9 Ill work under anyone except my brother. I (not work) under him 10 Well be in the same firm, but we (not

work) together, because well be in different departments. 11 I (not have) that boy in my class. He is far too noisy 12 I (not teach) you next week, as I have to go to Paris. 13 He is so angry with his sister that he (not speak) to her. 14 Ill give your message to my sister when I write; but I (not write) some time, as I only write once a month and I posted a letter to him yesterday. 15 I (not feed) your dog again. He always tries to bite me when I come near him 16 They were very rude to me. I (not go) there again 17 He said, 1 (not paint) you in that dress. It does not suit you 18 I (not take) any photographs for some time because my camera is being repaired. 19 I (not borrow) his van again. The brakes dont work properly 20 That boy (not wash) his face. He likes being dirty 21 You can have the car tomorrow if you like. I (not use) it as Ill be far too busy to go out. 22 She says that she (not send) the child to school, no matter what we say. She thinks it is far better to educate

children at home. 23 He says he (not play) for them again, because they arent giving him enough money. 24 She (not sing) at the next concert, because she has had to go home suddenly. 25 I (not play) cards with you again. You always cheat 26 She (not take) part in the bridge tournament, because shell be away then. 27 I (not eat) any more of this; I feel queer already. 28 I (not eat) curry again for a long time, because I am going to stay in a house where no one knows how to cook it. 29 He says that he (not ride) that mare again, because shes dangerous. 30 Tom (not ride) in tomorrows race, because he is too young. They dont allow riders under sixteen. 31 Whisky is absolutely necessary to me and I (not give) it up. 32 Jack (not drink) whisky this time next week, because hell be in hospital and they wont give it to him there. 33 I (not open) the window. I dislike fresh air 34 There is something on his mind, but he (not tell) me what it is. 35 The cat (not eat) fish so I have to buy meat

for him. 36 He (not wear) uniform when you see him, because hell be on leave then, and they dont wear uniform when they are on leave. Second person interrogative: will you and other forms PEG 215 B will you? often introduces a request or invitation, and sometimes a command. It is often used also to introduce questions about intentions when the situation requires an unpremeditated decision. You can have either. Which will you have? Youve missed the last train. What will you do now? For other types of intention, however, it is usually safer to use one of the other future forms: be going to, the present continuous or the future continuous (which is considered the most polite form). Put the verbs in brackets into one of the four forms. When more than one answer is possible, this will be noted in the key. 1 Why are you taking all that bread with you? You (feed) the swans? 2 You (let) your flat again next summer? 3 You (light) the fire for me, please? Here are the matches. 4 You (wear)

a tie tomorrow? ~ Oh no. Tom said, Come as you are 5 I know you dont like wearing ties, but (wear) one tomorrow, just to please me? ~ Yes, of course. 6 Shop assistant: You (come) this way, please? 7 You (have) something more to eat?~ Yes, please, Id like another sandwich. 8 You (have) anything more to eat? ~ No, because I havent any more money. 9 You (study) computer programming at college? 10 You (speak) to Tom at the meeting tomorrow, do you think? 11 You (turn) off the TV, please? No one is watching it. 12 You (take) your exam now or in December? 13 You (listen) in to the concert this evening? 14 You (help) me with this, please? I cant lift it. 15 Hotel receptionist: You (stay) for more than one night, Mrs Jones? 16 You (lend) me your typewriter for an hour? I want to type a letter. 17 You (meet) him at the station? ~ No, we never meet him. He doesnt like being met 18 You (come) sailing with me this afternoon? ~ No, thank you, I dont like sailing. 19 You (have) some more wine?~

Yes, please. 20 I cant understand this letter. You (translate) it for me, Miss Pitt? 21 You (use) your camera this afternoon?No, you can borrow it if you like. 22 You (go) to the tobacconists? ~ Yes. ~ Then you (get) me twenty cigarettes? 23 You (come) to the Motor Show with me next Wednesday? ~ Thank you very much. Id love to 24 Ill be going abroad next week. Is there anything I can get you? You (pass) through Paris? ~ Yes, I (spend) a few days there. Then you (get) me some scent? 25 I see that you are repairing your old henhouse. You (keep) hens? 26 Ive just bought my tickets. ~ You (travel) by sea or air? 27 What are all these slates for? You (repair) your roof? 28 You (hold) my parcels, please, while I put up my umbrella? 29 You (go) to Madeira as usual this summer? 30 You kindly (explain) why you didnt do what I told you? 31 You (recognize) him, do you think? 32 Ive chosen a school for my son. ~ You (send) him to a public school or to a State school? 33 Passenger to bus conductor:

You (tell) me where to get off, please 34 You (go) by car? If so, would you give my brother a lift? 35 You (type) all night again? Because if so I think Ill go to a hotel. 36 You (stop) interrupting! Ill never get finished if you dont keep quiet. shall and will PEG 201, 207-8, 233-4 shall is correct for the first person of the future simple (except when this form is used to express intention), but in the affirmative and negative will is very often used instead, i.e we can say, I/we will and I/we wont instead of I/we shall and I/we shant. In the I interrogative will should not be used to replace shall. There are some rather old-fashioned or formal constructions where shall is used with the second or third persons. Here shall cannot be replaced by will Such constructions are usually avoided but a few examples have been given below. Use will or shall to fill the spaces in the following sentences. Sometimes either could be used. 1 When you are in bed I . be at work 2 Wholl help me?~

I . 3 We will unite to resist oppression, and tyrants . not triumph over us ( We wont let them triumph.) 4 What . we do now? ~ Wait. 5 Youve been a good child, and when we get home you . have a sweet {Ill give you a sweet.) 6 Your father . hear of this {Ill certainly tell him) 7 .we go to the cinema? ~ Yes, lets. 8 She . tell the same story over and over again {obstinate insistence) 9 Club rule: Members . write the names of their guests in the book provided 10 Theatre regulation: Persons . not be permitted to sit in the gangways 11 Where . I be in six years time, I wonder? 12 He . not come here again {He refuses) 13 He . not come here again (/ wont let him come) 14 Clause in lease: The tenant . be responsible for all repairs 15 This kind of snake . not bite unless it is startled 16 . you have a cigarette? ~ No, thanks, I dont smoke. 17 He . play his radio very loudly, which annoys me very much {obstinate insistence) 18 By this time next year I . be earning

my own living 19 Who . take this letter to the post for me? ~ I . 20 What . we do with all the food thats left over? 21 Do you know the way? No? Then I . show you 22 Where . I put it? ~ Put it behind the piano. 23 Police notice: . anyone who witnessed the accident please ring 24 Yachts . go round the course, passing the marks in the correct order {extract from Yacht Racing Rules) 25 When . you hear the result? ~ I . not hear for another week 26 1 . not apologize, she said, stamping her foot 27 Who . I say called? ~ You neednt mention my name. He know who I am 28 She . never do anything you tell her 29 I . not be here next week 30 I . not have to do any cooking for a month Im going to an hotel 31 . I put it on your desk? ~ Please do. 32 I . fill up this form! The questions are impertinent ~ If you dont, madam, you . (negative) get your visa 33 34 35 36 . you stand quite still for a moment, please? . I put more salt in the stew? A dog . obey

his owner but a cat not I . know whether you are telling the truth or not Time clauses PEG 342 The future simple is not used in time clauses, the simple present tense being used instead. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (present or future). 1 When he (return) Ill give him the key. 2 Hell be ready as soon as you (be). 3 Ill stay in bed till the clock (strike) seven. 4 She will be delighted when she (hear) this. 5 When the laundry comes I (have) some clean handkerchiefs. 6 I shant buy tomatoes till the price (come) down. 7 Stay here till the lights (turn) green. 8 When it (get) cold Ill light the fire. 9 The lift (not start) until you press that button. 10 Shell have to behave better when she (go) to school. 11 When you look at yourself in the glass you (see) what I mean. 12 He (be) here before you go. 13 I (lend) you my cassette recorder whenever you want it. 14 He (wake) up when we turn the lights on. , 15 He (ring) us up when he arrives in England? 16 He will

wash up before he (go) to bed. 17 I wont come to London till the bus strike (be) over. 18 I (give) the children their dinner before he (come) home. 19 They will be astonished when they (see) how slowly he works. 20 Ill pay you when I (get) my cheque. 21 I (go) on doing it until he tells me to stop. 22 Ill buy that house when I (have) enough money. 23 You (fall) rapidly through the air till your parachute opens. 24 Well have to stay here till the tide (go) out. 25 When the Queen (arrive) the audience will stand up. 26 When the fog (lift) well be able to see where we are. 27 The refrigerator (go on) making that noise till we have it repaired. 28 As soon as the holidays begin this beach (become) very crowded. 29 The car (not move) till you take the brake off. 30 The alarm bell (go on) ringing till you press this button. 31 As soon as she (learn) to type Ill get her a job. 32 Look before you (leap). (proverb) 33 We (have) to stay on this desert island till we can repair our boat. 34

Dont count on a salary increase before you actually (get) it. 35 When winter (begin) the swallows will fly away to a warmer country. 36 We cant make any decision till he (arrive) here. The future perfect tense PEG 216 Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense. 1 In a fortnights time we (take) our exam. 2 I (finish) this book by tomorrow evening. 3 By this time tomorrow we (have) our injections. 4 By the end of next year I (be) here twenty-five years. 5 Ill still be here next summer but Tom (leave). 6 I (finish) this job in twenty minutes. 7 By next winter they (build) four houses in that field. 8 When we reach Valparaiso we (sail) all round the world. 9 At the rate he is going he (spend) all his money by the time he is twenty-one. 10 By this time next year I (save) Ј250. 11 By the time we get to the party everything (be) eaten. 12 The train (leave) before we reach the station. 13 If I continue with my diet I (lose) 10 kilos by the end of the month. 14 By the end of my

university course I (attend) 1,200 lectures. 15 By the end of this week my illness (cost) me Ј100. 16 By the time that he leaves school his parents (spend) Ј25,000 on his education. 17 By the end of the term I (read) all twelve volumes. 18 When you come back I (finish) all the housework. 19 The police (hear) of the theft by this time. 20 We (drink) all that wine by the end of the year. 21 On the fourth of next month he (be) in prison for ten years. 22 When we reach Crewe we (do) half of the journey. 23 At this rate you (break) all the wine glasses by the end of the month. 24 If we dont hurry the sun (rise) before we reach the top. 25 Im going to Hyde Park to hear the people making speeches. ~ Youll be too late. By the time you get there they (finish) their speeches and everybody (go) home. 26 By midnight he (be) unconscious for forty-eight hours. 27 By the end of the month 5,000 people (see) this exhibition. 28 By next April I (pay) Ј3,000 in income tax. 29 I suppose that when I

come back in ten years time all these old houses (be) pulled down. 30 On 21 October they (be) married for twenty-five years. 31 After this performance I (see) Hamlet twenty-two times. 32 The strike leader said, By midnight 500 men (come) out on strike. 33 At your present rate you (burn) all that coal by the end of the month, 34 The treasurer said, By the end of the year all our debts (be paid) off. 35 Tourist: Weve only got five hours in Rome; we are leaving but Im sure that we (see) everything of importance by then. 36 Householder to Zoo: One of your elephants is in my garden eating my tomatoes. Zoo official: The elephant keeper will be with you in half an hour. Householder: Your elephant (eat) all my tomatoes by then. Time clauses PEG 342 The future perfect tense is not used in time clauses, the present perfect being used instead. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense, using the future, present, or present perfect. Compare I to 5 with I to 5 in Exercise 58 1 When we

(take) our exam well have a holiday. 2 When I (finish) the book Ill lend it to you. 3 When we (have) our injections I expect well feel awful. 4 When I (be) here for a year Ill ask for a rise. 5 When Tom (go) Ill tell you a secret. 6 By the time he (get) back from his holiday the milkman will have left twenty-one bottles of milk outside his door. 7 Dont drive at more than 50 k.ph till your car (do) 4,000 kilometres 8 When you (do) 4,000 kilometres you can drive it at 70 k.ph 9 When you open the safe you (see) a small black box. 10 When we (have) lunch well go for a walk. 11 When the bell rings I (take) the meat out of the oven. 12 Ill bolt all the doors before I (go) to bed. 13 When we (see) the cathedral well go to the museum. 14 Well have to stay up this tree till the bull (go) away. 15 He (not let) you out till you have finished your homework. 16 As soon as I hear from him I (let) you know. 17 My father will be furious when he (see) what you have done. 18 You (not hear) the sound of

the explosion till after you have seen the flash. 19 These gates will remain shut until the train (pass). 20 When he (sell) all his newspapers hell go home. 21 We cant have a fire here until we (sweep) the chimney. 22 You (get) a shock when you open that box. 23 When you are eighteen your father (give) you a latchkey. 24 Dont jump out of the aeroplane until the pilot (say) Go! 25 I cant leave the country till the police (return) my passport. 26 When a bottle of champagne (be) opened for twenty-four hours the wine is not fit to drink. 27 Hotel receptionist: When you (sign) the hotel register the porter will show you your room. 28 You (not know) how good oysters are till you have tasted one. 29 That road will not be safe till the floods (subside). 30 When everybody (leave) the park the park-keeper will lock the gates. 31 When we have seen the Chamber of Horrors we (have) a cup of tea. 32 When you (have) something to eat youll feel better. 33 I (stay) in court till the jury returns.

34 You cannot become a member of this club until you (make) a parachute descent. 35 When the boa constrictor (eat) the goat he will become very lethargic. 36 As soon as everybody has gone to bed the mice (come) out of their holes. would and should PEG 140-1, 230-2, 235-7 Put should or would in the spaces in the following sentences. 1 . you mind opening the door? 2 . you like another cup of coffee? 3 He insisted that the newspaper . print an apology 4 The old admiral . sit for hours watching the ships 5 . you be so good as to keep an eye on my house while I am away? 6 I . say nothing about it if I were you 7 That dress doesnt suit you; you . buy another 8 If you pulled the communication cord the train . stop and you be fined 9 They went to the cinema at 2.30, so they be back here by 600 10 . you please help me with this? 11 It is very strange that he . think that 12 I wish he . not play his radio so loudly 13 . you be very kind and lend me your typewriter?

14 I . like to know where you have been 15 It was decided that the matter . be referred to a special committee 16 Perhaps you . be kind enough to let us know about this 17 If the telephone . ring please say that Ill be back at six 18 . you like to come or you rather stay here? 19 There are too many accidents. Everyone be much more careful 20 Their method was always the same; they . wait till their victim had left the bank and then go up to him and ask for a light. 21 What are you doing here? You . be in bed 22 It is essential that this matter . be kept out of the newspapers 23 He suggested that the money . be raised by public subscription 24 If you . change your mind, this address will always find me 25 If this machine . at any time fail to give complete satisfaction please post us the enclosed card. 26 He changed his name so that nobody . know what he had been before 27 If he offered me money I . refuse 28 I wish you . not ask so many questions 29 He

ordered that Tom . leave the house at once 30 I . be most grateful if you do this for me 31 He is anxious that everyone . understand why he acted as he did 32 You . not argue with your father; you obey him 33 He was a very patient cat; he . sit for hours beside a mousehole 34 . the pain return take one of these pills 35 It is most important that I . see him at once 36 He didnt dare (to) sell the ring in case someone . ask where he got it would and should PEG 140-1, 230-2, 235-7 Put should or would in the spaces in the following sentences: 1 It is only fair that you . know the truth about your own father and it is better that you . hear it from me than from some stranger 2 If you . kindly wait here a moment Ill ring the directors office 3 . these measures fail to restore order harsher restrictions will have to be imposed 4 The rocks were icy and he was terrified lest he . slip 5 If Pierre liked any dish he . send for the chef and congratulate him,

and if anything was wrong he . send for the manager and complain ~ An Englishman . never dare to do that; he be too shy 6 I was just burying the bones in the garden when who . look over the hedge but the village policeman. 7 When he found out that the man had smallpox he urged that every effort . be made to contact his fellow passengers. 8 I wish you . go out or sit down How you like it if I kept tramping round when you were trying to work? 9 Ive just received an anonymous threatening letter. What I do about it? ~ I . take it to the police if I were you 10 The committee thinks that you have been guilty of disloyalty. ~ I dont know why the committee . think that 11 I cant repair it now but if you . like to leave it with me Ill see what can b6 done 12 You complained to the manager, of course? ~ No, I asked to speak to him but he . not come to the phone ~ You . have insisted 13 Where will he be now? ~ Oh, he . be there by now; the flight only takes an hour

14 If your main parachute . fail to open, your second one will open automatically 15 I suggested that Tom . walk on and try to get help while I stayed with the injured man but he . not hear of this 16 I am amazed that you . even suggest offering bribes 17 This passage doesnt lead anywhere. It is odd that no one have noticed this before 18 . you mind not smoking; this is the petrol store ~ Then there . be a No Smoking notice 19 Cant I trust you not to read my letters? It is ridiculous that I . have to lock things up in my own house. 20 He said he wished I . not come so often 21 This train is entirely automatic; there is no driver; but a mechanic is always available in case anything . go wrong 22 She had one rather boring habit; she . insist on telling people about her dreams 23 He recommended that the trouble makers in the factory . be dismissed 24 It is absurd that women . be paid less than men for doing the same work 25 1. rather you asked him Last time

I tried to speak to him he not listen 26 When he went out he left the radio on so that his parents . think that he was still in his room. 27 He was determined that his children . go to the best schools available 28 Tom says you arc foolish to take such a risk. ~ He .! {That is typical of him) 29 When four hours had passed and there was still no sign of him she began to be worried lest he . have met with some accident 30 People are very fond of saying, This . be stopped, or, Something . be done about this, but if they were the government they not know how to stop it or what to do about it. 31 It is amazing that the Leaning Tower of Pisa . have stood for so long 32 He resigned from the government in order that everyone . know that he disapproved of the new policy. 33 If I had had his education and he had had mine perhaps I . be sitting at his desk and he . be out here sweeping the streets, 34 He was a terribly obstinate child, who . never obey the simplest

order, but argue every point till she nearly went mad. 35 Robinson said, Why . Smith get all the credit when someone else has done all the work? 36 All day he. sit in his office immaculately dressed, but at night he put on dirty ragged clothing and roam about the streets with disreputable companions. Conditionals Conditional sentences: type I PEG 221 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. 1 If I see him I (give) him a lift. 2 The table will collapse if you (stand) on it. 3 If he (eat) all that he will be ill. 4 If I find your passport I (telephone) you at once. 5 The police (arrest) him if they catch him. 6 If he (read) in bad light he will ruin his eyes. 7 Someone (steal) your car if you leave it unlocked. 8 What will happen if my parachute (not open)? 9 If he (wash) my car Ill give him Ј10. 10 If she (need) a radio she can borrow mine. 11 If you (not go) away Ill send for the police. 12 Ill be very angry if he (make) any more mistakes. 13 If he (be) late

well go without him. 14 She will be absolutely furious if she (hear) about this. 15 If you put on the kettle I (make) the tea. 16 If you give my dog a bone he (bury) it at once. 17 If we leave the car here it (not be) in anybodys way. 18 Hell be late for the train if he (not start) at once. 19 If you come late they (not let) you in. 20 If he (go) on telling lies nobody will believe a word he says. 21 Unless he (sell) more he wont get much commission. 22 If I lend you Ј10 when you (repay) me? 23 Well have to move upstairs if the river (rise) any higher. 24 If he (work) hard today can he have a holiday tomorrow? 25 Ice (turn) to water if you heat it. 26 If the house (burn) down we can claim compensation. 27 If you (not like) this one Ill bring you another. 28 Unless you are more careful you (have) an accident. 29 Tell him to ring me up if you (see) him. 30 If I tell you a secret, you (promise) not to tell it to anyone else? 31 If you (not believe) what I say, ask your mother. 32 If he

(like) the house will he buy it? 33 If you will kindly sit down I (make) enquiries for you. 34 Unless I have a quiet room I (not be able) to do any work. 35 She wont open the door unless she (know) who it is. 36 Should you require anything else please (ring) the bell for the attendant. Conditional sentences: type 2 PEG 222 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. 1 If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself. 2 If I (know) his address Id give it to you. 3 He (look) a lot better if he shaved more often. 4 If you (play) for lower stakes you wouldnt lose so much. 5 If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many mistakes. 6 I shouldnt drink that wine if I (be) you. 7 More tourists would come to this country if it (have) a better climate. 8 If I were sent to prison you (visit) me? 9 If someone (give) you a helicopter what would you do with it? 10 I (buy) shares in that company if I had some money. 11 If he (clean) his windscreen hed be able to see where he was going. 12 If you drove

your car into the river you (be able) to get out? 13 If you (not belong) to a union you couldnt get a job. 14 If I (win) a big prize in a lottery Id give up my job. 15 What you (do) if you found a burglar in your house? 16 I could tell you what this means if I (know) Greek. 17 If everybody (give) Ј1 we would have enough. 18 He might get fat if he (stop) smoking. 19 If he knew that it was dangerous he (not come). 20 If you (see) someone drowning what would you do? 21 I (be) ruined if I bought her everything she asked for. - 22 If you slept under a mosquito net you (not be) bitten so often. 23 I could get a job easily if I (have) a degree. 24 If she (do) her hair differently she might look quite nice. 25 If we had more rain our crops (grow) faster. 26 The whole machine would fall to pieces if you (remove) that screw 27 I (keep) a horse if I could afford it. 28 Id go and see him more often if he (live) on a bus route. 29 If they (ban) the sale of alcohol at football matches there

might be less violence. 30 I (offer) to help if I thought Id be any use. 31 What would you do if the lift (get) stuck between two floors? 32 If you (paint) the walls white the room would be much brighter. 33 If you (change) your job would it affect your pension? 34 If you knew you had only six weeks to live how you (spend) those six weeks? 35 You wouldnt have so much trouble with your car if you (have) it serviced regularly. 36 Id climb over the wall if there (not be) so much broken glass on t of it. Conditional sentences: type 3 PEG 223 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 If I had known that you were in hospital I (visit) you. The ground was very soft. But for that, my horse (win) If you (arrive) ten minutes earlier you would have got a seat. You would have seen my garden at its best if you (be) here last week. But for his quickness I (be) killed. I shouldnt have believed it if I (not see) it with my own eyes. If he

had slipped he (fall) 500 metres. If he had asked you, you (accept)? If I (had) a map I would have been all right. If I (know) that you were coming Id have baked a cake. I (offer) to help him if I had realized that he was ill. If you had left that wasp alone it (not sting) you. If I (realize) what a bad driver you were I wouldnt have come with you. If I had realized that the traffic lights were red I (stop). But for the fog we (reach) our destination ages ago. If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend) him the money. If you (not sneeze) he wouldnt have known that we were there. If you (put) some mustard in the sandwiches they would have tasted better. The hens (not get) into the house if you had shut the door. If he had known that the river was dangerous he (not try) to swim across it. 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 If you (speak) more slowly he might have understood you. If he had known the whole story he (not be) so angry. I shouldnt have eaten

it if I (know) that there was ginger in it. If I (try) again I think that I would have succeeded. You (not get) into trouble if you had obeyed my instructions. If you hadnt been in such a hurry you (not put) sugar into the sauce instead of salt. If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him. She had a headache; otherwise she (come) with us. If she had listened to my directions she (not turn) down the wrong street. If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would have seen what was missing. Rome (be captured) by her enemies if the geese hadnt cackled. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. I (take) a taxi if I had realized that it was such a long way. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you had told me where you were going. They would have forced their way into the house if I (not call) for help. If he had put out his pipe before putting it in his pocket he (not burn) a hole in his coat. Conditional sentences: mixed types PEG 221– 6 Put the

verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 If you (find) a skeleton in the cellar dont mention it to anyone. If you pass your examination we (have) a celebration. What (happen) if I press this button? I should have voted for her if I (have) a vote then. If you go to Paris where you (stay)? If someone offered to buy you one of those rings, which you (choose)? The flight may be cancelled if the fog (get) thick. If the milkman (come) tell him to leave two pints. Someone (sit) on your glasses if you leave them there. You would play better bridge if you (not talk) so much. What I (do) if I hear the burglar alarm? If you (read) the instructions carefully you wouldnt have answered the wrong question. 13 I could repair the roof myself if I (have) a long ladder. 14 Unless they turn that radio off I (go) mad. 15 If you were made redundant what you (do)? 16 Well have a long way to walk if we (run) out of petrol here. 17 If you shake that bottle of port it (not be) fit

to drink. 18 Ill probably get lost unless he (come) with me. 19 You (not have) so many accidents if you drove more slowly. 20 If you (wear) a false beard nobody would have recognized you. 21 If she (leave) the fish there the car will get it. 22 Unless they leave a lamp beside that hole in the road somebody into it. 23 Youll get pneumonia if you (not change) your wet clothes. 24 If I had known that you couldnt eat octopus I (not buy) it. 25 If they (hang) that picture lower people would be able to see it. 26 She (be able) to walk faster if her shoes hadnt such high heels. 27 I (bring) you some beer if I had known that you were thirsty. 28 If you had touched that electric cable you (be) electrocuted. 29 If the story hadnt been true the newspaper (not print) it. 30 I (not buy) things on the installment system if I were you. 31 Dial 999 if you (want) Police, Ambulance, or Fire Brigade. 32 You (not be) any use to me unless you learn to type. 33 If anyone attacked me, my dog (jump) at

his throat. 34 If he were in he (answer) the phone. 35 The ship would have run aground if the pilot (make) one mistake. 36 I shouldnt have taken your umbrella if I (know) that it was the only one you had. Conditional sentences: mixed types PEG 221-6 Finish these sentences, taking care to use the correct tenses. 1 If he had taken my advice . 2 If you ate less . 3 Well send for the doctor if . 4 If she practised more . 5 If there isnt enough wine in that bottle . 6 If you had checked the petrol before we started . 7 This clock wouldnt have run down if . 8 Try on the blue one if . 9 If these gates are locked . 10 If we leave before breakfast . 11 If the river rises any higher . 12 Her life might have been saved if . 13 If the volcano starts erupting . 14 The grass would look better if . 15 Unless it is a nice day . 16 If you dont put enough stamps on a letter, the person who gets it . 17 He would lend it to you if . 18 Unless this hotel gets another cook .

19 If the storm becomes worse . 20 If your uncle sees you . 21 If you tried to climb it without a guide . 22 If you didnt shake the camera so much, your photographs . 23 Id have brought my coat . 24 If (=as) you dont like the picture . 25 He would have given her diamonds if . 26 If you had asked his permission . 27 If the fire had been noticed earlier . 28 If you had any sense . 29 You would have been angry if . 30 If he had put the flowers into water at once . 31 I should have ordered more coal if . 32 If you leave the gate open . 33 You will have to go to the dentist if . 34 He would have been drowned if . 35 If Id had a car . 36 If Tom rings while Im out . Mixed tenses and verb forms PEG 221-6, 283-4 Conditional forms are used in requests. Fill the gaps in the following dialogue with a suitable verb form. Telephone conversation . 1 Ann: . I to Mr Wash, please? 2 Wash: Wash . 3 Ann: Good morning, Mr Wash. This is Ann Jones of 10 Cyprus

Road . you come and my windows one Saturday this month? 4 Wash: Im afraid 1. (negative) The next six Saturdays are ahead booked 5 But I. on Wednesday morning 6 Ann: . you very early on Wednesday? I leave at 815 on weekdays 7 Wash: I. to you by 830 that be early enough? 8 Ann: No, it .! There be nobody to let you in I. the flat at 815 9 Wash: Oh 8.15! 1 you 830! 10 Well, I suppose 1. to you by 800 as youre an old customer But I . (negative) a habit of it 11 It means . breakfast at 6 and my wife (negative) that 12 She . always to persuade me to give up window as it She . its dangerous 13 Ann: What . she you instead? 14 Wash: Her father has a shop and she. me in it 15 She .it be a nice steady job with regular hours, 16 And if 1. in a shop she where I was 17 Ann: And . you really , of giving it up? 18 Wash: No, I . the life At least, I it in summer 19 Besides, I . bored working in a shop 20 Well, . Wednesday at 800 you then, Miss

Jones? 21 Ann: Yes, it . be splendid Its very good of you so early 22 I . let you in and you can yourself out 23 You . shut the door carefully after you, (negative interrogative) you? 24 Wash: Yes, of course 1.I always Goodbye, Miss Jones Infinitive Full or bare infinitive PEG 246 Insert to where necessary before the infinitives in brackets. 1 He made me (do) it all over again. 2 She can (sing) quite well. 3 He will be able (swim) very soon. 4 I used (live) in a caravan. 5 You ought (go) today. It may (rain) tomorrow 6 You neednt (say) anything. Just nod your head and he will (understand) 7 I want (see) the house where our president was born. 8 He made her (repeat) the message. 9 May I (use) your phone? 10 You neednt (ask) for permission; you can (use) it whenever you like. 11 If you want (get) there before dark you should (start) at once. 12 I couldnt (remember) his address. 13 Youll be able (do) it yourself when you are older. 14 Would you like (go) now or

shall we (wait) till the end? 15 They wont let us (leave) the Customs shed till our luggage has been examined. 16 How dare you (open) my letters! 17 He didnt dare (argue) with his boss. 18 I used (smoke) forty cigarettes a day. 19 Will you help me (move) the bookcase? 20 He wouldnt let my baby (play) with his gold watch. 21 They refused (accept) the bribe. 22 He is expected (arrive) in a few days. 23 Please let me (know) your decision as soon as possible. 24 He made us (wait) for hours. 25 Could you (tell) me the time, please? 26 We must (send) him a telegram. 27 I let him (go) early as he wanted (meet) his wife. 28 Where would you like (have) lunch? 29 You can (leave) your dog with us if you dont (want) (take) him with you. 30 Id like him (go) to a university but I cant (make) him (go). 31 We could (go) to a concert, unless youd prefer (visit) a museum. 32 You seem (know) this area very well. ~ Yes, I used (live) here. 33 The kidnappers told the parents (not inform) the police, and

the parents didnt dare (disobey). 34 Need I (come)? Id much rather (stay) at home. 35 You can (take) a horse to water but you cant (make) him (drink). (proverb) 36 Im sorry (disappoint) you but I cant (let) you (have) any more money till the end of the month. Full or bare infinitive PEG 246 Insert to where necessary before the infinitives in brackets. (In of the sentences a present participle could be used instead of an infinitive. These alternatives will be noted in the key.) 1 It is easy (be) wise after the event. 2 Do you (wish) (make) a complaint? 3 We dont (want) anybody (know) that we are here. 4 If you cant (remember) his number youd better (look) it up. 5 I want her (learn) Esperanto; I think everybody ought to (know) it? 6 He is said (be) the best surgeon in the country. 7 Visitors are asked (not feed) the animals. 8 Could I (see) Mr Pitt, please?Im afraid Mr Pitt isnt in. Would you like (speak) to his secretary 9 Its better (travel) hopefully than (arrive), (proverb) 10

He should (know) how (use) the film projector, but if he doesnt had better (show) him. 11 He was made (sign) a paper admitting his guilt. 12 I heard the door (open) and saw a shadow (move) across the floor. 13 He tried (make) me (believe) that he was my stepbrother. 14 As we seem (have missed) the train we may as well (go) back to the house. 15 I felt the house (shake) with the explosion, 16 He told me (try) (come) early. 17 Before he let us (go) he made us (promise) (not tell) anyone what had seen. 18 Would you (like) (come) in my car? ~ No, thanks. Id rather (walk) 19 I advised him (ask) the bus conductor (tell) him where (get) off. 20 It is better (put) your money in a bank than (keep) it under your bed in an old stocking. 21 He doesnt even bother (read) letters, let alone (answer) them. 22 The bank robbers made the cashier (show) them how (open) the safe. 23 If you knew he was wrong, why didnt you (say) something? ~ I didnt like (say) anything because he always gets angry if you

contradict him. 24 Its better (be) sure than sorry. 25 What do you (want) me (tell) him? ~ Tell him that any time he cares (call) I shall be delighted (discuss) the matter with him. 26 Did you remember (give) him the money? ~ No, I didnt, I still have it in my pocket; but Ill (see) him tonight and I promise (not forget) this time. 27 I saw the driver (open) his window and (throw) a box into the bushes. 28 That is far too heavy for one person (carry); let me (help) you. 29 I was afraid (pick) up the revolver as I dont know how (handle) firearms. 30 I saw the plane (crash) into the hill and (burst) into flames. 31 There is nothing (do) but (wait) till somebody comes (let) us out. 32 He heard a cock (crow) in a neighbouring village. 33 You may as well (tell) us the truth. It will (be) easy (check) your story 34 The American said he had seen nine presidents (come) and (go). ~ He must (be) a very old man. 35 It is up to you (learn) the laws of your own country. 36 Would you rather (be)

more stupid than you look or (look) more stupid than you are? Infinitive represented by to PEG 247 In each of the following pairs of sentences an infinitive used in the first sentence is repeated in the second. Read the sentences, expressing this second infinitive by to only Note that where the second infinitive has an object, this word/phrase must be omitted. Why didnt you tell me the truth the first time?I meant to tell you the truth but I was too frightened. I meant to but I was too frightened. 1 Did you visit the Pyramids? ~ No, I wanted to visit them but there wasnt time. 2 Why do you wear dark glasses? ~ I have to wear them; I have weak eyes. 3 Do you smoke? ~ No, I used to smoke but I dont now. 4 Would you like to go to the theatre tonight? ~ Yes, Id love to go to the theatre. 5 Why didnt you pay the bill for him? ~ I offered to pay it but he refused. 6 Have you put the car in the garage? ~ No, but Im just going to put it there. 7 I want you two to apologize to each other. ~

Well. lam willing to apologize it he apologizes first 8 Did you reserve seats on the train? ~ No. I tried to reserve them but they had all been booked already 9 Did you answer the letter? ~ No, I intended to answer it but Im afraid I forgot 10 Why didnt you hit him? ~ I was afraid to hit him. 11 Id love to spend a night in a haunted room. ~ Id hate to spend a night in a haunted room. 12 Why didnt you ask your father for the money? ~ I didnt like to ask him. 13 Did you get a chance to fly the aeroplane yourself? ~ No, I wanted to fly it but the pilot wouldnt let me. 14 Why doesnt he punish his boys when they disobey him? ~ He often threatens to punish them but he never actually does so. 15 Why didnt he repair the car himself? ~ He wasnt able to repair it. 16 I used to drink whisky with my meals. ~ I used to drink whisky with my meals also but I dont now. 17 Did you buy sausages?~ No, I meant to buy them but I forgot. 18 Why doesnt he try again?~ He doesnt want to try again. 19 You

should visit the Prado when you are in Madrid.~ Yes. I intend to visit it 20 Why doesnt he play games? ~ His mother doesnt want him to play games. 21 You ought to stop work now. ~ Yes, I am just going to stop. 22 Why do some jockeys carry extra weights?~ They are obliged to carry them by the regulations. 23 Did he help you?~ No, I asked him to help me but he said he hadnt time. 24 You should have thanked her before you left. ~ I meant to thank her but when I was going I couldnt find her anywhere. 25 Why did she put parsley in the soup?~ I told her to put it in. 26 Why didnt he report it to the police?~ He was afraid to report it. He didnt think theyd believe him 27 Why did he drive so fast? ~ He had to drive fast; otherwise hed have missed his train. 28 You used to like rice pudding. ~ Yes, I know I used to like it but I dont now. 29 Why didnt you buy the car? ~ I was advised not to buy it. 30 I hope the children wont go near the water. ~ I warned them not to go near it. 31 Why are we

trying to get planning permission? ~ We have to get planning permission. It is the law 32 I meant to work hard. ~ I know you meant to work hard but you didnt. 33 Do the boys tidy their own rooms? ~ They are supposed to tidy them but they dont always. 34 Why didnt he call the police. ~ He wasnt able to call them. His telephone line had been cut 35 Why did you move your car? ~ The policeman told me to move it. 36 Why did you bring your mother-in-law? I particularly asked you not to bring her. too/enough/so . as with infinitive PEG 252 Combine each of the following pairs of sentences into one sentence using too/enough with infinitive. It is very cold. We cant go out It is too cold for us to go out. He is strong. He can carry it He is strong enough to carry it. Rewrite numbers 3, 20, and 35 using so . as with infinitive (enough with infinitive could also be used here, while so . as could replace enough in numbers 9, 24, and 29. These alternatives are given in the key) 1 You are

very young. You cant have a front-door key 2 It is very cold. We cant bathe 3 Would you be very kind and answer this letter by return? 4 I am rather old. I cant wear that kind of hat 5 The ladder wasnt very long. It didnt reach the window 6 He hadnt much money. He couldnt live on it (Omit it) 7 He was furious. He couldnt speak 8 The fire isnt very hot. It wont boil a kettle 9 Tom was very foolish. He told lies to the police 10 You are quite thin. You could slip between the bars 11 He is very ill. He cant eat anything 12 Our new car is very wide. It wont get through those gates 13 The floor wasnt strong. We couldnt dance on it (Omit it) 14 I was terrified. I couldnt move 15 The bull isnt big. He couldnt harm you 16 The coffee isnt strong. It wont keep us awake 17 The river is deep. We cant wade it (Omit it) 18 He is lazy. He wont get up early 19 He wont get up early so he never catches the fast train. 20 Would you be very good and forward my letters while I am away? 21 The ice is quite

thick. We can walk on it (Omit it) 22 He was very drunk. He couldnt answer my question 23 It is very cold. We cant have breakfast in the garden 24 He was extremely rash. He set off up the mountain in a thick fog 25 We arent very high. We cant see the summit 26 You arent very old. You cant understand these things 27 He was very snobbish. He wouldnt talk to any of us 28 The package is very thick. I cant push it through the letterbox (Omit it) 29 She was very mean. She never gave to charity 30 He is very impatient. He never listens to anyone 31 32 33 34 35 36 I was very tired. I couldnt walk any further Its not very dark. We cant see the stars clearly It was very hot. You could fry an egg on the pavement The oranges were very bitter. We couldnt eat them (Omit them) Would you be very kind and turn down the radio a little? He is very selfish. He wouldnt put himself out for anyone Various infinitive constructions PEG 26-7, 114, 239, 249-50 Replace the group of words in italics by an

infinitive or an infinitive construction. It is important that he should understand this. It is important/or him to understand this. He was the first man who arrived. He was the first man to arrive. 1 The captain was the last man who left the ship. 2 He got to the top and was very disappointed when he found that someone else had reached it first. 3 The committee have decided to send you to Paris. (You (go) to Par omit The committee have decided to send.) 4 Would you be very kind and lend me your umbrella? 5 There are a lot of sheets that need mending. 6 I was astonished when I heard that he had left the country. 7 It is better that he should hear it from you. 8 I was rude to him, which was stupid. (It was stupid ) 9 If he had another child with whom he could play, he would be happier 10 It is necessary that everyone should know the truth. 11 There was no place where we could sit. 12 He put his hand into his pocket and was astonished when he found that his wallet wasnt there. 13 He

rushed into the burning house, which was very brave of him. (It was very brave . ) 14 I cant go to the party; I have nothing that I can wear. 15 It is expected that he will broadcast a statement tonight. (He is expected) 16 I want a kitchen where ( = in which) I can cook. 17 He reached the station exhausted and was very disappointed when he learnt that the train had just left. 18 Havent you anything with which you could open it? 19 It seems that the crime was committed by a left-handed man. (The crime seems . Use perfect infinitive passive) 20 Is it likely that he will arrive before six? (Is he . ) 21 I was on the point of leaving the house when the phone rang. 22 This is the plan: someone will meet you at the station . (You . (be met) at the station) 23 She is anxious that they should have every possible advantage. 24 It is said that he was a brilliant scientist. (He is said ) 25 The strikers decided that the strike should continue. 26 Would you be very kind and

translate this for me? 27 It is advisable that we should leave the house separately. 28 You signed the document without reading it, which was very stupid. (It was stupid.) 29 It is said that she has a frightful temper. (She ) 30 He was the first man who swam the Channel. 31 They believe that he is honest. (He ) 32 It appears that he was killed with a blunt instrument. (He appears . Use passive infinitive) 33 He was the only one who realized the danger. 34 It is said that the earth was originally part of the sun. (The earth ) 35 He took out his spare wheel and was very disappointed when he discovered that that tyre was also punctured. 36 It is said that the murderer is hiding in the woods near your house. Perfect infinitive used with auxiliary verbs PEG 255 Use the perfect infinitive of the verb in italics with the appropriate auxiliary verb. Phrases in bold type should not be repeated, but their meaning should be expressed by the auxiliary + perfect infinitive. It is possible

that he telephoned while we were out. He may have telephoned while we were out. You (thank) him for his present but you didnt. You should have thanked him for his present. 1 I realized that my house was on fire. ~ That (be) a terrible moment. 2 I saw a ghost last night. ~ You (not see) a ghost: there arent any ghosts. You (dream) it 3 It is possible that a child broke the window. 4 You carried it yourself, which was not necessary. 5 Ive had a toothache for two days. ~ You (go) to the dentist when it started. 6 There (he) motor-cycle races on the sands but as it is so wet they have been cancelled, 7 As I was standing in the hall your dog bit me. ~ It (not he) my dog; he was with me all day. It (be) my brothers 8 I feel terribly ill today. ~ You (not eat) those mushrooms yesterday. Mushrooms dont agree with you 9 I wonder why he didnt answer? ~ Possibly he didn t understand the question. 10 I gave him a tip, which was not necessary. 11 The prisoner (escape) this way, for here are his

footprints. 12 You lied to him, which was wrong. 13 I didnt recognize the voice at the other end of the line. ~ It (be) my elder sister; she is often at home at that time. It (not be) my youngest sister as she is abroad. 14 Someone (cook) a meal here lately; the stove is still hot. 15 Ive brought my own sandwiches. ~ You (not bring) them. I have enough for two 16 The burglar went straight to the safe although it was hidden be picture. ~ Someone (tell) him where it was. 17 The president (unveil) the statue, but he is ill so his wife is doing instead. 18 The plane is late; I wonder what has happened? ~ Possibly it was delayed by fog. 19 I have never met him. ~ You (meet) him; he lives next door to you. 20 I (do) it. (It was my duty to do it, but I didnt) 21 He (not catch) the 9.20 train because he didnt leave home till 9 22 I opened it, which was unnecessary. 23 The police were here while we were out. ~ Someone (betray) us. 24 I drove at 80 miles an hour, which was wrong. 25 When I

was your age I (climb) that mountain, (but I didnt). 26 If a policeman had seen me climbing through your window he me what I was doing, 27 He said that censorship of news was ridiculous and it (abolish) ago. (passive verb) 28 You boiled so many eggs; but there are only four of us. 29 She (play) the chief part in the film, but she quarrelled with the director, so he engaged someone else. 30 This poem (be) written by Keats, but I am not certain. 31 He (take) off his hat in the theatre, (but he didnt). 32 People used to walk twenty miles to do their shopping. ~ They (have) a lot of energy in those days. 33 One day he went for a walk up a mountain and never came back. ~ He (fall) over a precipice. 34 I just pressed lightly on the pane and my hand went through. ~ The glass (be) very thin. 35 You translated it into French, which wasnt necessary. 36 You looked at the new moon through glass. It is most unlucky Perfect infinitive used with auxiliaries and some other verbs PEG 255

Instructions: as for Exercise 73, but where two verbs in italics are placed side by side, put the second verb into the perfect infinitive and the first into an appropriate tense. This palace (say) (build) in three years. This palace is said to have been built in three years. 1 She (marry) my brother but she was killed in a plane crash a month before the wedding date. 2 You repeated it, which was unnecessary. 3 There (seem) (be) a fight here. Everything is smashed to bits 4 We (set) out today, but the weather is so bad that we decided to postpone our start till tomorrow. 5 I thought they were mushrooms. ~ You (not eat) them unless you were sure. They (be) poisonous 6 He learnt the language in six months. ~ He (work) very hard. 7 I brought my umbrella, which was unnecessary. 8 I (like) (bathe) but there wasnt time. 9 Ive forgotten the address. I (write) it down (but I didnt) 10 If Id known your house was so cold I (not come). 11 You (tell) me you were going camping! If Id known I

(go) with you.But it rained all the time You (not like) that, would you? 12 Who gave you my address? ~ I dont remember. It (be) Tom ~ It (not be) Tom; he doesnt know it. 13 You bought flowers but we have plenty in the garden. 14 After two years of his teaching she knew absolutely nothing. ~ He (not be) a good teacher. 15 My sister has just come back from abroad. She (seem) (enjoy) her trip very much 16 Life (be) very uncomfortable in the Stone Age. 17 You (stand) still when you were being photographed, (but you didnt). 18 I (go) to a foreign university but the war prevented it. 19 I (like) (photograph) it but I had no more film. 20 There (he) a bad accident here. Look at all the broken glass 21 It is possible that prehistoric cave drawings were connected with religion. 22 I have been driving for 20 years. ~ You (not drive) for 20 years. You are only 30 now 23 It (take) years to dig the Suez Canal. 24 He walked past me without speaking. ~ He (not recognize) you. He is very short-sighted

25 I (like) (go) to the match but the tickets were all sold. 26 He says he saw you at the theatre yesterday. ~ He (not see) me. I wasnt there 27 This picture may be a fake: on the other hand it (be) painted by one of the Dutch masters. 28 It is possible that the fire in the ship was started by a bomb. 29 She walked 300 miles, carrying her child. ~ She (have) great courage. 30 It is possible that he (read) it in the papers. ~ He (not read) it. He cant read Someone (tell) him 31 I told them to meet me under the clock but they didnt turn up. Perhaps they were waiting under the wrong clock. There are two in the station. 32 He told me his name was Johnson. ~ You (mishear) him. His name is Jones 33 I said that I couldnt find my pen and he said that perhaps somebody had borrowed it. 34 I (like) (ask) a question but I was sitting so far back that I didnt think Id be heard. 35 There (be) a fort here at one time. You can see where the foundations were 36 The dinosaur (be said) (be) rather a

stupid animal. Gerund, infinitive and participles The gerund PEG 257 Put the verbs in brackets into the gerund. 1 He gave up (gamble). 2 Try to avoid (make) him angry. 3 Stop (argue) and start (work). 4 The children prefer (watch) TV to (read). 5 I am against (make) any complaints. 6 Its no use (cry) over spilt milk. {proverb) 7 I suggest (hold) another meeting next week. 8 He finished (speak) and sat down. 9 He was fined for (drive) without lights. 10 It is difficult to get used to (eat) with chopsticks. 11 if you cant turn the key try (put) some oil in the lock. 12 He lost no time in (get) down to work. 13 You cant make an omelette without (break) eggs. (proverb) 14 We are looking forward to (read) your new book. 15 They escaped by (slide) down ropes made of blankets. 16 They dont allow (smoke) in here. 17 He is thinking of (leave) his job and (go) to America. 18 After (read) this article you will give up (smoke). 19 If you put your money into that business you risk (lose) every

penny. 20 Imagine (live) with someone who never stops (talk). 21 Is there anything here worth (buy)? 22 He was accused of (leak) classified information to the press. 23 Youd better consult your lawyer before (decide) to buy the property. 24 I dont enjoy (go) to the dentist. 25 Would you mind (put) your pet snake somewhere else? 26 The hostages were rescued without a shot (be) fired. 27 By (work) day and night he succeeded in (finish) the job in time. 28 He has a scheme for (make) grass grow in winter. 29 I dont feel like (work); what about (go) to a disco instead? 30 Would you mind (write) your name and address on the back of the cheque? 31 If a thing is worth (do) at all it is worth (do) well. (proverb) 32 I hate (borrow) money. 33 34 35 36 He was furious at (be) mistaken for an escaped convict. After (talk) for ten minutes I succeeded in (convince) him that there was no danger. I remember (read) a review of that book and (think) Id like to get. As a result of (listen) at

keyholes he learnt many facts which he no hesitation in (use) to his own advantage. Gerund and infinitive PEG 266-71 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form (gerund or infinitive) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 I am looking forward to (see) you. He dreads (have) to retire. I arranged (meet) them here. He urged us (work) faster. I wish (see) the manager. Its no use (wait). He warned her (not touch) the wire. Dont forget (lock) the door before (go) to bed. My mother told me (not speak) to anyone about it. I cant understand her (behave) like that. He tried (explain) but she refused (listen). At dinner she annoyed me by (smoke) between the courses. You are expected (know) the safety regulations of the college. He decided (disguise) himself by (dress) as a woman. lam prepared (wait) here all night if necessary. Would you mind (show) me how (work) the lift? After (walk) for three hours we stopped to let the others (catch with us. I am beginning

(understand) what you mean. He was fined for (exceed) the speed limit. The boys like (play) games but hate (do) lessons. I regret (inform) you that your application has been refused. I couldnt help (overhear) what you said. Mrs Jones: I dont allow (smoke) in my drawing-room. Mrs Smith: I dont allow my family (smoke) at all. 24 He surprised us all by (go) away without (say) Good-bye. 25 Please go on (write); I dont mind (wait). 26 He wore dark glasses (avoid) (be) recognized. 27 Before (give) evidence you must swear (speak) the truth. 28 I tried (persuade) him (agree) with your proposal. 29 Your windows need (clean); would you like me (do) them for you? 30 Would you mind (shut) the window? I hate (sit) in a draught. 31 I cant help (sneeze); I caught a cold yesterday from (sit) in a draught. 32 Do stop (talk): I am trying (finish) a letter. 33 His doctor advised him (give up) (jog). 34 My watch keeps (stop). ~ Thats because you keep (forget) (wind) it. 35 Without (realize) it. he

hindered us instead of (help) us 36 People used (make) fire by (rub) two sticks together. Gerund and infinitive PEG 266-71 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form (gerund or infinitive). 1 He hates (answer) the phone, and very often just lets it (ring). 2 If you go on (let) your dog (chase) cars hell end by (be) run over. 3 I prefer (drive) to (be driven). 4 I advise you (start) (look) for a flat at once. 5 Would you mind (lend) me Ј5? I forgot (cash) a cheque. 6 (Lie) on this beach is much more pleasant than (sit) in the office. 7 She likes her children (go) to the dentist every six months. 8 By (neglect) (take) ordinary precautions he endangered the life of his crew. 9 An instructor is coming (show) us how (use) the aqualung. 10 I have no intention of (go) to that film; I couldnt bear (see) my favourite actress in such a dreadful part. 11 I suggest (telephone) the hospitals before (ask) the police (look) for him. 12 After (hear) the conditions I decided (not enter) for the

competition. 13 Some people seem (have) a passion for (write) to the newspapers. 14 He expects me (answer) by return but I have no intention of (reply) at all. 15 I tried (explain) to him but he refused (listen) and went on (grumble). 16 By (offer) enormous wages he is persuading men (leave) their present jobs and (work) for him. 17 He postponed (make) a decision till it was too late (do) anything. 18 Imagine (have) (get up) at five a.m every day! 19 Try (forget) it: it isnt worth (worry) about. 20 There is no point in (remain) in a dangerous place if you cant do anything (help) the people who have (stay) there. 21 The horse wont be well enough (run) in tomorrows race. He doesnt seem (have recovered) from his long journey. 22 At first I enjoyed (listen) to him but after a while I got tired of (hear) the same story again and again. 23 It is usually easier (learn) a subject by (read) books than by (listen) to lectures. 24 It wouldnt be safe (start) down now; well have (wait) till the

mist clears. 25 After (discuss) the matter for an hour the committee adjourned without (have reached) any decision. 26 Its not much use (have) a bicycle if you dont know how (ride) it. 27 He didnt dare (leave) the house because he was afraid of (meet) someone who might (recognize) him. 28 I distinctly remember (pay) him. I gave him Ј2 29 Did you remember (give) him the key of the safe? ~ No, I didnt. Ill go and do it now 30 Please forgive me for (interrupt) you but would you mind (repeat) that last sentence? 31 I know my hair wants (cut) but I never have time (go) to the hairdressers. 32 He made a lot of money by (buy) tickets in advance and (sell) them for twice the price on the day of the match. 33 She rushed out of the room without (give) me a chance (explain). 34 He keeps (ask) me the time and I keep (tell) him (buy) himself a watch. 35 He has a theory that it is possible (tell) the time in daylight by (look) into a cats eyes. 36 Id hate (be) beside a volcano when it started

(erupt). Gerund and infinitive PEG 266-71 After like it is sometimes possible to use either gerund or infinitive, but there tends to be a slight difference in implication. like + gerund usually means enjoy; it also usually implies that the action is/was performed: I like skating = I enjoy skating (and do skate). like + infinitive has more the meaning of approve of, like the idea or habit. In the affirmative it gives no indication as to whether the action is performed or not, and in the negative implies that it is not performed. I didnt like saying it usually means 1 said it, unwillingly, but I didnt like to say it usually means 1 didnt say it (because it didnt seem right or sensible). The distinction, however, is not rigid The above notes are, therefore, only guides which may safely be followed. Put the verbs in brackets into gerund or infinitive. 1 I used (ride) a lot but I havent had a chance (do) any since (come) here. ~ I ride sometimes. Would you like (come) with me next time? 2

Most people prefer (spend) money to (earn) it. 3 I resented (be) unjustly accused and asked him (apologize). 4 It isnt good for children (eat) too many sweets. 5 I didnt feel like (work) so I suggested (spend) the day in the garden. 6 Why do you keep (look) back? Are you afraid of (be) followed? 7 Do you remember (post) the letter? ~ Yes, I do; I posted it in the letter-box near my gate. 8 Did you remember (lock) the door? ~ No, I didnt. Id better (go) back and (do) it now 9 You still have a lot (learn) if youll forgive my (say) so. 10 Its no use (try) (interrupt) him. Youll have (wait) till he stops (talk) 11 Im for (do) nothing till the police arrive. They dont like you (move) anything when a crime has been committed. 12 He didnt like (leave) the children alone in the house but he had no alternative as he had (go) out to work. 13 Why didnt you drink it?I didnt like (drink) it as I didnt know what it was. 14 Im very sorry for (be) late. It was good of you (wait) for me 15 I keep

(try) (make) mayonnaise but I never succeed. ~ Try (add) the yolk of a hard-boiled egg. 16 Do you feel like (go) to a film or would you rather (stay) at home? 17 She told me (look) through her correspondence and (take) out any letters that you had written her. I didnt like (look) through someone elses letters but I had (do) as she said 18 He took to (get up) early and (walk) noisily about the house. 19 I liked (listen) to folk music much better than (listen) to pop. 20 The car began (make) an extraordinary noise so I stopped (see) what it was. 21 Youll never regret (do) a kind action. 22 He decided (put) broken glass on top of his wall (prevent) boys (climb) over it. 23 He annoyed me very much by (take) the piece of cake that I was keeping (eat) after my supper. 24 He kept (ring) up and (ask) for an explanation and she didnt know what (do) about him. 25 We got tired of (wait) for the weather (clear) and finally decided (set) out in the rain. 26 He made me (repeat) his instructions

(make) sure that I understood what I was (do) after he had gone. 27 I suggest (leave) the car here and (send) a breakdown van (tow) it to the garage. 28 She apologized for (borrow) my sewing-machine without (ask) permission and promised never (do) it again. 29 I didnt mean (offend) anyone but somehow I succeeded in (annoy) them all. 30 She claimed (be able) (tell) the future by (gaze) into her crystal ball. 31 He never thinks of (get) out of your way; he expects you (walk) round him. 32 You dont need (ask) his permission every time you want (leave) the room. 33 The police accused him of (set) fire to the building but he denied (have been) in the area on the night of the fire. 34 I left my door open. Why didnt you walk in? ~ I didnt like (go) in when you werent there. 35 Its much better (go) to a hairdresser than (try) (save) time by (cut) your own hair. 36 Id rather (earn) my living by (scrub) floors than (make) money by (blackmail) people. Infinitive, gerund, present participle PEG

266-75, 295 C, 295 D This exercise includes examples of both ing forms, the gerund and the present participle. Either present participle or infinitive without to can be used after verbs of the senses. Put the verbs in brackets into a correct form. When more than one form is possible it will be noted in the key. 1 When the painter felt the ladder (begin) (slip) he grabbed the glitter (save) himself from (fall). 2 The snow kept (fall) and the workmen grew tired of (try) (keep) the roads clear. 3 He offered (lend) me the money. I didnt like (take) it but I had no alternative 4 What was in the letter? ~ I dont know. I didnt like (open) it as it wasnt addressed to me 5 Do you remember (read) about it? ~ No, at that time I was too young (read) newspapers. 6 Did you remember (book) seats for the theatre tomorrow? ~ Yes, I have the tickets here. Would you like (keep) them? I am inclined (lose) theatre tickets. 7 Try (avoid) (be) late. He hates (be) kept (wait) 8 I didnt know how (get) to

your house so I stopped (ask) the way. 9 I wish my refrigerator would stop (make) that horrible noise. You cant hear anyone (speak). 10 This book tells you how (win) at games without actually (cheat). 11 The gunman began (fire). He felt a bullet (graze) his cheek 12 He heard the clock (strike) six and knew that it was time for him (get) up. 13 I can hear the bell (ring) but nobody seems (be coming) (open) the door. 14 Did you advise him (go) to the police? ~ No, I didnt like (give) any advice on such a difficult matter. 15 He wanted (put) my chameleon on a tartan rug and (watch) it (change) colour. 16 It is easy (see) animals on the road in daylight but sometimes at night it is very difficult (avoid) (hit) them. 17 The tire seems (be) out. ~ It cant be quite out. I can hear the wood (crackle) 18 I caught him (climb) over my wall. I asked him (explain) but he refused (say) anything, so in the end I had (let) him (go). 19 When at last I succeeded in (convince) him that I wanted (get)

home quickly he put his foot on the accelerator and I felt the car (leap) forward. 20 Im not used to (drive) on the left. When you see everyone else (do) it youll find it quite easy (do) yourself 21 It is pleasant (sit) by the fire at night and (hear) the wind (howl) outside. 22 There was no way of (get) out of the building except by (climb) down a rope and Ann was too terrified (do) this. 23 We heard the engines (roar) as the plane began (move) and we saw the people on the ground (wave) good-bye. 24 Its no good (write) to him; he never answers letters. The only thing (do) is (go) and (see) him. 25 Why did you go all round the field instead of (walk) across it? ~ I didnt like (cross) it because of the bull. I never see a bull without (think) that it wants (chase) me. 26 The people in the flat below seem (be having) a party. You can hear the champagne corks (thud) against their ceiling. 27 I dont like (get) bills but when I do get them I like (pay) them promptly. 28 Ask him (come) in.

Dont keep him (stand) at the door 29 The boys next door used (like) (make) and (fly) model aeroplanes, but they seem to have stopped (do) that now. 30 I knew I wasnt the first (arrive), for I saw smoke (rise) from the chimney. 31 We watched the men (saw) the tree and as we were walking away heard it (fall) with a tremendous crash. 32 I hate (see) a child (cry). 33 We watched the children (jump) from a window and (fall) into a blanket held by the people below. 34 It is very unpleasant (wake) up and (hear) the rain (beat) on the windows. 35 He saw the lorry (begin) (roll) forwards but he was too far away (do) anything (stop) it. 36 There are people who cant help (laugh) when they see someone (slip) on a banana skin. Using participles to join sentences PEG 276-9 Join each of the following pairs of sentences, using either a present participle e.g knowing, a past participle e.g known, or a perfect participle eg having known Numbers 17, 28, 33, and 36 contain three sentences each.

Combine these in the same way He got off his horse. He began searching for something on the ground Getting off his horse, he began searching . : I had seen photographs of the place. I had no desire to go there Having seen photographs of the place, I had no desire . The speaker refused to continue. He was infuriated by the interruptions Infuriated by the interruptions, the speaker refused. These participle constructions are more common in written English. 1 I knew that he was poor. I offered to pay his fare 2 We barricaded the windows. We assembled in the hall 3 She became tired of my complaints about the programme. She turned it off 4 He found no one at home. He left the house in a bad temper 5 She hoped to find the will. She searched everywhere 6 The criminal removed all traces of his crime. He left the building 7 He realized that he had missed the last train. He began to walk 8 He was exhausted by his work. He threw himself on his bed 9 He had spent all his money. He decided to

go home and ask his father for a job 10 He escaped from prison. He looked for a place where he could get food 11 She didnt want to hear the story again. She had heard it all before 12 They found the money. They began quarrelling about how to divide it 13 She entered the room suddenly. She found them smoking 14 I turned on the light. I was astonished at what I saw 15 We visited the museum. We decided to have lunch in the park 16 He offered to show us the way home. He thought we were lost 17 He found his revolver. He loaded it He sat down facing the door 18 She asked me to help her. She realized that she couldnt move it alone 19 He fed the dog. He sat down to his own dinner 20 He addressed the congregation. He said he was sorry to see how few of them had been able to come. 21 He thought he must have made a mistake somewhere. He went through his calculations again. 22 I have looked through the fashion magazines. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. 23 The tree had

fallen across the road. It had been uprooted by the gale 24 People were sleeping in the next room. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 25 I knew that the murderer was still at large. I was extremely reluctant to open the door 26 He stole the silver. He looked for a place to hide it 27 We were soaked to the skin. We eventually reached the station 28 I sat in the front row. I used opera glasses I saw everything beautifully 29 One evening you will be sitting by the fire. You will remember this day 30 I didnt like to sit down. I knew that there were ants in the grass 31 She believed that she could trust him absolutely. She gave him a blank cheque 32 Slates were ripped off by the gale. They fell on people passing below 33 The lion found his cage door open. He saw no sign of his keeper He left the cage and walked slowly towards the zoo entrance. 34 The government once tried to tax people according to the size of their houses. They put a tax on windows. 35 I had heard that the

caves were dangerous. I didnt like to go any further without a light. 36 She wore extremely fashionable clothes. She was surrounded by photographers and pressmen. She swept up to the microphone Misrelated participles PEG 280 A participle is considered to belong to the noun or pronoun that immediately precedes it (which usually, but not necessarily, is the subject of the main verb). The boy, climbing the tree to get birds eggs, had a bad fall. If there is no noun/pronoun in this position the participle is considered to belong to the subject of the following main verb: Climbing the tree to get birds eggs, the boy had a bad fall. Sometimes this principle is disregarded and confusion results: Climbing down the tree, one of the eggs broke. This word order makes it appear that the egg was climbing, which is nonsense. A participle linked in this way to the wrong noun/pronoun is said to be misrelated. The sentence should be rewritten: Climbing down the tree he broke one of the eggs or As he

was climbing down the tree one of the eggs broke. Other examples of this type of error are given below. Correct the sentences Sometimes only a change of order is required. 1 2 3 4 When leaving a car in this car park the brakes must be left off. Wading across the river, the current swept me off my feet. When filling a tank with petrol naked lights should be extinguished. Running into the room, a rug caught her foot and she fell. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Reading the letter a second time, the meaning becomes clearer. When carrying a gun it should never be pointed at anyone. When planting these flowers care must be taken not to damage the roots. Riding in his first race, his horse fell at the last jump. When paying by cheque, a bank card should be shown. Knowing me to be the fool of the family, the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. Believing that his last hour had come, his hands began to tremble.

Passing under a ladder, a pot of paint fell on my head. Reading in bed, my hands often get very cold. Leaving the cinema, it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. Barking furiously, I led the dog out of the room. Having paid my taxes, the amount left in the bank is hardly worth mentioning. Writing my name in the hotel register, a familiar voice attracted my attention. Tied to a post, the sea was tossing the boat up and down. Misunderstanding the question, the wrong answer was sent in. Shining in the sky, we saw the first star. When driving carelessly it is easy to have an accident. Pinned to the door by a knife, the man saw a notice. Written in large letters they read the words No Entry. While cleaning his gun it went off unexpectedly. Wondering where to go. an advertisement caught my eye Rushing out of (he house, a lorry knocked me over. Sitting by the fire, it all comes back to me. Flailing from such a height, we thought he would never survive. When changing a fuse

the electricity should first be switched off. Towed behind the car, I saw a trailer with a boat on it. While sitting at the foot of a cliff a stone fell on him. Driving to work, the traffic jams infuriated him. Dropped by parachute, the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Sitting in the dentists chair, an idea suddenly occurred to me. Weakened by his last illness, I felt sure that another winter in this country would kill him. Getting out of bed, a scorpion bit him. Passive Active to passive PEG 302-6 Put the following into the passive voice. The agent should not be mentioned except in numbers II and 28. 1 You should open the wine about three hours before you use it. 2 Previous climbers had cut steps in the ice. 3 Somebody had cleaned my shoes and brushed my suit. 4 We use this room only on special occasions. 5 You must not hammer nails into the walls without permission. 6 In some districts farmers use pigs to find truffles. 7 Someone switched on a light and opened the door. 8

Somebody had slashed the picture with a knife. 9 They are pulling down the old theatre. 10 Why didnt they mend the roof before it fell in? 11 The mob broke all the shop windows in recent riots. 12 The librarian said that they were starting a new system because people were not returning books. 13 The police asked each of us about his movements on the night of the crime. 14 Someone will serve refreshments. 15 People must not leave bicycles in the hall. 16 Members may keep books for three weeks. After that they must return them 17 The burglars had cut an enormous hole in the steel door. 18 Ive bought a harp. They are delivering it this afternoon (Do not change the first sentence.) 19 Someone has already told him to report for duty at six. 20 They rang the church bells as a flood warning. 21 No one can do anything unless someone gives us more information. 22 People are spending far more money on food now than they spent ten years ago. 23 The organizers will exhibit the paintings till the

end of the month. 24 They will say nothing more about the matter if someone returns the stolen gun. 25 It is high time someone told him to stop behaving like a child. 26 A thief stole my dog and brought him back only when I offered Ј20 reward for him. 27 The judge gave him two weeks in which to pay the fine. 28 They make these artificial flowers of silk. Active to passive PEG 302-6 Put the following into the passive, mentioning the agent where necessary. Where there is an indirect and a direct object, make the indirect object the subject of the passive verb. They gave her a clock. She was given a clock. The gerund after certain verbs is replaced in the passive by should be + past participle: They advised employing part-time workers. They advised that part-time workers should be employed. 1 They feed the seals at the zoo twice a day. 2 Who wrote it? 3 Compare clothes which we have washed with clothes which any other laundry has washed. 4 He expected us to offer him the job. 5 They

showed her the easiest way to do it. 6 Lightning struck the old oak. 7 Titian couldnt have painted it as people didnt wear that style of dress till after his death. 8 A jellyfish stung her. 9 The author has written a special edition for children. 10 Judges used to carry sweet herbs as a protection against jail-fever. 11 What did he write it with? ~ He wrote it with a matchstick dipped in blood. 12 An uneasy silence succeeded the shot. 13 Did the idea interest you? 14 The lawyer gave him the details of his uncles will. 15 Beavers make these dams. 16 They used to start these engines by hand. Now they start them by electricity 17 Most people opposed this. 18 Students are doing a lot of the work. 19 The Prime Minister was to have opened the dry dock. 20 They recommended opening new factories in the depressed area. (Use should.) 21 The closure of the workshops will make a lot of men redundant. 22 Anyone with the smallest intelligence could understand these instructions. 23 We will not

admit children under sixteen. 24 Boys of sixteen to eighteen are to man this training ship. 25 A rainstorm flooded the gypsies camp. 26 The howling of wolves kept him awake all night. 27 They suggested making the tests easier. (Use should) 28 Children couldnt have done all this damage. Passive to active PEG 302-6 Turn the following sentences into the active voice. Where no agent is mentioned one must be supplied. School notice: This door must be kept shut. Students must keep this door shut. 1 Why dont you have your eyes tested? (. get an optician to See 119) 2 This speed limit is to be introduced gradually. 3 The runways are being lengthened at all the main airports. 4 It is now 6 a.m and at most of the hospitals in the country patients are being wakened with cups of tea. 5 Byron is said to have lived on vinegar and potatoes. 6 By tradition, any sturgeon that are caught by British ships must be offered to the Queen. 7 This notice has been altered. 8 The owners went away last March

and since then their houseboat has been used continuously by squatters. (Use a continuous tense and omit continuously) 9 The damaged ship was being towed into harbour when the towline broke. 10 Have a lift put in and then you wont have to climb up all these stairs. 11 Last year a profit of two million pounds was made in the first six months but this was cancelled by a loss of seventeen million pounds which was made in the second six months. 12 Evening dress will be worn. 13 The ship was put into quarantine and passengers and crew were forbidden to land. 14 Someone will have to be found to take her place. 15 He was made to surrender his passport. 16 This rumour must have been started by our opponents. 17 My paintings are to be exhibited for the first time by New Arts Gallery. 18 This scientific theory has now been proved to be false. 19 The car which was blown over the cliff yesterday is to be salvaged today. 20 The house where the dead man was found is being guarded by the police

to prevent it from being entered and the evidence interfered with. 21 Why wasnt the car either locked or put into the garage? 22 It is being said that too little money is being spent by the government on roads. 23 Your money could be put to good use instead of being left idle in the bank. 24 For a long time the earth was believed to be flat. 25 This copy hasnt been read. The pages havent been cut 26 The stones were thrown by a student, who was afterwards led away by the police. 27 Carrier pigeons are said to have been used by early Egyptian and Greek sailors. 28 The referee was being escorted from the football field by a strong police guard. Indirect speech Indirect speech: statements PEG 307-8,313 1 Students are asked to assume that these sentences are spoken and reported on different days. This will mean that a sentence such as: He said, 1 am coming tomorrow, will become: He said that he was coming the next day, and so on. This applies to all the exercises on indirect speech in this

book. 2 With indirect speech, when the person addressed is mentioned, tell is more usual than say to as an introductory verb. For example: He told me that he was going away the next day is more usual than He said to me that he was going away the next day. Put the following into indirect speech. 1 1 have something to show you, I said to her. 2 Nothing grows in my garden. It never gets any sun, she said 3 Im going away tomorrow, mother, he said. 4 Ive been in London for a month but so far I havent had time to visit the Tower, said Rupert. 5 It isnt so foggy today as it was yesterday, I remarked. 6 The new underpass is being officially opened the day after tomorrow, said the BBC announcer. 7 We have moved into our new flat. We dont like it nearly so much as our last one, said my aunt. 8 We have a lift but very often it doesnt work, they said. 9 From one of the windows of my flat I can see the Eiffel Tower, he said. 10 Ive no idea what the time is but Ill dial 8081 and find out, said

his daughter. 11 He said, My wife has just been made a judge. 12 Ill come with you as soon as I am ready, she replied. 13 I have a German lesson this afternoon and I havent done my homework yet, said the small boy. 14 If you let the iron get too hot you will scorch your clothes, I warned her. 15 You havent given me quite enough. The bill is for Ј14 and youve paid me only Ј13, he pointed out. 16 Ann said, Englishmen make good husbands because they are nearly always willing to help in the house. 17 Mary answered, I like men to be useful but I dont like them to be too domesticated. I prefer them to keep out of the kitchen altogether. Men look silly in aprons anyway 18 Motoring report: The new Rolls Royce runs so quietly that all you can hear is the ticking of the clock. Managing director of the Rolls Royce company: In that case well have to do something about the clock. 19 1 dont know what to do with all my plums. I suppose Ill have to make jam The trouble is that none of us eats jam,

she said. 20 We like working on Sundays because we get double pay, explained the builders. 21 He said, I am quite a good cook and I do all my own washing and mending too. 22 You can keep that one if you like, Joan, he said. Ive got plenty of others 23 Im going fishing with mother this afternoon, said the small boy, and we are going into the garden now to dig for worms. (Omit now) 24 Youve got my umbrella, I said crossly. Yours is in your bedroom 25 I know exactly what they said, the private detective explained to his client, because I bugged their phone. 26 Ill sit up till she comes in, but I hope she wont be late, he said. 27 If you give me some wire, Ill hang that picture for you, said my cousin. 28 I have a Turkish bath occasionally, but it doesnt seem to make any difference to my weight., she said 29 This is quite a good model, madam. I use one of these myself, said the salesman 30 My new house is supposed to be haunted, but so far I havent seen any ghosts, she said. 31 The

advertisement said, If you answer the questions correctly you may win Ј100. 32 If I press my ear against the wall, I can hear what the people in the next flat are saying, he said. Indirect speech: statements PEG 309-10 Some tenses/forms do not change when direct speech becomes indirect: I wish my children would eat vegetables, she said. She (said she) wished her children would eat vegetables. Put the following into indirect speech, being careful to avoid ambiguity: 1 I couldnt get into the house because I had lost my key, so I had to break a window, he said. 2 The mirror is there so that you can see yourself when you are dancing, the instructress told him. 3 I wrote to him the day before yesterday. I wonder why he hasnt rung up, she said 4 If the ground is dry on the day of the race, my horse might win, said the owner. 5 Youd better slow down. Theres a speed limit here, she said to me (Use advise) 6 If Tom wants seats, hed better apply early, she said. 7 We walked 50 miles last

night to see the Minister and protest about our rents being raised. He was very polite and promised to do what he could for us, said one of the tenants. 8 They should put traffic lights here, otherwise there11 be more accidents, she said. 9 Its time we began training for our next match, the coach said to them. 10 If you leave home at six, you should be here by nine, he said to me. 11 If it rains this afternoon it will be too wet to play the match tomorrow, the captain said. 12 I meant to plug in the electric blanket but I plugged in the electric kettle by mistake. Im always doing silly things like that, she told her guest. 13 I was intending to do it tomorrow, he said, but now I dont think Ill be able to. 14 Bill should do very well at the university, Mrs Smith, said the headmaster. Hes done very well here. 15 I dont think your father likes me, said the young wife. You mustnt think that, said her husband; it is just that he is old and finds it hard to get used to new people. (Leave

mustnt unchanged ) 16 The steak is overdone again. Im not complaining; Im just pointing it out, said her husband. I wish youd stop pointing things out, said his wife. 17 They couldnt open the safe on the spot so they carried it away with them, the night watchman reported. 18 If you saw my father, youd recognize him at once. He is the most extraordinarylooking man, she said to me 19 I found an old Roman coin in the garden yesterday, he said, and Im going to take it to the museum this afternoon. 20 He said, I got out of my boat, leaving the engine running, but while I was standing on the quay the gears suddenly engaged themselves and the boat went straight out of the harbour with no one on board. 21 Then Macbeth enters and says, I have done the deed. 22 Would you like me to go with you? I said. Id rather go alone, he answered. 23 My brother said, You may take my car if you like. I shant be needing it tomorrow or the day after. 24 Yesterday Tom and I went to look at a house that he

was thinking of buying. It was rather a nice house and had a lovely garden but Tom decided against it because it was opposite a cemetery, said Celia. 25 He said, My wife wants to take a job but Id rather she concentrated on our home. 26 I dont know what your father will say when he sees what a mess your puppies have made of this five-pound note, said my mother. 27 Its high time you passed your test; Im tired of driving round with an L-plate on the front of the car, my sister said. 28 I wish youd seen it, I said to her. Indirect speech: questions PEG 317 Put the following into indirect speech. The first ten questions require no change of order: He said, What is happening? He asked what was happening. 1 What happened to Mr Budd? said one of the men. 2 Which of his sons inherited his estate? asked another. 3 Who is going to live in the big house? enquired a third. 4 What will happen to his racehorses? asked someone else. 5 Which team has won? asked Ann. 6 Which team won the previous

match? said Bill. 7 Who is playing next week? he asked. 8 Who will be umpiring that match? asked Tom. 9 Who wants a lift home? said Ann. 10 Who has just dropped a Ј10 note? I asked. 11 Where is the ticket office? asked Mrs Jones. 12 What shall I do with my heavy luggage? she said. (Use should) 13 What platform does the train leave from? asked Bill. 14 When does it arrive in York? he asked. 15 When was the timetable changed? I asked. 16 Why has the 2.30 train been cancelled? said Ann 17 How much does a day return to Bath cost? Mrs Jones asked. 18 Why does the price go up so often? she wondered. 19 How can I get from the station to the airport? said Bill. 20 When are you coming back? I asked them. 21 Is a return ticket cheaper than two singles? said my aunt. 22 Do puppies travel free? asked a dog owner. 23 Can I bring my dog into the compartment with me? she asked. 24 Does this train stop at York? asked Bill. 25 Can you telephone from inter-city trains? said the businessman. 26 Does the

2.40 have a restaurant car? he enquired 27 Can you get coffee on the train? asked my aunt. 28 Do they bring it round on a trolley? she said. 29 Are there smoking compartments? said the man with the pipe. 30 Have you reserved a seat? I asked him. Extra exercise: read the last twenty questions, using one of the following prefaces: I wonder/Id like to know/Do you know?/Have you any idea?/Can you tell me? 11 Do you know where the ticket office is? 12 I wonder what I should do with my heavy luggage. Indirect speech: questions PEG 317 A new student, Paul, has come to the college and the other students are asking him questions. Imagine that he reports these questions later to an English friend: I Bill asked what country I came from. 1 What country do you come from? said Bill. 2 How long have you been here? said Ann. 3 Are you working as well as studying? asked Peter. 4 Have you got a work permit? Bill wanted to know. 5 What are you going to study? asked Ann. 6 Have you enrolled for more

than one class? said Peter. 7 Do you want to buy any second-hand books? said Bill. 8 Have you seen the library? asked Ann. 9 Do you play rugby? said Peter. 10 Will you have time to play regularly? he went on. 11 Did you play for your school team? said Bill. 12 Are you interested in acting? asked Ann. 13 Would you like to join our Drama Group? she said. 14 What do you think of the canteen coffee? asked Peter. Mary and Tom, with their son, John, aged II, have recently come to this area. Mary wants to find a school for John and asks her neighbour Mrs Smith about the local school. (a) Later, Mrs Smith reports these questions to her husband: Is it a mixed school? She asked if it was a mixed school. (b) Alternatively, supply suitable answers to Marys questions and then imagine that Mary reports the conversation (her questions and Mrs Smiths answers) to her husband Tom: 36 Were your boys happy there? ~ Yes, they were. I asked if her boys had been happy there and she said that they had. 15 How

long has it been a mixed school? 16 Do you like the headmaster? 17 Is he a scientist or an arts graduate? 18 How many children are there in the school? 19 How big are the classes? 20 Are the classes streamed? 21 What is the academic standard like? 22 Can parents visit the school at any time? 23 Is there a good art department? 24 Do they teach music? 25 What instruments can the children learn? 26 Is there a school orchestra? 27 Do they act plays? 28 What sort of plays have they done? 29 What games do they play? 30 Are the playing fields near the school? 31 Are they taught to swim? 32 Can the children get dinner at school? 33 Is the food good? 34 Is there a Parent-Teacher Association? 35 How often does it meet? 36 Were your own boys happy at the school? Indirect speech: questions PEG 317 Put the following into indirect speech. 1 Why are you looking through the keyhole? I said. 2 Who put salt in my coffee? he asked. 3 Which of you knows how to make Irish stew? said the chief cook. 4

Why did you travel first class? I asked him. 5 How can I run in high-heeled shoes? she enquired. 6 What is your new house like? I asked them. 7 He said, Where am I supposed to go now? (Omit now.) 8 Whose car did you borrow last night? I said to him. 9 What was she wearing when you saw her last? the policeman asked me. 10 Who owns this revolver? said the detective. 11 Where were you last night, Mr Jones? he said. 12 What else did you see? I asked the boy. 13 Have you done this sort of work before? said his new employer. 14 Can you read the last line on the chart? the oculist asked her. 15 Did they understand what you said to them? he asked me. 16 Are you being attended to, sir? said the shop assistant. 17 Will you go on strike when the others do? the shop steward asked him. 18 Do you see what I see, Mary? said the young man. 19 Who left the banana skin on the front doorstep? said my mother. 20 Have you gone completely mad? I asked. Do you want to blow us all up? 21 Why is your house

so full of antiques? she asked. Was your father a collector? 22 Are you leaving today or tomorrow morning? said his secretary. 23 How far is it? I said, and how long will it take me to get there? 24 Could I speak to Mrs Pitt? said the caller. Im afraid shes out, said the au pair girl. Could I take a message? 25 Are you sorry for what you did? the mother asked the little boy. 26 Are you going to see him off at the station? I asked her. 27 Would you mind if I looked inside your bag, Madam? said the policeman. 28 If someone fell at your feet foaming at the mouth would you know what to do? said the instructor in First Aid. 29 Why do you think it may be dangerous? he asked her. 30 Do you know that the shoes you are wearing arent a pair? I asked him. Indirect speech: commands, requests, advice expressed by object + infinitive PEG 320 Indirect commands, requests, etc. are normally expressed by tell, order, ask, beg, advise, remind, warn, etc., with the person addressed and the infinitive

Change the following direct commands into indirect commands using this construction. Remember that the person addressed is often not mentioned in a direct command: He said, Go away, but must be mentioned in an indirect command: He told me ( Tom/us/them, etc. ) to go away 1 Switch off the TV, he said to her. 2 Shut the door, Tom, she said. 3 Lend me your pen for a moment, I said to Mary. 4 Dont watch late-night horror movies, I warned them. 5 Dont believe everything you hear, he warned me. 6 Please fill up this form, the secretary said. 7 Dont hurry, I said. 8 Dont touch that switch, Mary, I said. 9 Open the safe! the raiders ordered the bank clerk. 10 Please do as I say, he begged me. 11 Help your mother, Peter, Mr Pitt said. 12 Dont make too much noise, children, he said. 13 Do whatever you like, she said to us. 14 Dont miss your train, she warned them. 15 Read it before you sign it, he said to his client. 16 Do sing it again, he said. 17 Dont put your hands near the bars, the zoo

keeper warned us. 18 Buy a new car, I advised him. 19 Dont drive too fast, she begged him. 20 Dont lean your bicycles against my windows, boys, said the shopkeeper. 21 Come to the cinema with me, he asked her. 22 Cook it in butter, I advised her. 23 Dont touch the gates, madam, said the lift operator. 24 Dont argue with me, the teacher said to the boy. 25 Pull as hard as you can, he said to him. 26 Send for the Fire Brigade, the manager said to the porter. 27 Dont lend her anything, he advised us. 28 Make a list of what you want, she told us. 29 Look at the paper, he said to her. 30 Stand clear of the doors, a voice warned the people on the platform. 31 See if you can find any mushrooms, children, she said. 32 Dont go alone, I warned her. 33 Pay at the cash desk, the shop assistant said to the customer. 34 The notice said, Leave this space clear. 35 Remember to write to your mother, I said to them. 36 Think well before you answer, the detective warned her. Indirect speech:

commands, requests, advice PEG 320 See note to 90. Put the following into indirect speech. In most cases the person addressed must be supplied. 1 He said, Get out of my way. 2 Climb in through the window, he ordered. 3 Please pay at the desk, said the assistant. 4 Open your bag, please, said the store detective. 5 Dont worry about anything, Mrs Pitt, said her solicitor. Leave it all to me 6 Dont use bent coins in a slot machine, I warned him. 7 Follow that car, the detective said to the taxi-driver. 8 Wash it in lukewarm water, recommended the assistant. 9 Have confidence in me, urged the doctor. 10 Take me up to the 33rd floor, he said to the liftman. 11 Read the notice about life-saving equipment, advised the air-hostess. 12 Always cook with butter, said her mother, never use margarine. 13 Dont argue with your father, I said. 14 Remember to prune the roses, said my aunt. 15 Wait for me at the bridge, said the young man. 16 Dont eat too much starch, I advised her, and avoid fried

food. 17 Dont say anything to make her angry, said my father. 18 Notice: Please do not ask at the desk for change for telephone calls. 19 Dont forget to feed the goldfish, Mary said to her brother. 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Cross the line by the footbridge, said the porter. Write to me as often as you can, said his wife. Put your pistol on the table, said the crook. Please book me a seat in a non-smoker, said the traveller. Dont forget your sandwiches, said his mother. Dont go near the water, children, she said. Search the house, said the police sergeant. Dont make mountains out of molehills, he said. Put down that gun. Its loaded, she warned Indirect speech: commands, requests, advice PEG 320 See note to 90. Put the following into indirect speech, joining the sentences together with as, and, but or for. 1 Make good use of your time. You wont get such an opportunity again, he said to us 2 Dont wait till tomorrow, said the advertisement, post the coupon at once. 3 Be very careful

crossing roads, she said, and remember to drive on the right. 4 1 cant open it. You have a try, Peter, he said 5 Go and get me a paper, and come straight back, he said to me. 6 Someones coming. Get into the cupboard, she said 7 Give way to traffic approaching from your right, the road sign warned us. 8 Please, please send whatever you can spare, said the secretary of the disaster fund. 9 Wear a wig if you dont want to be recognized, I advised him. 10 Dont bathe when the red flag is flying, said the lifeguard. 11 Dont forget to thank Mrs Jones when you are saying goodbye to her, said his mother. 12 Watch the milk and dont let it boil over, he said. 13 Dont shelter under a tree in a thunderstorm, he said. The tree might be struck by lightning. 14 Put the message into a bottle and throw it into the sea, he said. 15 Read it for yourself if you dont believe what I say, he told me. 16 Dont forget to use your indicators, said the driving instructor. 17 Dont drive too fast or the baby 11 be

sick, she said to her husband. 18 Do make the coffee a bit stronger, I begged. It was terribly weak last night 19 Beware of pickpockets, said a huge notice. 20 Smell this. Do you think it has gone bad? she said 21 Dont take your coat off. We are going out again in a moment, she told him 22 Stand by the window and tell me if anyone goes into the house opposite, he said. 23 Dont move till the policeman waves you on, said the driving instructor. 24 Dont touch it. You will only make it worse, he told me 25 Be careful; the steps are very slippery, I warned him. 26 Ask your boss to ring me back, I said. My number is 1234567 Could you repeat that, please? said the girl. 27 Dont work too fast, said the foreman. If we finish before six we shant get any overtime. 28 Prepare to meet your doom. The end of the world is at hand, said the placard 29 Remember to put the brake on, the instructor said. 30 Would you please take off your shoes? Keiko said to him. Indirect speech: commands, requests,

invitations, offers, advice PEG 284-7, 318-20 Put the following into indirect speech using ask, advise, invite, offer, remind, tell, warn. 1 Would you like to have lunch with me on Sunday? he said to me. 2 Would you like a cigarette? said one of the guests. 3 Would you mind not smoking between courses? said their hostess. 4 Take these letters to the post, will you? And shut the door as you out, said the boss. 5 Will you help me, please? she said. 1 cant reach the top shelf 6 This is a horrible room. Why dont you ask for something better? he said 7 If I were you Id try to get a room on the top floor, he said. 8 Ill wait for you if you like, she said. 9 Remember to switch off when youve finished, he said. 10 You might check these figures for me, he said. 11 Youd better apologize for being late, said my mother. 12 Could you check the oil, please? I asked the mechanic. 13 1 wish youd sit still! said the artist. How do you expect me to paint you when you keep jerking your head? 14 Why dont

you go by train? Its much less tiring than driving, I said. 15 Hotel notice:-Will guests please not play radios loudly after midnight? 16 Would you like to wait here? said the receptionist, showing me into the waiting room. 17 You must see this exhibition! said all my friends. 18 1 should plant daffodils, if I were you, I said to them. 19 If youd just sign the back of the cheque, said the bank clerk. 20 Id be very grateful if youd forward my letters while I am away, he said. 21 Police announcement: Will anyone who saw this accident please get in touch with their nearest police station? 22 Dont leave your room at night, he said. Our hosts dogs might mistake you for a burglar. 23 Answer this letter for me, will you? he said. And remember to keep a copy 24 Would you mind moving your car? he said. Its blocking my gate 25 (in a letter) Perhaps youd let me know when your new stock comes in. (Mrs Jones) 26 Notice on board: The first team will report to the gymnasium for weight-training. (The

coach.) 27 Could you sew on this button for me? Tom asked Ann. Youd better sew it on yourself, said Mary. Buttons sewn on by Ann usually come off the next day. 28 If you will kindly sit down the fortune-teller will be with you in a moment, the girl said. Indirect speech: questions, requests, invitations, offers, advice PEG 284-7, 318-20, 323 Remember that Why dont you? can be an ordinary question or advice/suggestion. Treat it here as advice. Put the following into indirect speech. 1 Could you get there and back in one day? I asked. (I asked if he ) 2 1 cant open this tin, said Ann. Shall I do it for you? said Tom 3 Could you translate this for me, please? I asked the official. 4 Shall we ever meet again? he wondered. 5 Will you be here tomorrow? she asked. Yes, I answered 6 Could I lose five kilos in a week? said the fat woman. No, said the doctor 7 Will you have a drink? he said. 8 Why dont you install gas central heating? said the advertisement. (urge) 9 Will you read this

very carefully, please? he said to me. 10 Shall I tell him what happened? she asked me. 11 Wouldnt you like to look ten years younger? said the hairdresser. 12 Im going to Brighton tomorrow, said Ann. So am I, said Tom. Would you like a lift? (Tom said he was too and) 13 Can I have a sweet? said the small boy. 14 Can we stay up till the end of the programme? said the children. 15 Could I have the weekend off? he asked his boss. 16 Could I leave early on Friday? he said. 17 Why dont you like pop music? the teenagers asked him. 18 Why dont you take up the oboe again? said my friends, (advise) 19 Where shall I hang my new picture? he said. Would it look well over the mantelpiece? 20 What shall I do if the car wont start? I said. 21 Have you got enough money? Shall I lend you some? said my friend. 22 Will you be able to guide me or shall I bring a map? I asked. 23 You wont forget to shut the door, will you? she said. (remind) 24 Would you like to see over the house? I asked her. 25 Would

you like to peel the potatoes? said Ann, handing me a knife. 26 Ive got two tickets. Would you like to come with me? he said 27 Can you use a word processor? he asked. No, I said 28 Would you mind living by yourself for six months? they asked. 29 Would you mind paying cash? said my landlady when I took out my cheque-book. 30 Why dont you trust him? I asked Ann. 1 never trust left-handed men, she answered. Indirect speech: commands and questions with if- clauses and time clauses PEG 229, 320-1 Questions with if- clauses and time clauses should be reported with the if- clause or time clause last. When/If I see him, what shall I say? she asked. She asked what she should say when/if she saw him. Commands can be reported by tell + infinitive + if- clause/time clause. But sometimes (as in nos. 5 and 10 below) this would produce a rather clumsy sentence It is then advisable to use say/said that + if- clause/time clause + be/should + infinitive: If When you see him, ask him to ring me,

she said. She said that if/when I saw him I was to ask him to ring her. was to expresses a definite command; should implies advice. Put the following into indirect speech. 1 He said, When you are at the butchers remember to get a bone for the dog. 2 She said, If you feel faint sit down and put your head between your knees. 3 If I find your purse what shall I do with it? he said. Keep it till you see me again, I replied. 4 She said, If he arrives before I get back give him something to drink. 5 If anyone rings up, she said, say that Ill be back shortly. 6 When you are driving always look in your driving mirror before turning right, said my instructor. 7 Leave the key under the mat if you go out, she said. 8 If you think the room is cold shut the windows, said my aunt. 9 If you feel lonely any time ring me up, he said. 10 If she doesnt eat meat, offer her an omelette, he said. 11 Get the car off the road on to the verge if you have a puncture. Dont leave it on the road, said my father.

12 If I am not back by this time tomorrow, take this letter to the police, he said. 13 When you see Mrs Pitt dont forget to thank her, she said to her husband. 14 When the bell rings take the meat out of the oven, my sister said. 15 If you are taken prisoner, said the officer, give your name, rank and number but refuse to answer any other questions. 16 When you hear the fire alarm, shut all windows and go downstairs as quickly as possible, said the schoolmaster. 17 If the lift should stop between two floors press the emergency button, he said. 18 Before you allow anyone to use the Turkish bath remember to ask him if he has a weak heart, said the senior attendant. 19 If the police stop me, what shall I say? she asked. 20 What shall I do if he refuses to let me in? she said. Write a note and push it under the door, I said. 21 What will happen if the strike continues? he said. 22 If it goes on snowing, howll we get food? wondered the housewives. 23 When the rain stops, can we go out? said

the children. 24 When youve completed one section, go on to the next, the teacher said. 25 If you dont like the programme, switch to another channel, I said I to her. 26 If I lose my travellers cheques, will the bank repay me? I asked. 27 If the noise gets worse, youd better complain to the police, he said to me. 28 As soon as you find a hotel, ring me and give me the address, he said. Indirect speech: suggestions PEG 289 D, 322 Part I Write the following in indirect speech, in ordinary narrative form. Ann suggested having a party on the next Saturday. Mary agreed and asked who they should invite. Report Why dont we . ? as a suggestion and Why dont you ? as suggestion or advice. Report Why not? in no 9 as agreed 1 Ann: What about having a party on Saturday? 2 Mary: Yes, lets. Who shall we invite? 3 Ann: Lets not make a list. Lets just invite everybody 4 Mary: We dont want to do too much cooking, so what about making it a wine and cheese party? 5 Ann: Suppose we ask everybody to

bring a bottle? 6 Mary: Shall we hire glasses from our local wine shop? We havent many left. 7 Ann: If its warm, how about having the party in the garden? 8 Mary: Why not have a barbecue? 9 Ann: Why not? We could ask Paul to do the cooking. 10 Mary: Last time we had a barbecue the neighbours complained about the noise. Shall we ask everyone to speak in whispers? 11 Ann: Suppose we go round to the neighbours and apologize in advance this time? 12 Mary: Why not invite the neighbours? Then the noise wont matter. 13 Ann: What a clever idea! Shall we start ringing everyone up tonight? 14 Mary: What about working out how much it will cost first? Part 2 Put the following into indirect speech. 15 What about a round-the-world cruise? suggested Mrs Smith. What about renting a caravan? Its all we can afford, said her husband. 16 Suppose you complain, Ann? I said. The boss is more likely to listen to you than to any of us. 17 You used to be a good tennis player, she reminded him. Why dont you take

it up again? 18 Shall we talk there? Its not far, he said. Yes, lets, I said 19 What about joining a weaving class? Ann said to me. Theres one starting soon 20 Lets organize a sponsored cycle race, said the children. What about a sponsored silence? said the teacher with a grin. 21 Where shall we meet? I said. What about the hotel? said Bill 22 Suppose you ring him, Ann, and ask him what he thinks of the idea? I said. 23 Im doing most of the work, I pointed out. What about giving me a hand? 24 Lets leave the washing-up till tomorrow, he suggested. I hate washing up last thing at night. 25 Suppose the children go on an adventure holiday this summer? suggested the father. 26 Why dont you ask them what theyd like to do? I said. 27 Shall we begin training for the next London Marathon? said Bill. Ive no intention of running in marathons, I said. Why dont you ask Paul? 28 Why dont you put an advertisement in the local paper? they suggested to me. Indirect speech: mixed types PEG chapter

31 (note especially 324) Put the following into indirect speech, avoiding as far as possible the verbs say, ask and tell and choosing instead from the following: accept, accuse, admit, advise, agree, apologize, assure, beg, call (=summon), call (+noun/pronoun+noun), complain, congratulate, deny, exclaim, explain, give, hope, insist, introduce, invite, offer, point out, promise, protest, refuse, remark, remind, suggest, thank, threaten, warn, wish. 1 He said, Dont walk on the ice; it isnt safe. 2 Miss Brown, this is Miss White. Miss White, Miss Brown, he said 3 Here are the car keys. Youd better wait in the car, he said to her 4 Please, please, dont tell anyone, she said. I wont, I promise, I said. 5 Would you like my torch? I said, holding it out. No, thanks, he said. I have one of my own {Omit thanks) 6 Tom: Ill pay. Ann: Oh no, you mustnt! Tom: I insist on paying! 7 Come in and look round. Theres no obligation to buy, said the shopkeeper 8 If you dont pay the ransom, well kill the

boy, said the kidnappers. 9 I wont answer any questions, said the arrested man. 10 He expects a lot of work for very little money, complained one of the typists. Yes, he does, agreed the other. 11 I wish it would rain, she said. 12 You pressed the wrong button, said the mechanic. Dont do it again You might have a nasty accident. 13 Your weights gone up a lot! I exclaimed. Im afraid it has, she said sadly. 14 1 hope youll have a good journey, he said. Dont forget to send a card when you arrive. 15 Hurrah! Ive passed the first exam! he exclaimed. Congratulations! I said, and good luck with the second. 16 All right, Ill wait a week, she said. (Omit all right) 17 Many happy returns of your birthday! we said. Thanks, said the boy. 18 Your door is the shabbiest in the street, said the neighbour. It is, I said. 19 Cigarette?Thanks, I said. 20 Ill sell the TV set if you keep quarrelling about the programme, said their mother. No, dont do that! We wont quarrel any more, said the children.

21 Ill give you Ј500 to keep your mouth shut, he said to me. 22 Ill wait for you, I promise, he said to me. 23 Im sorry Im late, she said. The bus broke down 24 Youve been leaking information to the Press! said his colleagues. No, I havent, he said. Liar! said Tom 25 Ill drop you from the team if you dont train harder, said the captain. 26 If the boys do anything clever, you call them your sons, complained his wife. But if they do anything stupid, you call them mine. 27 Lets have a rest, said Tom. Yes, lets, said Ann. 28 Ugh! Theres a slug in my lettuce. Waiter! he cried Indirect to direct speech PEG 307-22 Put the following into direct speech, using dialogue form: Tom: Would you like to come for a drive tomorrow, Ann? Ann: Id love to etc. Trip to Stratford 1 Tom invited Ann to come for a drive the following day. 2 Ann accepted with pleasure and asked where he was thinking of going. 3 He said hed leave it to her. 4 She suggested Stratford . 5 adding that she hadnt been there for

ages. 6 Tom agreed and said that they might go on the river if it was a fine day. 7 Ann wondered what was on at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre. 8 Tom said theyd find out when they got there . 9 adding that it was usually possible to get seats on the day of the play. 10 He asked Ann if she could be ready by ten. 11 Ann said with regret that she couldnt as she had to type a report first. 12 Tom expressed horror at the idea of working on Saturday . 13 and advised her to change her job. 14 She told him not to be ridiculous and explained that . 15 she had volunteered to type the report in return for a free afternoon the following week. 16 She pointed out that she hadnt known that he was going to ask her out. 17 Tom said he supposed it was all right but . 18 warned her not to make a habit of volunteering for weekend work. 19 Ann promised not to. 20 Tom said gloomily that he supposed shed be busy all morning. 21 Ann assured him that shed be finished by 11.00 and 22 offered to meet him

at the bus stop at Hyde Park Corner. 23 Tom said that it wasnt a very good meeting place and that hed call for her. 24 Ann said that that was very kind of him and that shed be waiting in the hall. Hill climb 25 Tom suggested climbing to the top, adding that the view from there was marvellous . 26 but Ann said that theyd been climbing for three hours and that she was too tired to go any further. 27 She suggested that Tom should go on up while she went down and waited there. 28 Tom agreed and handed her the car keys, advising her to wait in the car. 29 He promised to be as quick as he could. 30 Ann said that if he was too long thered be no lunch left, for shed have eaten it all. Purpose Infinitive used to express purpose PEG 334 Combine each of the following pairs of sentences into one sentence using so as/in order where necessary. He sent me to Spain. He wanted me to learn Spanish He sent me to Spain to learn Spanish. He turned out the light. He didnt want to waste electricity He

turned out the light so as not to waste electricity. 1 I am buying paint. I want to paint my hall door 2 He tied a knot in. his handkerchief He hoped that this would remind him to meet the train. 3 He opened the lions cage. He intended to feed the lions 4 He left his rifle outside. He didnt want to frighten his wife 5 He has a box. He plans to put his savings in it (Omit it) 6 We had no cups but he gave us coconut shells. He said we could drink out of them (Omit them.) 7 He rushed into the burning house. He wanted to save the child 8 He read only for short periods each day. He didnt want to strain his eyes 9 They got up very early. They wanted to get to the top of the hill before sunrise 10 He rang the bell. He wanted to tell us that dinner was ready 11 We must keep our gloves on. We dont want to get frost-bitten 12 The farmer put a scarecrow up in the field. He wanted to frighten I the birds 13 I took off my shoes. I didnt want to make any noise 14 Before the carpenter came she

covered the floor with polythene sheeting. She wanted to protect the carpet. 15 The boys are collecting sticks. They intend to put them on the fire (Omit them) 16 He was playing very softly. He didnt want to disturb anyone 17 I am sending him to the USA. I want him to study electronics there 18 I sent him out of the room. I wanted to discuss his progress with his headmaster 19 He fixed a metal ladder to the wall below his window. He wanted to be able to escape if there was a fire. 20 He changed his address constantly. He wanted to elude the police 21 The police have barricaded the main streets. They want to prevent the demonstrators from marching through the town. 22 They evacuated everybody from the danger zone. They wanted to reduce the risk 23 I am learning Greek. I wish to read Homer 24 He sent his children to his sisters house. He wanted them to watch the television programme. 25 He sent his children to their aunts house. He wanted to have some peace 26 The town council has

forbidden coal fires. They are trying to keep the air clean 27 They employed a detective. They wanted to learn what I did in the evenings 28 I am saving up. I want to buy a helicopter 29 He coughed. He wanted to warn them that he was coming 30 You should take your holidays in June. In this way you would avoid the rush 31 I keep my hens in a field surrounded by wire netting. I want to protect them against the foxes. 32 I am learning skiing at an indoor school. I want to be able to ski when I get to Switzerland. 33 The workmen left red lights near the hole. They wanted to warn motorists 34 He invented a wife and six children. By this trick he hoped to avoid paying income tax. 35 Some women tint their hair when it goes grey. They want to look younger 36 He didnt tell her he was going up in the spacecraft. He didnt want to alarm her Clauses and phrases of purpose PEG 336-7 A purpose clause introduced by so that can sometimes be replaced by prevent/avoid + gerund or allow/enable/let/make

etc. + infinitive The two sentences: He rumpled the bedclothes. He wanted to make me think he had slept in the bed could be combined: He rumpled the bedclothes so that I should/would think he had slept etc. or to make me think he had slept etc An in case clause is useful when we mention the possible future action we are taking precautions against: Dont let him play with scissors. He may cut himself could be expressed: Dont let him play with scissors in case he cuts himself. Sometimes an in case clause can be replaced by a negative purpose clause. 1 He killed the men who helped him to bury the treasure. He wanted nobody but himself to know where it was. 2 Put the cork back. Someone may knock the bottle over 3 The airfield authorities have put arc lights over the damaged runway. They want repair work to continue day and night. 4 The girl packed the vase in polyester foam. She didnt want it to get broken in the post 5 He wore a false beard. He didnt want anyone to recognize him 6 She

built a high wall round her garden. She didnt want her fruit to be stolen 7 They talked in whispers. They didnt want me to overhear them 8 You ought to take some serum with you. You may get bitten by a snake 9 Aeroplanes carry parachutes. The crew can escape in case of fire 101 am insuring my life. I want my children to have something to live on if I am killed 11 Please shut the gate. I dont want the cows to get out of the field 12 He telephoned from a public call-box. He didnt want the call to be traced to his own address. 13 I am putting nets over my strawberry plants. I dont want the birds to eat all the strawberries. 14 We keep a spade in the house. There may be a heavy fall of snow in the night 15 We put bars on the lower windows. We didnt want anyone to climb in 16 You should carry a jack in your car. You may have a puncture 17 We built the roof with a steep slope. We wanted the snow to slide off easily 18 The notices are written in several languages. The government wants

everyone to understand them. 19 I put my address on my dogs collar. I want anyone who finds him to know where he comes from. 20 She tied a bell round her cats neck. She wanted the birds to know when he was approaching. 21 Bring your gun with you. We may be attacked 22 I have put wire over my chimney-pots. I dont want birds to build nests in them 23 Write your name in the book. He may forget who lent it to him 24 He chained up the lioness at night. He didnt want her to frighten anyone 25 Dont put on any more coal. The chimney may catch fire 26 The burglar cut the telephone wires. He didnt want me to call the police 27 Take a torch with you. It may be dark before you get back 28 The manufacturers have made the taps of their new gas cooker very stiff. They dont want young children to be able to turn them on. 29 Dont let the baby play with my glasses. He may break them 30 The debate on education has been postponed. The government want to discuss the latest crisis. 31 If someone knocks at

the door at night dont open it. It may be the escaped convict 32 The policeman stopped the traffic every few minutes. He wanted the pedestrians to be able to cross the road. 33 He had a telephone installed in his car. He wanted his secretary to be able to contact him whenever necessary. 34 Never let children play with matches. They may set themselves on fire 35 As he went through the forest Bill marked the trees. He wanted the rest of the party to know which way he had gone. 36 Turn down the oven. We dont want the meat to burn while we are out some, any etc. and relatives 101 some, any and compounds, e.g somebody, anything, somehow PEG 50-1 Insert some or any, making the appropriate compounds if necessary. 1 Theres . milk in that jug 2 She wanted . stamps but there werent in the machine 3 Im afraid there isnt . coffee left; will you grind ? 4 Is there . one here who speaks Italian? 5 Id like to buy . new clothes but I havent money 6 Theres . gin in the cupboard

but there arent glasses 7 They cant have . more strawberries; I want to make jam 8 . one I know told me of the details 9 Have you . idea who could have borrowed your bicycle? 10 I saw hardly . one I knew at the party, and I didnt get thing to drink 11 When would you like to come? ~ . day would suit me 12 Are there . letters for me? 13 Dont let . one in Im too busy to see body 14 . thing tells me youve got bad news for me 15 I cant see my glasses . where 16 We didnt think hed succeed but he managed . how 17 Youre looking very miserable; has . thing upset you? 18 If you had . sense you wouldnt leave your car unlocked 19 Scarcely . one was wearing a dinner jacket 20 . one who believes what Jack says is a fool 21 She put her handbag down . where and now she cant find it 22 Will you have . pudding or fruit? 23 Havent you got . friends in Rome? I feel sure you mentioned them once 24 Havent you got . friends here? You should join a club

and get to know people 25 I see you havent . maps Would you like to borrow of mine? 26 . one can tell you how to get there (Everyone knows the way) 27 Come and have supper with us if you arent doing . thing tonight 28 1. how imagined the house would be much larger 29 All the salaries are being paid much later now; its . thing to do with the computer 30 He lives . where in France now 31 You cant expect just . student to solve the problem It requires a mathematician 32 Hes not very well known here but hes . one (an important person) in his own country. 33 Where shall we sit? ~ Oh, . where will do 34 Is there . one moving about downstairs? I heard thing falling 35 Is there . one living in that house? It looks deserted 36 Would you like . thing to drink? Theres very good beer in the f ridge 102 Relatives: defining, non-defining and connective PEG 72-84 Read the following passage and then do the exercises on it. In answers to questions, use a relative

clause. Example: Lucy was shaking the mat out of the window of the flat. Tom happened to be passing underneath. Suddenly Lucys baby gave a cry and she dropped the mat It fell on Tom and knocked his hat off. (a) What mat are we talking about? The mat that/which Lucy dropped or The mat that Lucy dropped or The mat that fell on Toms head. (b) Who was Tom? The man who was passing underneath or The man (that/whom) the mat fell on or The man whose hat was knocked off. 1 Mr Black usually catches the 8.10 train This is a fast train Today he missed it This annoyed him very much. He caught the 840 This is a slow train and doesnt reach London till 9.40 Mr White usually travels up with Mr Black Today he caught the 810 as usual. Mr White normally borrows Mr Blacks paper to read on the train As Mr Black was not there today he borrowed a paper from another passenger, Mr Brown. (a) What is the 8.10? (b) What is the 8.40? (c) Who is Mr White? (d) Who is Mr Brown? {Connect him with Mr White.) Combine

the following pairs of sentences into one sentence (one for each pair) using relative pronouns: (e) Mr Black usually catches the 8.10 This is a fast train (f) Today he missed the 8.10 This annoyed him very much (g) He caught the 8.40 This doesnt get in till 940 2 Mr Penn has two umbrellas, a brown one and a black one. Today he took the black one but left it in the bus on his way to work. When he was putting on his coat after his days work, he saw a dark blue umbrella hanging on the next hook and took it, thinking it was his. Actually it belonged to Mr Count (a) What was the brown umbrella? (b) What was the black umbrella? (c) What was the blue umbrella? (d) Who was Mr Count? (Relate all your answers to Mr Penn.) 3 Jack and Tom both wanted to go to Malta for their holidays. Tom liked flying so he went to the Blue Skies Agency. They booked him a seat on a tourist flight Jack hated flying. He went to the Blue Seas Agency They booked him a berth on the MS Banana Jack enjoyed his voyage

on the MS Banana, especially as he met a very pretty girl on board. She was called Julia (a) What is Malta? (from the point of view of Jack and Tom) (b) What is the Blue Skies Agency? (c) What is the Blue Seas Agency? (d) What is the MS Banana? (e) Who is Julia? (Relate all your answers to Jack or Tom or both. (f) Combine the second and third sentences in the passage into one sentence (Tom . flight) (g) Combine the next three sentences into one sentence. 4 George and Paul were working on Mr Joness roof. When they stopped work at 600 they left their ladder leaning against the house. At 700 Bill, a burglar, passed and saw the ladder. The house was now empty as Mr and Mrs Jones were out playing cards with Mr and Mrs Smith. Bill climbed up the ladder, got in through a first-floor window and went straight to the main bedroom, where he opened a locked drawer with the help of a screwdriver and pocketed Mrs Joness jewellery. Just then Tom returned Tom was a student. He lodged with Mr and Mrs

Jones Bill heard him coming He climbed quickly out of the window, leaving his screwdriver on the floor. (a) Who were George and Paul? (b) Who was Bill? (c) Who was Tom? (d) Who was Mrs Jones? (Mention jewellery.) (e) Who were Mr and Mrs Smith? (f) What ladder are we talking about? (g) What window are we talking about? (h) What was the screwdriver found on the floor? (Connect it with Bill.) (i) Combine into one sentence: George and Paul were working on the roof. They left the ladder leaning against the house. (j) Combine: Mr and Mrs Jones were out playing cards. They knew nothing of the burglary till they arrived home at 11.30 (k) Combine: Bills fingerprints were on the screwdriver. He was later caught by the police. 5 Ann is an au pair girl. She works for Mr and Mrs Green, in Tunbridge Wells One day Mrs Green unexpectedly gave Ann the day off. (She thought that Ann was looking rather tired.) So Ann rang up her boyfriend, Tom, and said Im coming up to London by the 12.10 from Tunbridge

Wells It gets into Charing Cross at 1310 Could you meet me for lunch? Yes, of course, said Tom, Ill meet you at the station under the clock. Well have lunch at the Intrepid Fox. Tom usually goes to the Intrepid Fox for lunch On the 12.10 Ann met a boy called Peter Peter was attracted by Ann and asked her to have lunch with him. Ann explained that she was having lunch with Tom Well, Ill wait till he turns up, said Peter. So Peter and Ann waited under a clock, with another passenger, Mary, who had come up to meet a boy called Paul. Meanwhile Tom was waiting under another clock. When Ann didnt turn up he thought shed missed the train, and asked a porter about the next train from Tunbridge Wells. The next train leaves Tunbridge Wells at 12.30, he said, and gets in at 1340 The next one gets in at 14.30 Tom met the 1230 but Ann wasnt on it He couldnt meet the next train because he had to be back at work by 14.00 So he walked slowly towards the exit, wondering what had happened. Luckily

the exit was almost directly under the other clock so he met Ann after all. (a) Who are the Greens? (b) What was the 12.10 from Tunbridge Wells? (c) What was the 12.30? (Connect it with Tom) (d) Who was Peter? (Connect him with Ann.) (e) Who was Paul? (f) What is the Intrepid Fox? (Connect it with Tom.) (g) Combine: Mrs Green thought Ann looked tired. She gave her the day off (h) Combine: Peter hated eating by himself. He hoped to have lunch with Ann (i) Combine: Tom had only an hour for lunch. He couldnt wait any longer (j) Combine: Marys boyfriend didnt turn up. She ended by having lunch with Peter (k) Combine: Tom and Ann wasted half an hour at the station. This meant that they hadnt time for a proper lunch. (1) Combine: Tom and Ann very nearly missed one another. This shows that you should never arrange to meet under a clock. 103 Relatives: defining, non-defining and connective PEG 72-84 Combine the following pairs or groups of sentences by means of relative pronouns, making any

changes necessary. 1 You sent me a present. Thank you very much for it (Thank you very much/or) 2 She was dancing with a student. He had a slight limp (two ways) 3 I am looking after some children. They are terribly spoilt, (two ways) 4 The bed has no mattress. I sleep on this bed (The bed 1 ) 5 Romeo and Juliet were lovers. Their parents hated each other 6 There wasnt any directory in the telephone box. I was phoning from this box 7 This is Mrs Jones. Her son won the championship last year 8 I was sitting in a chair. It suddenly collapsed (The chair ) 9 Mr Smith said he was too busy to speak to me. I had come specially to see him 10 The man was sitting at the desk. I had come to see this man 11 I missed the train. I usually catch this train And I had to travel on the next This was a slow train. (Make into one sentence) 12 His girl friend turned out to be an enemy spy. He trusted her absolutely 13 The car had bad brakes. We were in this car And The man didnt know the way This man

was driving. (Make into one sentence) 14 This is the story of a man. His wife suddenly loses her memory 15 Well have to get across the frontier. This will be difficult 16 A man brought in a small girl. Her hand had been cut by flying glass 17 The car crashed into a queue of people. Four of them were killed 18 The roads were crowded with refugees. Many of them were wounded 19 I was waiting for a man. He didnt turn up (The man ) 20 Tom came to the party in patched jeans. This surprised the other guests Most of the other guests were wearing evening dress. 21 The firm is sending me to York. I work for this firm (The firm ) 22 The Smiths were given rooms in the hotel. Their house had been destroyed in the explosion. 23 I saw several houses. Most of them were quite unsuitable 24 He wanted to come at 2 a.m This didnt suit me at all 25 This is a story of a group of boys. Their plane crashed on an uninhabited island 26 They tie up parcels with string. This is so weak that the parcel

usually comes to pieces before you get it home. (The string ) 27 He introduced me to his students. Most of them were from abroad 28 He expected me to pay £2 for 12 eggs. Four of the eggs were broken 29 He spoke in French. But the people didnt know French He was speaking to these people. (Combine these last two sentences only) 30 The boy was a philosophy student and wanted to sit up half the night discussing philosophy. Peter shared a flat with this boy (two ways) 31 They gave me four very bad tyres. One of them burst before I had driven four miles 32 She climbed to the top of the Monument to see the wonderful view. She had been told about this view. 33 I was given this address by a man, I met this man on a train. 34 The bar was so noisy that I couldnt hear the person at the other end of the line. I was telephoning from this bar. 35 A man answered the phone. He said Tom was out 36 The horse kept stopping to eat grass. I was on the horse This (his continual stopping) annoyed the

riding instructor. 104 Relatives: non-defining and connective PEG 78-84 Combine the following pairs or groups of sentences, using relative pronouns. 1 Tom had been driving all day. He was tired and wanted to stop 2 Ann had been sleeping in the back of the car. She felt quite fresh and wanted to go on 3 Paul wanted to take the mountain road. His tyres were nearly new 4 Jacks tyres were very old. He wanted to stick to the tarred road 5 Mary didnt know anything about mountains. She thought it would be quite safe to climb alone. 6 He gave orders to the manager. The manager passed them on to the foreman 7 She said that the men were thieves. This turned out to be true 8 The matter was reported to the Chief of Police. He ordered us all to be arrested 9 In prison they fed us on dry bread. Most of it was mouldy 10 We slept in the same room as a handcuffed prisoner. His handcuffs rattled every time he moved. 11 We lit a fire. It soon dried out our clothes 12 They rowed across the Atlantic.

This had never been done before 13 The lorry crashed into a bus-load of schoolchildren. Six of them were slightly injured 14 She refuses to use machines. This makes her work more arduous 15 I met Mary. She asked me to give you this 16 The women prayed aloud all night. This kept us awake 17 The river bed is uneven and you may be in shallow water one moment and in deep water the next. This makes it unsafe for non-swimmers 18 Mary said that there should be a notice up warning people. Marys children couldnt swim. 19 Ann said that there were far too many notices. Anns children could swim very well 20 He paid me £5 for cleaning ten windows. Most of them hadnt been cleaned for at least a year. 21 Jack, the goalkeeper, and Tom, one of the backs, were injured in last Saturdays match. Jacks injuries were very slight. He is being allowed to play in todays match This is a good thing because the team hasnt got another goalkeeper. (Combine the last three sentences only.) 22 But Toms leg is still in

bandages. He will have to watch the match from the stand 23 Mr White didnt get a seat on his train this morning. This put him in a bad temper, and caused him to be very rude to his junior partner. The junior partner in turn was rude to the chief clerk; and so on all the way down to the office boy. 24 On Monday Toms boss suddenly asked for a report on the previous weeks figures. Tom had a hangover. He felt too sick to work fast (Combine the last two sentences only.) 25 His boss didnt drink. He saw what was the matter and wasnt sympathetic 26 In the afternoon he rang Tom and asked why the report still hadnt arrived. The report should have been on his desk by 2 oclock. 27 Toms headache was now much worse. He just put the receiver down without answering. This was just as well, as if hed said anything he would have been very rude. 28 Fortunately Ann, the typist, came to Toms assistance. Ann rather liked Tom 29 Even so the report took three hours. It should have taken an hour and a half 30 I

went to Munich. I had always wanted to visit Munich 31 Hello, Paul, said Mr Jones to the headwaiter. The headwaiters name was Tom He said Good evening, sir, without any sign of recognition. This disappointed Mr Jones Mr Jones liked to be recognized by headwaiters. (Omit the first sentence) 32 And this time he was with Lucy. He was particularly anxious to impress Lucy 105 what and which PEG 81-3 Fill the gaps in the following sentences by using either what or which. (When which is used it should be preceded by a comma which the student must insert for himself.) 1 He didnt believe . I said annoyed me very much 2 In detective stories the murderer is always caught . doesnt happen in real life 3 He wasnt surprised at . he saw because I told him to expect 4 In hospitals they wake patients at 6 a.m is much too early 5 There was no directory in the first telephone box . meant that I had to go to another one. 6 I did. I could wasnt much 7 The clock struck thirteen .

made everyone laugh 8 I am sure that . you say is true 9 We travelled second class . is cheaper than first class but more crowded 10 He didnt know the language . made it difficult for him to get a job 11 People whose names begin with A always get taken first . is most unfair 12 He played the violin all night . annoyed the neighbours 13 When the mechanic opened the bonnet he saw at once . was wrong with the car 14 I didnt buy anything because I didnt see . I wanted 15 They sang as they marched . helped them to forget how tired they were 16 I saw a coat marked down to £10. was just I was prepared to pay 17 He was very rude to the customs officer . of course made things worse 18 Show me . youve got in your hand 19 Tell me . you want me to do 20 The frogs croaked all night . kept us awake 21 All the roads were blocked by snow . meant that help could not reach us till the following spring. 22 You neednt think you were unobserved! I saw . you did! 23 She was

once bitten by a monkey . made her dislike monkeys for the rest of her life 24 Some dairies have given up electric milk floats and gone back to horsedrawn vehicles . . shows that the horse still has a place in modern transport 25 She expects me to clean the house in half an hour . is impossible 26 He poured water on the burning oil stove . was a crazy thing to do 27 Would you know . to do if you were bitten by a snake? 28 They turned on the street lights . - made it suddenly seem much darker than it really was. 29 I dont know . delayed the train, but it went much slower than usual made me late for my appointment. 30 He asked a question . I answered, and then he asked exactly the same question again . showed me that he hadnt been listening 31 The crime was not discovered till 48 hours later . gave the criminals plenty of time to get away. 32 My neighbours on either side of me have painted their houses . of course only makes my house look shabbier than it really

is. 33 The headmaster believed that children should do . they liked meant, of course, that they didnt learn much. 34 I couldnt remember the number of my own car . made the police suspicious 34 He said that . frightened him was the appalling silence of the place 36 You will be punished for . you have done 106 whatever, whenever, whoever etc. PEG 85 Fill each of the gaps in the following sentences with one of the following words: however, whatever, whenever, wherever, whichever, whoever. 1 . you do, dont mention my name (I particularly dont want you to) 2 He lives in Wick, . that is (I dont know and dont much care) 3 Ann (looking out of the window): Bills van – Tom: It isnt a van, its a station wagon. Ann: Well, . it is, its just been given a parking ticket! 4 Youll never escape. Hell find you, you hide yourself, (no matter where) 5 . of you broke this window will have to pay for it 6 . broke this window will have to pay for it 7 The lift works perfectly for

Tom, but . I use it, the doors stick (every time) 8 Id rather have a room of my own, . small, than share with someone 9 . , told you Id lend you £500 was pulling your leg 10 Shall I type it or send it like this? ~ . you like 11 Youre wanted on the phone! ~ I cant come now. Ask it is to leave his number and Ill ring him back in half an hour. 12 . rich you are you cant buy happiness 13 Hes a phrenologist, . that is (I dont know) 14 We must finish tonight, . long it takes us (no matter how long) 15 . it rains, my roof leaks 16 Announcement: A box of dangerous drugs has been removed from the hospital dispensary. Will took it please return it immediately? 17 Mothers in this district are not letting their children out alone till . committed these murders has been arrested. 18 He started half an hour ago and his car is faster than yours. fast you drive, you wont catch him up. 19 Married man (to bachelor friend): You can do . you like in the evenings but I have to

go home to my wife. 20 . my neighbour is cooking there is a smell of burning, (every time) 21 I hope that . left this rubbish here is going to clear it away 22 We each draw a card and . of us has the lowest card does the washing up Or . has the lowest card 23 If I say, Heads, I win; tails, you lose, I will win . happens Or I will win . way the coin falls 24 . used the bathroom last forgot to clean the bath 107 Relative clauses replaced by infinitives PEG 77 Part I Replace the clauses in bold type by an infinitive or infinitive phrase. I have books that I must read. I have books to read. a peg on which I can hang my coat a peg to hang my coat on a form that you must fill in a form for you to fill in 1 We had a river in which we could swim. 2 The child is lonely; he would be happier if he had someone that he could play with. 3 I dont much care for cooking for myself; if I had a family that I had to cook for Id be more interested. 4 Here are some accounts that you must

check. 5 Ive got a bottle of wine but I havent got anything that I could open it with. 6 I have some letters that I must write. 7 I dont want to go alone and I havent anyone that I can go with. 8 I dont like him playing in the streets; I wish we had a garden that he could play in. 9 We had to eat standing up because we hadnt anything that we could sit on, and the grass was too wet. 10 The floor is dusty but I havent got a brush that I can sweep it with. 11 My files are all over the place. I wish I had a box that I could keep them in 12 She said that she wasnt going to buy any cards; she hadnt anyone to whom she could send cards. Part 2 Replace the clauses in bold type by infinitives. He was the first man who reached the top. He was the first man to reach the top. 13 He was the first man who left the burning building. 14 You are the last person who saw her alive. 15 My brother was the only one who realized the danger. 16 The pilot was the only man who survived the crash. 17 He simply

loves parties. He is always the first who comes and the last who goes 18 The Queen Elizabeth is the largest ship which has been built on the Clyde. 19 The last person who leaves the room must turn out the lights. 20 I was the only person who saw the difficulty. 21 He was the second man who was killed in this way. 22 Neil Armstrong was the first man who walked on the moon. 23 Lady Astor was the first woman who took her seat in Parliament. 24 The fifth man who was interviewed was entirely unsuitable. Prepositions 108 Prepositions: at, to; preposition/adverb: in PEG 90,93 Insert suitable prepositions in the following. 1 Could I speak . Tom, please? ~ Im afraid Toms . work But Jacks Would you like to speak him? 2 How do I get .the air terminal? Turn right the end of this street and youll see it front of you 3 He started going . school the age of five So now hes been school for ten years. Hes leaving the end of this year 4 He goes . his office every day

except Sunday On Sundays he stays home and works . the garden 5 I think I left my umbrella . the bus Id better write the Lost Property Office 6 We arrived . the airport good time for the plane 7 Can I look up a word . your dictionary? I left mine home 8 Our train arrived . York 630 Paul met us the station 9 Have you been . the theatre recently? ~ Yes, I was . the Old Vie last night 10 Im returning . France the end of this term ~ Are you coming back . England after the holidays? 11 He isnt living . home now, but if you write his home theyll forward the letter . his new address 12 I went . bed early but I couldnt get sleep because the people the next room were talking so loudly. 13 . first I found the work very tiring, but a few weeks I got used it 14 There was an accident . the crossroads midnight last night Two men were taken . hospital I believe one of them is still hospital 15 . the daytime the streets are

crowded but night they are quite deserted 16 . first her father refused to allow her to go back work; but the end he agreed 17 . the beginning of a textbook there is a preface, and the end there is an index 18 He went . sea 18, and spent all his working life sea He retired 56 and went to live . the country 19 I saw Tom . the bus stop this morning but couldnt speak him because we were standing . a queue and he was the front of it and I was the back 20 Ill leave some sandwiches . the fridge in case you are hungry when you come in 21 Wed better start . six, because climbing up the gallery takes some time I hope you dont mind sitting . the gallery ~ No, of course not. When I go the opera I always go the gallery 22 He is always . a hurry He drives a tremendous speed 23 When he began speaking . English, she looked him amazement 24 Write . ink and put your name the top of the page 25 We start serving breakfasts . 730

Shall I send yours up your room, or will you have it . the restaurant? 26 Hes always . a bad temper breakfast time 27 According . the guidebook there are three hotels the town 28 The pilot climbed . 5,000 metres and flew that height till he got the coast Then he came down . 1,000 metres and began to take photographs 29 Im interested . chess but Im not very good it 30 Who is the girl . the blue dress, sitting the head of the table? 31 I couldnt offer him a room . my flat because that time my mother-in-law was staying with us. 32 The train stopped . all the stations, and long before we got London every seat was taken and people were standing . the corridors 33 Shall we discuss it . my room, or shall I come your office? 34 . my astonishment I was the only person the bar Everyone else had gone the Casino. 35 The Loch Ness Monster is supposed to live . the bottom of the Loch and come the surface from time . time 36 You

cant say that he lives . luxury Theres hardly any furniture his room He hasnt even got a desk to write . 109 Prepositions and prepositions/adverbs: at, by, in, into, of, off, on, out (of), to, under, with PEG 90, 92-4, 95 G Fill the gaps in the following sentences from the above list. I Im going to Bath . Monday Tom Would you like to come us?Are you going bus? No, were going Toms car 2 I saw him standing . the queue but I dont know whether he got the bus or not 3 How do you go . school? ~ It depends . the weather wet days I go tube; fine weather I go foot 4 The car stopped . the traffic lights and wouldnt start again, so the driver got and pushed it . the side the road 5 Someone threw a stone . the speaker It hit him the head and knocked his glasses. 6 I want to post this . a friend Italy Will he have to pay duty it? 7 According . Tom, it is impossible to live Paris less than £10,000 a year 8 Are you . your own

(alone)? No, Im a friend mine 9 You ought to be ashamed . yourself for coming my nice clean kitchen muddy boots. 10 Children get presents . Christmas and their birthdays 11 How would we get . {escape from) this room if the hotel were fire? 12 He arrived . London 6 pm a foggy November day We often have fogs November. 13 The man . his back the camera is the Minister Agriculture 14 How do I get . the Public Library? ~ Go . the end this street and turn right; turn left the next traffic lights and then take the second turning . your right This will bring you Brook Street, and youll find the library . your left 15 Alternatively you could get a 14 bus . this stop and ask the conductor to tell you where to get . (alight) 16 The boy was leaning against the wall . his hands his pockets Take your hands . your pockets, said his father sharply 17 As she was getting . the car one her buttons fell Although we were . a

hurry she insisted stopping to look for it 18 Mr Jones is very keen . punctuality His lessons start dead time and you get terrible trouble if youre late. 19 The man . the pipe and red hair is the brother the girl blue 20 Dont leave your luggage . the corridor Itll be everyones way Bring it the compartment and put it . the rack 21 He sits . his desk all day his head his hands It gets my nerves 22 . mistake I opened Marys letter instead my own She was very angry me and said that Id done it . purpose 23 I buy a newspaper . my way the station and read it the train By the time I get . London Ive read most it 24 He was charged . driving while the influence alcohol 25 People who drop litter . - the pavements are liable a fine £50 26 He accused me . selling secret information the enemy 27 You look worried. Are you some sort trouble?Yes, a way Im debt and my creditors want to be paid the end

the month, and . the moment I havent any money the bank 28 The car skidded . the tree, the windscreen was smashed and the driver was cut the face . splinters glass 29 Four people were injured . the demonstration Three them are students the university, the fourth is here . holiday Thats him over there his arm plaster 30 This picture was painted . Picasso; and theres another Picasso the opposite wall 31 The horse stopped suddenly and the rider fell . He couldnt get again without help and there was no one . sight 32 The children hastily changed . bathing things and jumped the river shouts of delight. 33 Well have to go . car; we cant go bus account the bus strike 34 Divers breathing a mixture . helium and oxygen can work a depth 100 metres. 35 Im tired . working the suburbs and Ive asked to be transferred our central branch. 36 Can I have Monday . ? or Can I have a holiday Monday? I want to go my

grandsons wedding. 110 Prepositions and prepositions/adverbs: at, by, during, for, from, in, of, on, over, since, till, under, with PEG 87,90-1 Insert suitable words, choosing them from the above list. 1 Ive lived . this street ten years 2 He has lived . 101 Cornwall Gardens 1966 3 . the age 18 he was sent to prison theft 4 He was . prison two years that time he became interested pigeons 5 There is a parcel of books . you the table the hall ~ Oh, they must be . my brother He always sends me books my birthday 6 We heard that Bill wasnt . arrest but was helping the police their enquiries The police are interested . a bank robbery which took place Bills last holidays 7 Much Ado About Nothing is . Shakespeare, and youll find more his plays the bookcase . the corner 8 As the child was too young to travel . herself, they arranged her to travel the care . a friend of the family 9 Have you heard . John his return?

~ Yes, I had a letter . Monday Hes thinking going back America 10 He was ill . a week and that week his wife never left his side 11 Arent you coming . us? ~ No, Im waiting . Tom ~ But he wont be ready . some time ~ Im not . a hurry Ill wait till hes ready 12 Im very sorry . being late It was good you to wait me 13 Passengers may leave bulky articles . the stairs the conductors permission, but the bus company will not be responsible . such articles 14 Remember to be . good time the opera because if youre late they wont let you . the end the act 15 I want two seats . Romeo and Juliet Friday night 16 . spite the heat he refused to take his coat 17 He was wounded . the shoulder a bullet fired an upstairs window 18 While . their way from the coast the mountains they were attacked a jaguar 19 What platform does the train . York leave ? ~ Platform 8, and youd better hurry. Itll be leaving a minute 20 He invited

me to dinner . his club and the meal he asked me advice about his investments. 21 Hes not independent . any means He depends his father everything 22 He has a picture . Picasso (Picasso painted the picture) and he cant decide whether to hang it . the hall the right as you come or the sitting room the fireplace. 23 Im tired . hearing about Tom and his Picasso He can hang it his garage all I care! 24 He said he was . debt and asked me a loan £50 25 Whats the cheapest way . getting London Edinburgh?Well, you could hitch hike there next nothing, or you could go coach about £20. 26 I was horrified . his appearance He looked as if he hadnt slept weeks 27 When he gets back . the office he expects his wife to meet him the door his slippers, and have a hot meal waiting . him 28 Yesterday the children went . a walk and didnt get back 10 pm Their mother was furious . them coming in so late 29 Passengers who

get .or a bus (ie who board or leave it) except the official stops do so . their own risk 30 The rows are lettered - . A to T, beginning the row nearest the stage So if Tom is sitting . B26, and Jack is sitting C26, Tom will be directly front Jack 31 Whats the best way . cooking a lobster? ~ Cook it . boiling salted water, and serve it cold mayonnaise 32 He was fined . parking his car a no-parking area 33 He opened the door . a rusty key and went down the steps the cellar, followed by Bill . a torch 34 The adults worked . 6 am to 6 pm, an hour lunch Boys 18 were not supposed to start . 8 am (earlier than 8 am) 35 He died . heart failure Tuesday night His wife is still suffering shock 36 The house is . fire! Send the Fire Brigade! 111 Prepositions and prepositions/adverbs: about, at, away (adverb only), by, for, from, in, into, on, out, to, under, up, with, over PEG 96-7 Insert a suitable word in the following

sentences. 1 He insisted . seeing the documents 2 They succeeded . escaping the burning house 3 I am not interested . anything that happened the very remote past 4 The children are very fond . swimming summer they spend most their time . the water 5 How are you getting . at school? ~ Im getting . all right except English Im very bad English; Ill have to work harder . it, and spend more time it 6 Paul goes . school you, doesnt he? Hows he getting his English? or Hows his English getting . ?~ 7 I dont know. Were not the same class But he gets the other students all right. He has heaps friends 8 There is no point . going car if we cant park near the theatre 9 She made a point . coming late so that everyone would look her 10 It never occurred . me to ask him proof his identity 11 . first, driving on the left is confusing, but youll soon get used it 12 Ive heard such a lot . him that Im looking forward

seeing him very much 13 He was so absorbed . his work that when I came , he didnt even look (raise his head) 14 Im sorry . Tom (I pity him) He has worked Brown and Company ten years and now the firm has been taken . by Jones Ltd, and theyre going to dismiss him 15 Im sorry . being late Monday Or Im sorry Monday 16 The complete set . books can be ordered £10 Jones and Company (Jones and Company will send them to you if you write enclosing £10.) 17 Im waiting . my friend Hell be here a moment 18 I see . todays paper that you need a secretary a knowledge of French I should like to apply . the post 19 You cant rely . him Hes almost always late appointments 20 If you do not comply . the traffic regulations you will get trouble the police 21 Wine is good . you, but it is expensive England because there is a fairly high tax . it 22 . fairy stories, stepmothers are always unkind their stepchildren; but my stepmother

has always been very good . me 23 He was so infuriated . the play that he walked (left the theatre) the middle . the first act 24 My au pair girl takes care . my little boys (looks them) the afternoons Shes very good . children (She can manage them well) 25 He threw stones . his attackers, trying to drive them 26 I threw the ball . Peter, but instead throwing it back me, he ran and hid it. 27 I object . being kept waiting Why cant you be time? 28 . accordance the wishes my people, the president said, am retiring public life. 29 This regulation doesnt apply . you You are {less than) 18 30 Im not exactly keen . cooking; but I prefer it washing up (Washing up is worse than cooking.) 31 I was so afraid . missing the train that I took a taxi the station 32 What . taking the day and spending it the seaside? 33 I dont object . lending you my pen, but wouldnt it be better if you had a pen your own? 34 Dont ask the

office . information I will provide you all the information you need. 35 I disapprove . people who make all sorts promises which the have no intention . keeping 36 I was . the impression that I had paid you the work you did me 112 Use and omission of prepositions PEG 88-9 Insert a preposition if necessary. Choose from at, by, for, in, of, on, past, till/until, to, with. 1 He asked . his father money 2 They paid . me the books 3 I thought he would offer . Ann the job, but he offered it me 4 Keep . me a place, and keep a place Ann too 5 They showed . us photographs their baby 6 Buying presents . children is sometimes very difficult the end I bought a kite . Tom and a torch . Ann 7 Pass the salt . your father, Peter, and pass me the pepper, please 8 When you have lunch . a restaurant, who pays the bill? ~ Oh, each . us pays what he has had 9 Pauls a pianist. He sometimes plays us the evening Last night he played

some Chopin. 10 I think Ill be able to find . Ann a job ~ Could you find a job . me, too? 11 He sold the picture . an American dealer £5,000 12 He promised . us a share the profits 13 He built a very nice house . Jack only £50,000 I wonder what sort house he would build . me £30,000 14 She is knitting socks . refugees I wish shed knit me some socks 15 Sitting . the floor isnt exactly comfortable Throw me a cushion, please, Ann 16 If you are going . the Post Office, could you buy me a book stamps? 17 If you write . me a song Ill sing it the school concert Ill get Paul to accompany . me the guitar 18 Could you lend . us your lawnmower, please? ~ Im afraid youll have to ask . someone else to lend you one Weve lent ours . Mr Jones and he always keeps it ages 19 I thought youd be late . dinner, so I ordered some sandwiches you; theyre the bar. I havent paid them: you can pay the barman 20 I explained . him

that it was the custom England to wash ones car at the weekend. 21 I described the machine . him and asked him if he could make me one like it 22 She told . us that shed been attacked the street We asked her to describe her attacker and she said he was a tall man . a limp 23 He told . them to wait him the bridge 24 I cannot repeat . you what she said me confidence 25 The headmaster warned . me to work harder What did he say you, Jack? 26 He advised . the strikers to go back work They received his advice shouts . contempt 27 They dont allow . you to smoke cinemas France 28 He told lies . the police ~ Im not surprised. He told me a pack lies yesterday 29 This film reminds . me my childhood 30 I rely . you to remind me to pay Jack the books he bought me 31 We must try to get . home time tea 32 We didnt reach Berlin . after dark, and had some difficulty finding our hotel 33 If we say The manager

showed . us to our room, we mean that he led us the door. If we say, He showed us the room, we mean that he entered the room . us 34 I read . him the report He listened me amazement 35 He ordered . us to give him all the maps our possession 36 He suggested . me that we should offer to pay her dollars 113 till/until, to, for, since, then, after, afterwards PEG 92 A, 93 Part 1 till, until, to Insert till, until, to where appropriate. 1 Go on. the crossroads 2 Go on . you see a church on your right 3 We work from 9 a.m 6 pm 4 Start now and go on . I tell you to stop 5 Im going to wait . it stops raining 6 Youll have to stay in bed . your temperature goes down 7 The library is open from 10 . 4 oclock 8 This train goes . York 9 We have lunch from 12.00 100 Then we start again and go on 530 10 Go back . the hotel and wait there I call for you 11 Im not going for a walk, Im only going . the bank ~ Then youd better wait . the bank

opens 12 If youre going . the Post Office would you post a letter for me? ~ Yes, of course; but it wont go . tomorrow Part 2 for, since (see also Exercise 122) PEG 91,187 Insert for or since. 1 Its a long time . I had a good meal Or I havent had a good meal ages 2 Ive been waiting for Tom . 600; I wonder if hes lost his way 3 Ever . his accident hes been afraid of flying 4 I havent seen Tom . we left school 5 The astronauts have already been in orbit . two days 6 . last year the noise has become very much worse 7 Ive had this toothache . the last week 8 Her husband died last year, and . then she has been supporting the family Or Shes been supporting the family . the last year 9 Its three years . I did any skiing Or I havent done any skiing three years 10 The windows havent been cleaned . weeks 11 He has been missing . 48 hours 12 . last year we havent been allowed to park here Part 3 then, after, afterwards PEG 92 B Insert then, after, or afterwards. 1

We had tea and . went for a walk Or tea we went for a walk 2 Well have watercress soup to start with. What would you like that? 3 . waiting for half an hour he went home in disgust (later on) he was sorry he hadnt waited longer. 4 I give all the guests breakfast; . I have my own 5 First you loosen the nuts, . you jack up the car, you take the wheel off 6 He listened at the keyhole for a minute; . he opened the door cautiously 7 University administrators sometimes appear more important than scholars; but the administrators will not be remembered . their death 8 Put your toys away, said his mother, and . well have tea 9 In the story, the Princess married the Prince and they lived happily ever. 10 He wound up the clock, set the alarm for 5.00, got into bed and fell asleep 11 He poured the brandy into a glass, warmed it in his hands a little, . drank it slowly 12 I covered the pudding with cream and decorated it with cherries. ~ And . ?~ . we ate it,

of course 13 For years . people remembered that terrible night 14 I spoke angrily; . (some time later) I regretted my words 15 He looked round to see that nobody was watching; . he took a piece of bent wire and began trying to open the door. 16 First you say Yes, and . you say No Youre an impossible person to make plans with. Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives 114 Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives PEG 255 Use the perfect infinitive of the verbs in brackets with a suitable auxiliary verb: Ive never seen a London policeman. You (see) one! Youve been in London a week already! You must have seen one. Note that not placed before the verb in brackets refers to the auxiliary verb: I heard their phone ringing. You (not hear) their phone ringing They havent got a phone You couldnt have heard their phone ringing. 1 Jack: Ive finished. Ann: But you were only half way through when I went to bed. You (work) all night! 2 The instructions were in French. I translated them into English for him

~ You (not translate) them. He knows French 3 Tom: Whats happened to Jack? We said 7.30 and now its 800 and theres no sign of him. Ann: He (forget) that we invited him. He is rather forgetful I (telephone) him yesterday to remind him. (It was foolish of me not to telephone) 4 Tom: Or he (get) lost. He hasnt been to this house before I (give) him directions (I didnt give him directions, which was stupid of me.) Ann: Or he (have) a breakdown or a puncture. Tom: A puncture (not delay) him so long. 5 Ann: Or he (stop) for a drink and (get) involved in an argument. Jacks arguments go on for hours! Tom: Or he (run) out of petrol. Perhaps wed better go and look for him 6 You (not feed) the bears! (It was foolish of you to feed them.) Now theyll be angry if the next campers dont feed them too. 7 Nobody has been in this house for a month. ~ Nonsense! Heres last Mondays paper in the wastepaper basket; somebody (be) here quite recently. 8 Two of the players spent the night before the big

match at a party. ~ That was very foolish of them. They (go) to bed early 9 He says that when walking across Kensington Gardens he was attacked by wolves. ~ He (not be attacked) by wolves. There arent any wolves in Kensington He (see) some Alsatian dogs and (think) they were wolves. 10 I waited from 8.00 to 830 under the clock and he says he waited from 800 to 830 under the clock, and we didnt see each other! ~ You (wait) under different clocks! There are two in the station, you know. 11 He set off alone a month ago and hasnt been heard of since. ~ He (fall) into a river and (be eaten) by crocodiles. ~ Or (be kidnapped) by tribesmen. ~ Or (catch) fever and (die) of it. 12 We (start) yesterday (this was the plan)-, but the flight was cancelled because of the fog, so were still here, as you see. 13 Mary to Ann, who has just toiled up six flights of stairs: You (not walk) up! You (come) up in the lift. Its working now 14 I left my car here under the No Parking sign; and now its gone. It

(be) stolen! ~ Not necessarily. The police (drive) it away 15 He had two bottles of Coke and got frightfully drunk. ~ He (not get) drunk on Coke. He (drink) gin with it 16 He was riding a bicycle along the motorway when he. was hit by the trailer of a lorry These big lorries are very dangerous. Perhaps, but Paul (not ride) a bicycle along the motorway; bicycles are not allowed 17 Ive lost one of my gloves! ~ The puppy (take) it. I saw him running by just now with something in his mouth It (be) your glove. 18 Weve run out of petrol! ~ Im not surprised. I noticed that the tank was nearly empty when left home ~ You (tell) me! We (get) petrol at the last village. Now weve got a 10-mile walk! 19 If the ground hadnt been so soft the horse I backed (win) instead of coming in second. He never does very well on soft ground. 20 Ive written to Paul. ~ You (not write). Hes coming here tomorrow Youll see him before he gets your letter 21 They (build) a two-storey house (this was the original plan),

but money ran out so they built a bungalow instead. 22 If the dog hadnt woken us we (not notice) the fire for several hours, and by that time it (spread) the house next door. 23 Why didnt you wait for me yesterday? ~ I waited five minutes. ~ You (wait) a little longer! 24 How did Peter get here? ~ He (come) on a motorcycle. {This is a possibility) ~ He (not come) on a motorcycle. He doesnt ride one ~ He (come) as a pillion passenger. 25 (Alice, staying at a hotel for the first time, carefully washes up the early morning tea things.) Mother: You (not do) that. The hotel staff do the washing up 26 Why are you so late? You (be) here two hours ago! 27 Mrs Smith: Ive cooked scrambled eggs for Mr Jones, because of his diet, and steak and onions for everyone else. Mr Jones: You (not cook) anything special for me, Mrs Smith; Im not on a diet any longer. 28 If Id known wed have to wait so long I (bring) a book. ~ If Id known it was going to be so cold I (not come) at all! 29 Tom (looking

out of the window): Fortunately that teapot didnt hit anyone, but you (not throw) it out of the window, Ann! You (kill) someone. 30 Look at this beautiful painting! Only a very great artist (paint) such a picture! ~ Nonsense! A child of five (paint) it with his eyes shut. 31 I wonder how the fire started. ~ Oh, someone (drop) a lighted cigarette. Or it (be) an electrical fault ~ 32 You dont think it (be started) deliberately? ~ Well, I suppose it (be). {It is possible) But who would do a thing like that? 33 There is only one set of footprints, so the kidnapper (carry) his prisoner out. He not (do) it in daylight or he (be) seen. He (wait) till dark 34 I went with him to show him the way. ~ You (not do) that. {That wasn t necessary) He knows the way 35 Then an enormous man, ten feet tall, came into the ring. ~ He (not be) ten feet tall really. He (walk) on stilts 36 He jumped out of a sixth-floor window and broke his neck. ~ You say jumped. It (not be) an accident? ~ No. The window was

too small It (be) deliberate 115 Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives PEG 255 Use the perfect infinitive of the verbs in brackets with a suitable auxiliary verb. 1 Tom: I had my house painted recently, but when they sent in the bill I was appalled. If Id known it was going to cost so much I (not have) it done. 2 Peter: But its your own fault, Tom. You (ask) for an estimate before letting them start 3 Mother (very anxious about her son, aged ten): Where is he? He (be) here an hour ago? (Its now 5.00 and he is usually home by 400) 4 Friend: He (go) to the playground to watch a football match. Mother: No, if thered been a match today he (tell) me. He always tells me all the football news. 5 Friend: His teacher (keep) him in as a punishment. Mother: She (not keep) him in for a whole hour. 6 Friend: Then he (go) to a friends house. Mother: Yes, or he (be) knocked down crossing the street. He may be lying unconscious in hospital! Friend: If that had happened the hospital (ring) you. Mother:

They (not ring) me. My phone isnt working! 7 He jumped out of the aeroplane and landed unhurt! ~ You mean he parachuted down? ~ He didnt say anything about a parachute. ~ He (have) a parachute. Otherwise he (be) killed 8 I bought a sweater at Marks and Spencers last Sunday. ~ You (not buy) it on Sunday. Marks and Spencers is shut on Sundays 9 Toms had another accident. He came out of a side road rather fast and a lorry crashed into him. ~ It sounds like Toms fault. He (wait) till the main road was clear 10 I wonder who carried the piano upstairs. I suppose it was Paul ~ Paul (not carry) it by himself. Someone (help) him 11 I was on the Circle Line and we were just leaving Piccadilly ~ Then you (not be) on the Circle Line. It doesnt go through Piccadilly You (be) on the Bakerloo Line or the Piccadilly Line. 12 The plane disappeared two weeks ago and no one knows what happened to it. ~ It (crash) into the sea. If it had crashed on land someone (report) it by now ~ 13 But what do you

think caused the plane to crash? ~ Who knows? It (blow) up. Someone (plant) a bomb on board before take-off, or one of the passengers (have) explosives with him. 14 Or someone (try) to hijack the plane. And there (be) a fight during which the plane crashed. 15 Or something (go) wrong with the engines, or it (be) a case of metal fatigue. ~ It (not be) metal fatigue because it was a brand new plane. 16 The pilot (collapse) at the controls. ~ But if that had happened the second pilot (take over). 17 Maria (new to English customs): He said, How do you do? so I told him about my migraine. Ann: You (not do) that. (That wasnt the right thing to do) You (say), How do you do? too. 18 It was the depths of winter and we had to wait eighteen hours in an unheated station. ~ You (be) frozen by the time the train arrived. 19 Ive done all the calculations. Here you aresix pages ~ But you (not do) all that work! We have a computer to do that sort of thing. You (tell) me! Then I (not waste) all my time!

20 He failed the exam but he (pass) it. (He had the ability to pass it) Its all his own fault; he (work) much harder during the term. 21 Hes not here! Yet I locked him in and bolted the door too, so he (not possibly open) the door from inside. And he (not get) out of the window; its too small ~ 22 Somebody (let) him out. One of his friends (follow) you here and (slip) in when your back was turned. 23 Passenger: Fares are awful! I had to pay £2 for my ticket and £1 for the baby. Another passenger: But you (not buy) a ticket for the baby. Babies travel free 24 Immediately after drinking the coffee I felt very sleepy and the next thing I remember is finding myself lying in the middle of the road. ~ They (drug) your coffee and (dump) you there. ~ If I hadnt woken up when I did I (be run) over. ~ That (be) part of their plan. (It is possible that it was part of their plan) 25 I found he knew all my movements for the past week. He (bribe) one of the other students to give him the

information. ~ Or he (follow) you himself. ~ No, he (not do) that. (That is not possible) I (see) him 26 I stamped it and posted it. ~ You (not stamp) it. It was a reply-paid envelope 27 He walked from London to Cambridge in three hours. ~ He (not do) it in that time! Someone (give) him a lift. 28 I found that everything I said on the phone had been reported to the police. ~ Your phone (be) tapped. 29 My rings gone! It was on the table by the window only a minute ago! Who (take) it? ~ It (be) a magpie. There are some round here and they like shining things A magpie (hop) in through the window and (snatch) it when you were out of the room. (This is possible.) 30 I had to walk home yesterday: I had no money for my fare. ~ You (tell) me! I (lend) you the money! 31 I (not take) a taxi. I (walk); it was only a hundred metres (/ took a taxi but it wasn t necessary. ) 32 The shoplifter thought she was unobserved but when she got to the door a store detective stopped her. They (watch) her on

closed-circuit television 33 When I rang the exchange and asked for the number the operator said, You (not ring) the exchange! You (dial) the number direct! However, he put me through. 34 One moment the conjurers handkerchief was empty and the next moment it was full of eggs! ~ He (have) the eggs up his sleeve! ~ 35 Well, I suppose he (have) eggs up his sleeve: but for his next trick he produced a bowl of goldfish out of the air. He (not have) a bowl of goldfish up his sleeve, now, could he? 36 Mary: My grandmother knew a girl whose fiance was sent to prison for twenty years. This girl (marry) any one of a dozen men because she was a real beauty, but she waited till her fiance came out of jail! Jack: She (love) him very much. Ann: She (be) an idiot! 116 Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives PEG 114 B, 255 Use the perfect infinitive of the verbs in brackets with the appropriate auxiliary. Phrases in bold type should not be repeated but their meaning should be expressed by auxiliary +

perfect infinitive. You (bought) bread, which was not necessary. You needn t have bought bread. 1 To someone who was not at the party: We had a wonderful time; you (be) there. 2 It is possible that Shakespeare (write) it. ~ Shakespeare (not write) it because events are mentioned that did occur till after Shakespeares time. 3 I found this baby bird at the foot of a tree. It (fall) from a nest 4 I used to visit her and I always wondered why she had those dreadful pictures on the walls. ~ It is possible that she (like) them. 5 During the gale, the captain was on the bridge the whole time. He (be) exhausted afterwards. 6 You (send) a telegram, which was quite unnecessary; a letter would have done. 7 You (leave) a note. (It was very inconsiderate of you not to do so) 8 Somebody phoned at lunchtime t) but I couldnt catch the name. ~ It (be) my brother. He sometimes rings me up then 9 The lecturer was a tall thin man with white hair. ~ Then it (not be) Dr Fell because he is short and fat. It

(be) Dr Jones; I think he is thin. 10 You (not go) out yesterday without a coat. No wonder you caught cold 11 I saw them in the street but they didnt stop to speak to me. ~ It is possible that they (be) in a hurry. 12 They (be) married next week but now they have quarrelled and the wedding has been cancelled. 13 If we hadnt had this puncture we certainly (be) home by now. 14 You (carry) the dog, which was unnecessary. He can walk very well 15 People were waiting but the bus didnt stop. ~ It is possible that it (be) full. 16 We went sailing on a lake in a London park. I think it was the Round Pond ~ It (not be) the Round Pond. There are only toy boats there It (be) the Serpentine 17 Look, theres a tree right across the road! ~ So there is. It (be) blown down by the gale last night 18 This building (be) finished by the end of last year (this was the plan), but there have been so many strikes that it isnt finished yet. 19 But for the fog they (reach) the top next day. 20 You (cross) the

road by the subway, (but you didnt) 21 It is a pity you (not bring) your kite. It is just the day for kites 22 It is possible that I (be) mistaken. 23 I sat on a seat in the park and now my coat is covered in green stripes. ~ The paint (be) wet. 24 I suppose it was Charles who left the kitchen in such a mess. ~ No, it (not be) Charles. He never has a meal in It (be) Bill 25 I know she was in because I heard her radio, but she didnt open the door. ~ Possibly she (not hear) the bell. 26 If you had told me that you were in London I (put) you up. (This would have been possible.) 27 If they had gone any further they (fall) over a precipice. 28 He (check) that his brakes were working properly, (but he didnt) 29 You (apologize), which was not necessary. 30 I cant think why they didnt try to help him. ~ It is possible that they (not realize) that he was drowning. 31 He (thank) us. (We are offended that he didnt) 32 I (go) on Tuesday (this was the plan). But on Tuesday I had a terrible cold

so I decided to wait till Wednesday. 33 You (warn) him that the ice was dangerous, (but you didnt) 34 If you had kept quiet nobody (know) anything about it. 35 You (bought) a new one, which wasnt necessary. I could have lent you mine 36 As soon as I switched on my new electric cooker there was an explosion. ~ There (be) something wrong with it. Present, past and perfect tenses 117 The simple present and the present continuous PEG 164-74 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct present tense. 1 Ann sees Paul putting-on his coat and says: Where you (go), Paul? Paul: I (go) to buy some cigarettes. You (want) an evening paper? 2 Ann: No, thanks. You are always buying cigarettes, Paul How many you (smoke) a day? Paul: I (not smoke) very manyperhaps 20. Jack (smoke) far more than I (do) He (spend) £10 a week on cigarettes. 3 Mary (see) Peter standing at the bus stop. Mary: Hello, Peter. What bus you (wait) for? Peter: Hello, Mary. I (wait) for a 9 or a 14 4 Mary: You usually (go) to work

by car, dont you? Peter: Yes, but the car (belong) to my mother and she sometimes (want) it. She (use) it today to take Tom to the dentist. 5 Mary: I usually (go) by car too. Jack (take) me because he (pass) my office on his way to the factory. But this week he (work) in a factory in the opposite direction: so I (queue) like you. 6 Peter: Heres a 9 now. You (come) on it or you (wait) for a 14? Mary: I (think) Ill take the 9. If I (wait) for a 14 I may be late, and if you (be) late at my office everyone (look) at you. 7 Mary and Ann (wait) outside a telephone box. Inside the box a boy (dial) a number Mary: You (know) that boy? Ann: Yes, hes a friend of my brothers. He (phone) his girl friend every day from this box. 8 Mary: Where he (come) from? Ann: He (come) from Japan. Hes a very clever boy; he (speak) four languages 9 Mary: I (wonder) what he (speak) now. Ann: Well, his girl friend (come) from Japan too; so I (suppose) he (speak) Japanese. 10 It is 8.30 Tom and Ann (have)

breakfast They both (open) their letters Tom: No one ever (write) to me. All I (get) is bills! You (have) anything interesting? 11 Ann: Ive got a letter from Hugh. He (say) he (come) to London next week and (want) us to meet him for lunch. 12 Peter: You (have) traffic wardens in your country? Pedro: No, I (not think) so. You (not see) them in my town anyway What exactly a traffic warden (do)? 13 Peter: He (walk) up and down the street and if a car (stay) too long; at a parking place or (park) in a no-parking area he (stick) a parking ticket to the windscreen. 14 Look! He (put) a ticket on Toms car. Tom will be furious when he (see) it He (hate) getting parking tickets. 15 Customer: I (want) to buy a fur coat. Have you any nice coats for about £500? Assistant: Im afraid we just (close), madam. Its 455, and we always (close) at 500 sharp on Fridays as Mr Jones the manager (not want) to miss his favourite television programme. 16 It is Friday evening and the Brown family are at home. Mrs

Brown (listen) to a concert on the radio; Mr Brown (read) a paper, George Brown (do) his homework and Ann Brown (write) a letter. 17 Mr Brown always (read) his newspapers in the evenings. Mrs Brown sometimes (knit) but she (not knit) tonight. 18 Mr Black often (go) to the theatre but his wife (not go) very often. He (like) all sorts of plays. She (prefer) comedies 19 Tonight they (watch) a very modern comedy. They (enjoy) it, but they (not understand) some of the jokes. 20 What (happen) in your class? The teacher (give) lectures every day? ~ No. He (give) one lecture a week, and on the other days he (show) films or (discuss) books with us. 21 A bus conductor (get) more exercise than a bus driver. The driver just (sit) in his cab but the conductor (stand) and (walk) about and (run) up and down the stairs. 22 Why that man (stand) in the middle of the road? ~ He (try) to get across. He (wait) for a gap in the traffic ~ Why he (not use) the subway? ~ Lots of people (not bother) to use the

subway. They (prefer) to risk their lives crossing here. 23 You (wear) a new coat, arent you? ~ Yes. You (like) it? ~ The colour (suit) you but it (not fit) you very well. Its much too big 24 All the guides here (speak) at least three foreign languages, because a lot of foreign visitors (come) every summer. 25 Paul (take) a party of French tourists round now and tomorrow an American party (come). 26 Englishmen very seldom (talk) on the Underground. They (prefer) to read their newspapers. ~ Those two men in the corner (talk). ~ But they (not talk) English. 27 Jones and Co. (have) a sale at the moment Shall we look in on our way home? ~ Id love to but Im afraid I wont have time. I (meet) Tom at 530 ~ You (go) out with Tom often? 28 I usually (go) by train, but this weekend I (go) by bus. It (take) longer but it (cost) less 29 Ann (on telephone): You (do) anything at the moment, Sally? Sally: Yes. I (pack); I (catch) a plane to New York in three hours time Ann: Lucky girl! How long

you (stay) in New York? 30 Peter: You (go) out tonight, Paul? Paul: No, I (stay) at home. The neighbours (come) in to watch TV Peter: You (invite) the neighbours often? Paul: No, but they (invite) themselves whenever there is a good programme. 31 Jack: I just (go) out to get an evening paper. Ann: But it (pour)! Why you (not wait) till the rain (stop)? (I advise you to wait.) 32 Lucy: Tom (get) up very early but he (wash) and (shave) and (get) his breakfast so quietly that I (not hear) a thing. But I (hear) him driving away from the house because his car (make) a lot of noise. 33 Alice: My brother (get) up very early too. But he (make) such a lot of noise that he (wake) everybody up. He (sing) in his bath and (bang) doors and (drop) things in the kitchen and (play) the radio very loudly. 34 Lucy: Why you (not ask) him to be a bit quieter? Alice: I (mention) it every night but it (not do) any good. He (say) that he (not make) a sound, and I (think) he really (believe) it. 35 Tom: You

(see) that man at the corner? He (keep) stopping people and asking them questions. You (think) he (ask) for directions? Jack: No, I (expect) he (make) a survey. Tom: How you (make) a survey? Jack: You (stop) people and (ask) them questions and (write) the answers on a report sheet. 36 In most countries a child (start) school at six and (stay) for about five years in a primary school. Then he (move) to a secondary school At 17 or 18 he (take) an exam; if he (do) well in this exam he can go on to a university if he (wish). 118 The simple present and the present continuous PEG 164-74 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct present tense. I Mrs Jones: My daughter never (write) to me so I never (know) what she (do). Your son (write) to you, Mrs Smith? Mrs Smith: Yes, I (hear) from him every week. He (seem) to like writing letters 2 These apples (cost) 40p a bag. You (think) that is expensive? ~ It (depend) on the size of the bag. 3 I (see) my solicitor tomorrow (/ have arranged this), I

(change) my will. ~ You always (change) your will. Why you (not leave) it alone? 4 You (look) very thoughtful. What you (think) about? ~ I (think) about my retirement. ~ But youre only 25. You only just (start) your career ~ I (know); but I (read) an article which (say) that a sensible man (start) thinking about retirement at 25. 5 My next door neighbour always (knock) on my door and (ask) me lend her lOp pieces. ~ What she (do) with them? ~ She (put) them in her gas meter. I really (not mind) lending her a few l0p pieces but what (annoy) me is that she (know) how many she (need) each week but never (take) the trouble to bring the right number home. ~ 6 What she (do) if she (run out) of them when you are away? ~ Oh, she (borrow) from her other neighbour, Mr White; but this (take) longer because he always (want) her to stay and chat and she (find) quite hard to get away from him. ~ 7 How much she (owe) you now? ~ I (not know); I (not keep) an account. Anyway she (leave) next week;

she (get) married. I (try) to think of a suitable wedding present, ~ 8 Why you (not offer) to cancel her debt? ~ That (sound) rather a mean sort of present. Anyway she probably (not realize) that she (owe) me money. ~ 9 My brother (say) that people who (owe) him money always (seem) forget about it, but people he (owe) money to always (remember) exactly. 10 I (not think) your brother (enjoy) the party. He (keep) looking at his watch ~ Oh, Im sure he (enjoy) it. He always (enjoy) your parties But I (know) he (want) to be home early tonight because he (expect) an important telephone call. 11 Jack: How much longer you (stay) in England? Paul: Only one more day. I (leave) tomorrow night I (go) to Holland for two weeks 12 Jack: And you (come) back to England after that or you (go) home? Paul: It (depend) on my father. But if he (agree) to let me go on studying here, Ill certainly come back. And I (expect) he will agree 13 Paul: By the way, Jack, Ann (see) me off at Victoria tomorrow. Why you

(not come) too? You could have coffee with her afterwards. (Paul is advising/inviting Jack to come and see him off.) 14 You (see) that man at the corner of the street? He is a private detective. He (watch) No. 24 ~ How you (know) he (watch) No. 24? ~ Because whenever anyone (come) out of, or (go) into, the house he (make) a note in his little book. 15 What all those people (do) in the middle of the street? And why they (wear) such extraordinary clothes? ~ They (make) a film. Most of the crowd are local people who (work) as extras ~ 16 It (sound) great fun. You (think) I could get a job as a film extra? ~ I (not know) but I (see) Ann over there; when they (finish) this scene Ill ask her if they still (take) on extras. ~ 17 Ann (act) in the film? ~ She has a small part. She (not act) very well I (imagine) she got the part because she (know) the director. 18 My brother (live) next door and his two children (come) and (see) me every day. The boy (not bother) to knock at the door; he

just (climb) in through the window; but the girl always (knock). 19 Tom: We (move) into our new house tomorrow. Bill: But why you (leave) your present house? It (suit) you all. Tom: Yes, I (know) it (do); but the Council (pull down) all the houses on this side. They (widen) the road. They (say) its a bottleneck 20 If you (ask) a friend if she (like) your new dress she usually (say) Yes; so you (not know) whether she really (think) it (suit) you or whether she merely (be) polite. 21 If you (want) a candid opinion youd better ask my sister. She never (tell) white lies; she always (say) exactly what she (think). 22 Your sisters frankness (annoy) people? ~ Yes, it (do). The average person (not want) a truthful answer; he (want) you to say something agreeable. 23 I (hear) that you have bought a new house. ~ Yes, but I (not live) in it yet. They still (work) on it, and the work (take) longer than I expected. ~ 24 I (think) repair jobs always (take) longer than one (expect). What they (do)

now? ~ They (put) in new electric points. They (seem) competent electricians but they (smoke) at their work and this (slow) them down. 25 They always (hammer) next door. ~ Yes, that house (keep) changing hands and the new owner always (begin) by putting in a new fireplace, and their fireplace is just on the other side of this wall so we (hear) everything. The wall (shake), too 26 Ann (stir) something in a saucepan and Mary (stand) beside her holding a cookery book. Mary: It (say) simmer, and you (boil) it, Ann. Ann: I (not think) it (matter) if you (cook) it quickly; but I (not know) why it (not get) thick. It usually (thicken) at once 27 The hall (be) painted at the moment, so it (not look) its best. ~ But where are the painters? They (stop) work at 3.00? ~ No, they are in the kitchen. They (have) a tea break 28 What the word Establishment (mean)? My dictionary (not give) an explanation. ~ It roughly (mean) the government and people who (have) power and authority. 29 If we (say) that

Mr Brown (belong) to the Establishment we also (imply) that he (accept) the existing system. He (not try) to overthrow it ~ 30 All rich men (belong) to the Establishment? ~ Middle-aged rich men probably (do) but rich young men like pop singers always (jeer) at the Establishment. The word (be used) chiefly in a pejorative sense 31 The house opposite the college (be pulled) down. Thats why we (use) the back entrance at present. If you (go) out by the front door you (get) covered with dust 32 Tom: I (smell) something burning! Jack: So (do) 1. I (think) it (come) from the kitchen Ann probably (iron) She usually (iron) and (watch) TV at the same time and if she (get) very interested in a programme she (forget) that she (press) a hot iron on to somebodys shirt. Mother (think) of selling the TV set. 33 Mrs Jones: What you (look) for, Tom? Mr Jones: I (look) for the garage key. I always (look) for the garage key, because nobody ever (put) it back on its hook. Mrs Jones: I always (put) it

back on its hook. Why you (not try) your pockets? (I advise you to try your pockets). 34 Imagine that you (travel) by train, in a crowded compartment. One of the passengers (read) a newspaper; another (do) a crossword puzzle; another (look out) of the window. Suddenly the train (stop) with a jerk and your suitcase (fall) off the rack on to somebodys toes. 35 This is a story about an invalid who (spend) most of the day in bed. He has a powerful telescope and he (amuse) himself by watching the activities of the people in the opposite houses. One day when he (watch) No 24 he (see) a murder being committed 36 The cashier used to do the accounts and I used to check his figures now the computer (do) it all. ~ And who (check) the computer? ~ No one. The computer (not need) a second opinion ~ And what (happen) if the computer (make) a mistake? The computer never (make) a mistake. 119 The simple past and the past continuous PEG 175-81 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: simple

past or past continuous. 1 Peter and Ann (decide) to redecorate their sitting-room themselves. 2 They (choose) cream paint for the woodwork and apricot for the walls. 3 When John (look) in to see how they (get) on, Ann (mix) the paint, and Peter (wash) down the walls. 4 They (be) glad to see John and (ask) if he (do) anything special that day. 5 He hastily (reply) he (go) to the theatre and (go) away at once, because he (know) they (look) for someone to help them. 6 They (begin) painting, but (find) the walls (be) too wet 7 While they (wait) for the walls to dry, Ann (remember) she (have) a phone call to make. 8 Peter (start) painting while she (telephone), and (do) a whole wall before Ann (come) back. 9 He (grumble) that she always (telephone). 10 Ann (retort) that Peter always (complain) 11 They (work) in silence for some time. 12 Just as they (start) the third wall, the doorbell (ring). 13 It (be) a friend of Peters who (want) to know if Peter (play) golf the following weekend. 14

He (stay) talking to Peter in the hall while Ann (go) on painting 15 At last he (leave). 16 Peter (return), expecting Ann to say something about friends who (come) and (waste) valuable time talking about golf. 17 But Ann nobly (say) nothing 18 Then Peter (think) he would do the ceiling. 19 He just (climb) the step ladder when the doorbell (ring) again. 20 Ann (say) she (get) tired of interruptions but (go) and (open) the door. 21 It (be) the postman with a letter from her aunt Mary, saying she (come) to spend the weekend with them and (arrive) that evening at 6.30 120 The simple past and the past continuous PEG 175-81 Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or past continuous. 1 I (walk) along Piccadilly when I (realize) that a man with a ginger beard, whom I had seen three times already that afternoon, (follow) me. 2 To make quite sure, I (walk) on quickly, (turn) right, then left and (stop) suddenly at a shop window. 3 In a few minutes the man with the beard (appear) and

(stop) at another shop window. 4 I (go) on 5 Whenever I (stop) he (stop), and whenever I (look) round he (be) still there. 6 He (look) a very respectable type and (wear) very conventional clothes and I (wonder) if he was a policeman or a private detective. 7 I (decide) to try and shake him off 8 A 74 bus (stand) at the bus stop just beside me. 9 Then the conductor (come) downstairs and (ring) the bell; just as the bus (move) off, I (jump) on it. 10 The man with the beard (miss) the bus but (get) into another 74, which (follow) the first. II Both buses (crawl) very slowly along Knightsbridge. 12 Every time the buses (pull) up at a stop, the man (look) out anxiously to see if I (get) off. 13 Finally, at some traffic lights, he (change) buses and (get) into mine. 14 At Gloucester Road Underground, I (leave) the bus and (buy) a ticket at a ticket machine. 15 As I (stand) on the platform waiting for a Circle Line train, my pursuer (come) down the stairs. 16 He (carry) a newspaper and when

we (get) into the same compartment, he (sit) in one corner reading it, and I (read) the advertisements. 17 He (look) over the top of the newspaper at every station to see if I (get) out. 18 I (become) rather tired of being shadowed like this, so finally I (go) and (sit) beside the man and (ask) him why he (follow) me. 19 At first he (say) he (not follow) me at all but when I (threaten) to knock him down, he (admit) that he was. 20 Then he (tell) me he (be) a writer of detective stories and (try) to see if it was difficult to follow someone unseen. 21 I (tell) him he hadnt been unseen because I had noticed him in Piccadilly and I (advise) him to shave off his ginger beard if he (not want) his victim to know he (be) followed. 121 The simple past and the past continuous PEG 175-81 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: simple past or past continuous. 1 He (sit) on the bank fishing when he (see) a mans hat floating down the river. It (seem) strangely familiar. 2 It (snow)

heavily when he (wake) up. He (remember) that Jack (come) for lunch and (decide) to go down to the station to meet him in case he (lose) his way in the snowy lanes. 3 When I (reach) the street I (realize) that I (not know) the number of Toms house. I (wonder) what to do about it when Tom himself (tap) me on the shoulder. 4 As the goalkeeper (run) forward to seize the ball a bottle (strike) him on the shoulder. 5 I (look) through the classroom window. A geometry lesson (go) on The teacher (draw) diagrams on the blackboard. 6 Most of the boys (listen) to the teacher but a few (whisper) to each other, and Tom (read) a history book. Tom (hate) mathematics; he always (read) history during his mathematics lesson. 7 Everyone (read) quietly when suddenly the door (burst) open and a complete stranger (rush) in. 8 I (go) to Jacks house but (not find) him in. His mother (say) that she (not know) what he (do) but (think) he probably (play) football. 9 This used to be a station and all the

London trains (stop) here. But two years ago they (close) the station and (give) us a bus service instead. 10 She (promise) not to report me to the police but ten minutes later I (see) her talking with a policeman and from the expression on his face I am sure she (tell) him all about it. 11 I (pick) up the receiver and (dial) a number. To my surprise I (find) myself listening to an extraordinary conversation. Two men (plan) to kidnap the Prime Minister 12 I (meet) Paul at the university. We (be) both in the same year He (study) law, but he (not be) very interested in it and (spend) most of his time practising the flute. 13 The train just (start) when the door (open) and two panting passengers (leap) in. 14 What you (do) between 9.00 and 1000 yesterday? (say) the detective I (clean) my house, said Mrs Jones. I always clean my house on Saturday mornings 15 My neighbour (look) in last night and (say) that he (leave) the district and (go) to Yorkshire, to a new job. I (say) that I (be)

very sorry that he (go), and (tell) him to write to me from Yorkshire and tell me how he (get) on. 16 They (build) that bridge when I (be) here last year. They havent finished it yet 17 The dentists waiting room was full of people. Some (read) magazines, others just (turn) over the pages. A woman (knit); a child (play) with a toy car Suddenly the door (open) and the nurse (say), Next, please. 18 The house next to yours (be) full of policemen and police dogs yesterday. ~ What they (do)? ~ I (hear) that they (look) for drugs. ~ They (find) any? ~ Yes, I believe one of the dogs (discover) some cannabis. 19 Peter (tell) me yesterday that he (make) his own £5 notes. ~ Dont believe him. He just (pull) your leg 20 A traffic warden just (stick) a parking ticket to my windscreen when I (come) back to the car. I (try) to persuade him to tear it up but he (refuse) 21 Ann works in the branch where the big robbery (take) place. ~ She actually (work) there at the time of the raid? 2? When Ann (say)

that she (come) to see me the next day, I (wonder) what flowers she would bring. She always brings flowers 23 While I (wonder) whether to buy the dress or not, someone else (come) and (buy) it. 24 He always (borrow) from me (he borrowed more often than was reasonable) but when I once (ask) him to lend me something, he (say) he (not have) got it before he even (know) what I (want) to borrow. 25 I (go) home on foot and all the time I (have) the impression that I (be) followed (passive). But though I (turn) round several times, I never (see) anybody 26 I (bump) into Tom yesterday. I (ask) him to join us for lunch tomorrow but he (say) he (have) (had arranged to have) lunch with Ann. 27 My dog (attack) the postman as he (put) the letters into the letter box. The man (thrust) a large envelope into the dogs mouth and of course he (tear) it. Unfortunately the letter (contain) my diploma. I (patch) the diploma up with Sellotape but it still looks a bit odd. 28 How you (break) your leg? ~

I (fall) off a ladder when I (put) up curtains. The worst of it (be) that it (be) just before the holidays and I (go) away. (had planned to go away) ~ 29 So you (not go) away? ~ No, of course not. I (cancel) my bookings and (spend) the holiday hobbling about at home. 30 The curtain just (rise) when somebody at the back of the theatre (shout) Fire! The audience (look) round nervously. 31 As it (rain) the children (play) in the sitting room. Tom was there too He (try) to write a letter but he (not get on) very well because the children (keep) asking him questions. 32 What you (do) when the doorbell (ring)? ~ I (make) a cake. And what you (do) when you (hear) the bell? ~ I (go) to answer it of course. But when I (open) the door there (be) nobody there 33 A few minutes later the bell (ring) again and this time I (find) a man in a peaked cap who (say) he (make) a survey. 34 I (say), (Be) it you who (ring) this bell a minute ago? No, he (answer), but when I (talk) to your neighbour I (see) a

man standing at your door. I think he (go) round to the back of your house 35 We (not get) much sleep last night because the people next door (have) a noisy party. I (ring) up the landlord and (say) that his tenants (make) too much noise. He (point out) that it (be) Saturday and that people often (have) parties on Saturday nights. I (say) that the people in his house always (have) parties, (had too many parties) 36 What you (do) before you (get) this job? ~ I (work) for Brown and Company. ~ And how long you (stay) with them? ~ I (stay) for about six months. I (leave) because they always (go) on strike It (become) quite monotonous. 122 The present perfect with for and since PEG 187 Part I Answer the following questions as shown in the examples: Can you skate? (three years) Yes, but I havent skated for three years. Could you climb a rope? (I left school) Yes, I suppose I could, but I havent climbed one since I left school. 1 Can you play chess? (ten years) 2 Can you sing? (I came to

England) 3 Could you milk a cow? (I left my fathers farm) 4 Can you put up a tent? (I went camping two years ago) 5 Can you make Yorkshire pudding? (over a year) 6 Can you read Latin? (I left school) 7 Could you bath a baby? (fifteen years) 8 Could you repair a radio? (I left the army) 9 Can you ski? (my last holiday) 10 Can you read a map? (quite a long time) 11 Could you make a basket? (I was in hospital) 12 Can you sew on buttons? (I got married) 13 Can you drive a car? (over six months) 14 Could you take someones temperature? (years) 15 Can you ride a motor cycle? (I was at the university) 16 Can you row a boat? (1977) 17 Can you paint in oils? (some time) 18 Can you type? (years and years) Part 2 Rephrase the following sentences, using the present perfect tense with for or since: I last read a newspaper on June 2. I havent read a newspaper since June 2. It is two years since I saw Tom. I havent seen Tom for two years. 19 Its two years since I had a puncture. 20 Its two months

since he earned any money. 21 He last shaved the day before yesterday. 22 I last drank champagne at my brothers wedding. 23 Its two years since I was last in Rome. 24 I saw Tom last on his wedding day. 25 I last ate raw fish when I was in Japan. 26 Its years since Mary last spoke French. 27 Its ten weeks since I last had a good nights sleep. 28 He last paid taxes in 1970. 29 I last ate meat five years ago. (Omit ago) 30 Its three months since the windows were cleaned. 31 Its years since I took any photographs. 32 I last watched TV on New Years Day. 33 Its three months since he wrote to me. 34 I was last paid six months ago. (My pay is six months in arrears) 35 The last time I was abroad was in the summer of 1978. 36 Its ten years since that house was lived in. 123 The present perfect and the simple past PEG 175-7,182-9 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: present perfect or simple past. (In some cases the present perfect continuous is also possible. This is noted in

the Key) 1 Paul: I (play) football since I was five years old. Tom: You (play) since you (come) to England? Paul: Oh yes. I (play) quite a lot I (join) a club the day after I (arrive) 2 Tom: You (play) any matches? Paul: We (play) about ten. We have two more to play We (have) a very good season, we (win) all our matches so far, though we (not really deserve) to win the last one. 3 Tom: I (play) football when I (be) at school but when I (leave) school I (drop) it and (take) up golf. 4 Ann: Hello, Jack! I (not see) you for ages! Where you (be)? Jack: I (be) in Switzerland. I (mean) to send you a postcard but I (not have) your address with me. Ann: Never mind. You (have) a good time in Switzerland? How long you (be) there? Jack: I (be) there for a month. I only just (get) back Yes, I (enjoy) it thoroughly I (ski) all day and (dance) all night. 5 Ann: I (ski) when I (be) at the university, but I (break) a leg five years ago and since then I (not do) any. 6 When I first (come) to this

house, it (be) a very quiet area. But since then a new housing estate (be) built and it (become) very noisy. 7 My son (not start) work yet. Hes still at the High School ~ How long he (be) at school? ~ He (be) at the High School for six years; before that he (spend) five years at the Primary School in Windmill Street. 8 I just (hear) that Peter is in Australia. ~ Oh, you (not know)? He (fly) out at the beginning of the month. ~ You (hear) from him? Does he like the life? ~ Yes, I (get) a letter last week. He (tell) me about his job But he (not say) whether he (like) the life or not. Perhaps its too soon to say He only (be) there three weeks 9 I (not know) you (be) left-handed. ~ Im not left-handed; but my oil-heater (explode) yesterday and I (burn) my right hand, so I have to use my left. 10 This bicycle (be) in our family for fourteen years. My father (use) it for the first five years, my brother (ride) it for the next five, and I (have) it for the last four. 11 I hear that your MP, Mr

Simpson, (make) a very clever speech last night. How long he (be) your MP?~ Oh, we only (have) him since January. His predecessor Mr Alien (resign) suddenly because of ill-health and there (be) a by-election. 12 I hear that Mr Jones (leave). ~ Yes, he (leave) last week. ~ Anybody (be) appointed to take his place? ~ I believe several men (apply) for the job but so far nothing (be) decided. 13 Peter (meeting Ann at the airport): Hello, Ann. You (have) a good trip? Ann: The actual flight (be) lovely, one of the best I (have) ever, but it (take) ages to get into the plane. First they (think) that one of us (be) a hijacker and they (search) us all for firearms; then they (announce) that one of the engines (be) faulty. We finally (take off) an hour later. 14 Peter: How you (spend) this extra hour before take-off)? Ann: Oh, they (take) us to the restaurant and (feed) us and we (walk) about and (buy) things we (not need). The time (pass) all right 15 You (book) your hotel room yet?~ Well,

I (write) to the hotel last week but they (not answer) yet. 16 Peter (meeting Paul unexpectedly in London): Hello, Paul! I (not know) you (be) here. Paul: Oh, I (be) here nearly two months. I (arrive) on the 6th of January 17 Peter: When we last (meet) you (say) that nothing would induce you to come to England. What (make) you change your mind? Paul: I (find) that I (need) English for my work and this (seem) the quickest way of learning it. 18 Peter: You (know) any English when you first (arrive) here? Paul: No, I (not know) a word. 19 Ann (to Yvonne, who is going to English classes): How long you (learn) English? Yvonne: I (learn) off and on for about five and a half years. (Use the continuous form) 20 I (begin) English at secondary school and (do) it for three years. Then I (drop) it for a year and (forget) most of it. Then I (spend) two years at a secretarial college, where I (study) commercial English, and for the last six months I (study) in London. 21 At 4 p.m my neighbour (ring)

up and (say), 1s Tom with you? Tom, her son, (spend) most of his time in my garden playing with my children, so whenever she (not be able) to find him she (ring) me. Im afraid I (not see) him today, I (say) But my children (go) to the beach this morning and (not come) back yet. Perhaps he (go) with them 22 I just (have) my first driving lesson. ~ How it (go)? You (enjoy) it? ~ Well, I not actually (hit) anything but I (make) every other possible mistake. 23 Old Ben (sell) newspapers just inside the station entrance, and my father always (buy) his evening paper from him as he (leave) the station on his way home. But one day my father (arrive) home without his paper. Ben (not be) there this evening, he (say) I hope he (not be taken) ill. 24 On Saturday afternoon I (see) Frederick sitting in his garden. I (think) you (work) on Saturdays, I (say). I (work) this morning, (explain) Frederick, but at lunch time the boss (go) off to play golf and (tell) us all to go home. Its about time he

(give) us a whole Saturday off actually. I (work) practically even Saturday since the beginning of the year 25 Ann: You (be) to Hampton Court? Jane: Yes, I (go) there last week. The tulips (be) wonderful Ann: You (go) by car? Jane: No, I (go) with my English class. We (hire) a coach 26 Ann: Where else you (be) to since you (come) to England? Jane: Oh, I (be) to Stratford and Coventry and Oxford and Canterbury. 27 Ann: You (see) a lot. When you (go) to Stratford? Jane: I (go) last week. The people I work for (take) me 28 Ann: You (see) a play at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre when you (be) at Stratford? Jane: Yes, we (see) Macbeth. We were very lucky We just (walk) in and (ask) if they (have) any returned tickets, and the girl at the box office (say), Yes, a man just (return) three stalls. 29 Ann: You (be) to Wales? Jane: No, I (be) to Scotland but I (not be) to Wales. Id like to go 30 Peter: You (see) any good films lately? Ann: Yes, I (go) to the National Film Theatre last week and

(see) a Japanese film. Peter: You (like) it? Ann: Yes, I (love) it, but of course I (not understand) a word. 31 Tom: I hear that Mr Benson just (die). You (know) him quite well, didnt you? Jack: Yes. We (work) for the same company for ten years I (not see) so much of him after he (leave) the company but we (keep) in touch 32 Ann (think) the garage (be) empty, and (turn) off the lights. Hey! (shout) Paul from under the car. Im sorry, Paul, (say) Ann, I (not know) you (be) there 33 Father: Tom (not come) back yet? Mother: Yes, he (come) in an hour ago. He (go) straight to bed Father: Funny. I (not hear) him 34 Paul: Thats a live wire. It just (give) me a shock! Ann: Nonsense! I just (touch) it and I (not feel) anything! 35 When Paul (come) into the room, Ann was sitting in an armchair just behind the door. Paul, not noticing Ann, (go) to the window and (look) out. Ann (cough) and Paul (spin) round. Hello, Ann! he (exclaim), I (not see) you! 36 Jack: You just (agree) to go, so why arent

you getting ready? Peter: But I (not realize) that you (want) me to start at once! 124 The present perfect and the simple past PEG 175-7,182-9 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: present perfect or simple past. 1 I (buy) a new house last year, but I (not sell) my old house yet, so at the moment I have two houses. 2 When Ann (be) on her way to the station it (begin) to rain. Ann (run) back to her flat for her umbrella, but this (make) her late for her train. 3 She (catch) the next train but it (not get) in till 9.00, so she (arrive) at her office ten minutes late. 4 Her boss (look) up as she (come) in. You (be) late every morning this week, he (growl). 5 At 7 a.m Charles (ring) Peter and (say), Im going fishing, Peter Would you like to come? But its so early, (say) Peter. I (not have) breakfast yet Why you (not tell) me last night? 6 Tom (meet) Paul at lunch time and (say), I (not see) you at the bus stop this morning. You (miss) the bus? I (not miss) it, (reply) Paul.

I (not miss) a bus for years But this morning George (give) me a lift. 7 Ann (go) to Canada six months ago. She (work) in Canada for a while and then (go) to the United States. 8 Mary (be) in Japan for two years. She is working there and likes it very much ~ How she (go)? ~ She (go) by air. 9 When I (buy) my new house I (ask) for a telephone. The Post Office (tell) me to wait, but I (wait) a year now and my phone still (not come). 10 Bill usually has breakfast at 8.00 Yesterday at 830 Peter (meet) Bill and (offer) him an apple. No, thanks, (say) Bill I just (have) breakfast 11 Just as Ann (arrive) at the airfield a plane (land) and a girl (climb) out. To her surprise Ann (recognize) her cousin, Lucy. Hello, Lucy, she (exclaim) I (not know) that you (know) how to fly a plane. I only just (learn), (say) Lucy. I (go) solo for the first time last week 12 Peter (try) to come in quietly but his mother (hear) him and (call) out, Where you (be)? Your supper (be) in the oven for an hour. 13

You (be) to the theatre lately? ~ Yes, I (go) to Othello last week. ~ You (like) it?Yes, but I (not see) very well. I (be) right at the back 14 Ann (coming out of a bookshop): I just (buy) a copy of David Copperfield. You (read) it? Mary: As it happens it is the only one of Dickenss books that I (not read). I (not even see) the film. 15 You (be) to Cambridge? ~ Yes, I (be) there last month. ~ How you (get) there? ~ My brother (take) me in his car. 16 You (see) Philip lately? I (ring) his flat several times last week but (get) no answer. ~ Oh, he (be) in America for the last month. He (fly) out on the first a conference and then (decide) to stay for six weeks. ~ You (hear) from him? ~ Yes, I (get) a letter shortly after he (arrive). 17 How long you (be) in your present job? ~ I (be) there for six months. ~ And what you (do) before that? ~ Before that I (work) for Jones and Company. 18 How long you (work) for Jones and Company? ~ I (work) for them for two years. ~ You (like) working

for them? ~ No, I (not like) it at all. ~ Then why you (stay) so long? 19 We usually go out on Saturday evenings, but last Saturday (be) so wet that we (stay) in and (play) cards. ~ What you (play)? ~ We (play) poker. I (lose) fifty pence 20 When you (begin) school? ~ I (begin) school when I (be) five. I (go) to a primary school first I (stay) there for six years and then I (go) to a comprehensive school 21 When I (be) seventeen I (start) my university course. ~ When you (get) your degree? ~ Oh, I (not get) my degree yet; Im still at the university. I only (be) there for two years 22 Tom (leave) the house at 8.20 At 825 the phone in Toms house (ring), Toms wife, Mary, (answer) it. Could I speak to Tom, please? (say) the caller Im afraid he just (go) out, (say) Mary. 23 You (be) to Cornwall? ~ Yes, I (be) there last Easter. ~ You (go) by train? ~ No, I (hitch-hike). 24 I (not see) Charles for some time. ~ He (be) ill, poor chap. He (collapse) at work a fortnight ago and (be taken) to

hospital They (send) him home after two days but he (not come) back to work yet. 25 There (be) a very good programme on TV last night. You (see) it? ~ No, I (take) my set back to the shop last week because there (be) so much distortion; and they (say) it (need) a new part. They (not be able) to get the new part so far, so I (not watch) television for about ten days. 26 You (ever) be to France? ~ Yes, I (spend) last July and August in Grenoble. I (go) to improve my French but everyone I (meet) (want) to improve his English so I (not get) much practice. 27 The postman usually comes between 8.00 and 900 in the morning At 845 am yesterday Ann (say), Are there any letters for me? I dont know, (say) Mary. The postman (not come) yet At II a.m Jack, Marys husband, (ring) from his office to ask if there (be) any letters for him. No, (say) Mary Nobody (get) letters today The postman (not come) 28 Mr Speed, Anns employer, (dictate) three letters and (tell) Ann to type them as soon as possible.

Half an hour later he (ring) Anns office You (finish) those letters yet? he (ask). Well, (say) Ann, 1 (do) the letter to Mr Jones, and Im now typing the one to Mr Robinson, but I (not start) the one to Mr Smith yet. 29 You (find) out yet about the trains to Liverpool? ~ No. I (ring) the station last night but the man who (answer) the phone (not seem) to be sure of the times. He (say) something about a new timetable ~ But the new timetable (be) in operation for three weeks! 30 Tom and Jack work in different offices but go to work in the same train. One evening Toms wife (say), Jack (move) into his new house yet? 1 dont know, (say) Tom, I (not see) Jack today. He (not be) on the train 31 Where you (be)? ~ I (be) shopping in Oxford Street. ~ So I suppose you (buy) shoes? ~ Yes. I (find) a shop where they were having a sale and I (get) three pairs 32 In the evenings I often play chess with my next door neighbour. I (play) chess with him ever since I (come) to live here ten years ago.

He (be) here all his life; he (inherit) the house from his father, another great chess player. ~ You ever (play) chess with the father? ~ We (play) once or twice but he (die) a year after I (arrive). 33 I cant find my gloves. You (see) them? ~ Yes, you (leave) them in the car yesterday. I (put) them back in your drawer 34 I hope youre enjoying your visit to England. You (meet) any Englishmen yet? ~ Yes, I (meet) a man called Smith at a party last night. ~ What you (talk) about? ~ We (talk) about the weather. 35 Mrs Jones: For years I (do) all my washing by hand; then last year I (buy) a washing machine and I must say it (make) washing day much less exhausting. It only takes me an hour now. Mrs White: I dont like washing machines. I always (do) my washing by hand and I intend to go on doing it. I always (find) it very satisfying work 36 Tom: Dont you think its time we (have) something different for, Sunday dinner? Ann: But we (have) roast beef for Sunday dinner ever since we (get

married. Your mother (tell) me that you (be) particularly fond of roast beef. Tom: But my mother (be) dead for five years and in those five year my tastes (change). 125 The present perfect simple and continuous PEG 182-93 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: present perfect simple or present perfect continuous. 1 Peter: You (telephone) for ages. You not nearly (finish)? Jack: I (not get) through yet. I (try) to get our Paris office but the line (be) engaged all morning. 2 Ann (fail) her driving test three times because shes so bad at reversing. But she (practise) reversing for the last week and I think she (get) a bit better at it. 3 Tom: I often (wonder) why Bill left the country so suddenly. Peter: Actually, I just (find) out. 4 He (play) the bagpipes since six oclock this morning. He only just (stop) 5 Why you (not bring) me the letters for signature? You (not type) them yet? 6 Tom (looking up absent-mindedly as Mary comes in): You (sunbathe)? Mary (crossly): Dont

be ridiculous! It (rain) all day! 7 A pair of robins (build) a nest in the porch since last week. I (watch them from my window since they began. 8 The police (not find) the murderer yet, but the dead mans brother (be) in the station all day. The police say that he (help) them with their enquiries 9 They (pull) down most of the houses in this street, but they (not touch) the old shop at the corner yet. 10 Tom is convinced that there is gold in these hills but we (search) for six months and (not see) any sign of it. 11 I (wait) for the prices of the houses to come down before buying a house, but I think I (wait) too long and the prices are beginning to go up again. 12 Peter (be) a junior clerk for three years. Lately he (look) for a better post but so far he (not find) anything. 13 I (do) housework all morning and I (not finish) yet. ~ I (do) mine already. I always start at 6 am 14 I just (pick) ten pounds of strawberries! I (grow) strawberries for years but I never (have) such a good

crop before. 15 What you (do) with the corkscrew? The point is broken off. ~ Im afraid I (use) it to make holes in this tin. 16 She just (sell) two of her own paintings. ~ Shes lucky. I (paint) for five years and I (not sell) a single picture yet 17 They are throwing crockery at each other in the next flat. ~ This (happen) before? ~ Well, they (have) a good many rows but this is the first time they (throw) crockery. 18 What you (do) with my typewriter? I cant find it anywhere. ~ Tom just (go) off with it. He says hell bring it back when he (finish) 19 He (work) for Crow Brothers for forty years and never once (be) late. The firm just (present) him with a gold watch as a sign of their appreciation. 20 We (mend) sheets all morning but we only (do) three, and now the sewing machine (break) down so well be even slower with the next one. 21 George (collect) matchboxes ever since he left school. Now he (collect) so many that he doesnt know where to put them. 22 I (look) through my old

photograph album. Its full of photographs of people whose names I completely (forget). I wonder what (happen) to them all 23 It was lovely at eleven oclock, but since then the sky (get) steadily darker and the wind (rise). Im afraid the fine spell (come) to an end 24 Since he became Mayor, my brother reckons that he (eat) 30 official lunches and 22 official dinners, and he (lose) count of the number of receptions and parties that he (attend). ~ He (put) on a lot of weight? 25 Secretary: Customers (ring) up all morning complaining about getting incorrect bills. Manager: I know; something (go) wrong with our computer. The mechanic (work) on it I hope he (find) out whats wrong. 26 Someone (use) my umbrella! Its all wet! And it was wet yesterday and the day before! ~ Well, it wasnt me. I (not be) out of the house for a week! 27 I (stand) in this queue for ages. It (not move) at all in the last five minutes I think the man in the ticket office just (shut) his window and (go) off for

lunch. 28 The Town Council (consider) my application for permission to build I a garage for three months. They just (give) my neighbour permission to build one, so I hope they (decide) to let me have one too. 29 You look exhausted! ~ Yes, I (play) tennis and I (not play) for years, so Im not used to it. 30 They began widening this road three weeks ago; but the workmen (be) on strike for the last fortnight so they (not get) very far with it. 31 That man (stand) at the bus stop for the last half hour. Shall I tell him that the last bus already (go)? 32 I wonder if anything (happen) to Tom. I (wait) an hour now He often (keep) me waiting but he never (be) quite so late as this. 33 Mrs Brown (live) next door for quite a long time now but she never (say) more than Good morning to me. 34 I just (remember) that I (not pay) the rent yet. I am surprised that the landlord (not ring) me up to remind me. ~ It is the first time you (be) late with the rent in 25 years. He probably thinks that you

(pay) and he (lose) the cheque. 35 Shop assistant: Could you give me some proof of your identity, madam? Customer: But I (shop) here for fifteen years! Shop assistant: I know, madam, but apparently the company (lose) a lot of money lately through dud cheques and they (make) new regulations which we (be told) to apply to all customers no matter how long we (know) them. 36 What you (do)? I (look) for you for ages. ~ I (build) a barbecue in the garden. 126 The simple past and the past perfect, simple and continuous PEG 175-7,194-7 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. 1 He (give) me back the book, (thank) me for lending it to him and (say) that he (enjoy) it very much; but I (know) that he (not read) it because most of the pages (be) still uncut. 2 When he (see) his wife off at the station, he (return) home as he (no have) to be at the airport till 9.30 3 He (not have) to pack, for his wife already (do) that for him and his case (be) ready in the hall. 4 He (not have) to check

the doors and windows either, for his wife always (do) that before she (leave) the house. 5 All he (have) to do (be) to decide whether or not to take his overcoat with him. In the end he (decide) not to 6 At 8.30 he (pick) up his case, (go) out of the house and (slam) the door behind him 7 Then he (feel) in his pockets for the key, for his wife (remind) him to double-lock the front door. 8 When he (search) all his pockets and (find) no key he (remember) where it (be) 9 He (leave) it in his overcoat pocket. 10 Then he (remember) something else; his passport and tickets (be) in his overcoat pocket as well. 11 I (arrive) in England in the middle of July. I (be told) that England (be) shrouded in fog all year round, so I (be) quite surprised to find that it was merely raining. 12 I (ask) another passenger, an Englishman, about the fog and he (say) that there (not be) any since the previous February. 13 If I (want) fog, he said, I (come) at quite the wrong time. 14 However, he (tell) me

that I could buy tinned fog at a shop in Shaftesbury Avenue. 15 He (admit) that he never (buy) fog there himself but (assure) me that they (sell) good quality fog and that it (not be) expensive. I suppose he was joking 16 When the old lady (return) to her flat she (see) at once that burglars (break) in during her absence, because the front door (be) open and everything in the flat (be) upside down. 17 The burglars themselves (be) no longer there, but they probably only just (leave) because a cigarette was still burning on an ornamental table. 18 Probably they (hear) the lift coming up and (run) down the fire escape. 19 They (help) themselves to her whisky too but there (be) a little left, so she (pour) herself out a drink. 20 She (wonder) if they (find) her jewellery and rather (hope) that they had 21 The jewellery (be given) her by her husband, who (die) some years before. 22 Since his death she (not have) the heart to wear it, yet she (not like) to sell it. 23 Now it (seem) that fate

(take) the matter out of her hands; and certainly the insurance money would come in handy. 24 I (put) the £5 note into one of my books; but next day it (take) me ages to find it because I (forget) which book I (put) it into. 25 A woman (come) in with a baby, who she (say) just (swallow) a safety pin. 26 I (think) my train (leave) at 14.33, and (be) very disappointed when I (arrive) at 1430 and (learn) that it just (leave). 27 I (find) later that I (use) an out-of-date timetable 28 He (park) his car under a No Parking sign and (rush) into the shop. When he (come) out of the shop ten minutes later the car (be) no longer there. 29 He (wonder) if someone (steal) it or if the police (drive) it away. 30 It (be) now 6 p.m; and Jack (be) tired because he (work) hard all day 31 He (be) also hungry because he (have) nothing to eat since breakfast. 32 His wife usually (bring) him sandwiches at lunch time, but today for some reason she (not come). 33 He (keep) looking at her, wondering where he

(see) her before. 34 I (look) out before I (go) to bed and (see) a man standing on the opposite pavement watching the house. 35 When I (get up) the following morning he (be) still there, and I (wonder) whether he (stay) there all night or if he (go) away and (come) back. 36 When I (open) the door I (see) a man on his knees. 37 He clearly (listen) to our conversation and I (wonder) how much he (hear). 38 When I (ask) him what he (do), he (say) that he (drop) a 50p piece outside the door and (look) for it. 39 I (not see) any sign of the money, but I (find) a small notebook and pencil which he probably (drop) when the door (open) suddenly. 40 So he (take) notes of our conversation! 41 The notes (be) written in a foreign language, so I (turn) to the stranger and (ask) him to translate. 42 But he (pull) m hat over my eyes and (run) off down the corridor 43 By the time I (recover) from the shock he (disappear) round the corner. 44 Curiously enough, when I (move) my foot I (find) that I

(stand) on a 50p piece. 45 Perhaps he (tell) the truth after all! 127 Questions PEG 54-60,104 Make questions for which the following would be reasonable answers. Ask about the words in bold type. I saw Tom. Possible question: Who did you see? When a noun in brackets is placed after a pronoun, use this noun in the question: I saw him (Tom) today. Question: When did you see Tom? 1 They went to New York. 2 It takes four hours to get there. 3 I didnt think much of it. 4 He earns a hundred pounds a week. 5 He (Tom) was fined ten pounds. 6 It (my room) is twice as big as yours. 7 They left the country ten years ago. 8 They came by bus. 9 Ive been here for two months. 10 They (the students) went to the museum yesterday. 11 It (the car) does fifty to the gallon. 12 He met her in a coffee bar. 13 They (the neighbours) complained about the smell. 14 He (the clerk) made him fill up a form. 15 The pigs ate them (the apples). 16 He got in by climbing over the wall. 17 John bought them (the

tickets). 18 They (the roads) were very crowded. 19 I smoke forty (cigarettes) a day. 20 It (the hotel) was awful. 21 It (the market) is a stones throw from here. 22 Ive had it (this cough) since the beginning of October. 23 He (Guy Fawkes) tried to blow up Parliament. 24 Id like to speak to Mr Jones please. 25 This is Toms. 26 He stopped it (the train) by pulling the communication cord. 27 Ive been waiting for half an hour. 28 She (Mary) put it in the dustbin. 29 I threw it away because I was tired of it. 30 There are four (hotels in the town). 31 They left it (the lawnmower) outside. 32 I found her address by calling at every house in the village. 33 She (Ann) gave me duck and green peas for lunch. 34 It (the lake) is very deep indeed. 35 I borrowed my brothers car. 36 He buried it in the garden. 128 Questions PEG 54-60,104 See previous exercise for instructions. 1 He told me exactly what happened. 2 It (the bridge) is built of reinforced concrete. 3 Were all going to watch the

cricket match. 4 He broke it (his leg) in a skiing accident. 5 He (Tom) lost his job because he kept coming in late for work. 6 I bought the big one. 7 It (the new theatre) looks rather like a factory. 8 Id like about a dozen. 9 It (the concert) began at eight p.m 10 She went (to the dance) with George. 11 He bought one (a car) because the local railway station closed down. 12 Hes coming at the end of the week. 13 That one is longer. 14 Jack taught me (to play poker). 15 Shes broken another of your best plates. 16 Im looking for a telephone box. 17 Hes borrowed your typewriter. 18 She was asking him for a rise. 19 Hes ringing up the police. 20 It (the word boss) means employer. 21 He escaped by climbing over the prison wall. 22 We were talking about Margaret. 23 They liked Anns idea best. 24 He complained to the manager. 25 It was about the size of an orange. 26 They (the students) intend to demonstrate against the new regulations. 27 I come from Scotland. 28 The best kind costs about

twenty pounds. 29 He gave it away because he didnt like the colour. 30 She (his sister) is very pretty. 31 It (this knife) is for opening oysters. 32 In the mornings I have to get the breakfast, make the beds and take Mrs Whites children to school. 33 I like the black one best. 34 He comes (to London) about once a month. 35 Your father told me (about it). 36 Hes quick-tempered and impulsive. 129 Mixed tenses: letters Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. (A variety of tenses will be needed, as well as some conditionals and imperative for be able use can/could where possible.) Part 1 Dear Hilda 1 I just (hear) that my mother isnt very well, and I (like) to go am see her. The trouble is I cant take my dog Tim with me. 2 You (think) you (be able) possibly look after him for a week? 3 You (have) him for a week last year, you (remember), and you (say) he (be) no trouble, and (get) on well with your dog. 4 If you (be able) have him, I (be able) bring him along any time that

(suit) you. 5 He (have) his own bed and bowl, and I (bring) enough tinned dog food to last him a week. 6 But if it (not be) convenient, (not hesitate) to say so. 7 There (be) quite good kennels near here, and they (take) him if I (ask). 8 He (be) there once before and (seem) to get on all right. Love Sarah Part 2 Dear Sarah 9 I (be) very sorry to hear about your mothers illness, and (be) glad that you (go) to Scotland to see how she is. 10 It (be) nice for her see you 11 Of course I (look) after Tim. 12 We thoroughly (enjoy) having him last year and my dog (miss) him when he (leave) and (look) for him everywhere. 13 Im sure he (be) delighted to see him again. 14 You (bring) him on Tuesday afternoon? Or, if that (not suit), an time on Wednesday. 15 (not bother) to bring dog food; I (have) plenty. 16 I hope you (have) time to have tea with me when you (bring) Tim, and that by then you (have) better news of your mother. Love Hilda Part 3 Dear Peter 17 You by any chance (know) where Bob

is? 18 I (like) to find out because I just (hear) of a job that exactly (suit) him, but if he (not apply) fairly soon of course he (not get) it. 19 I last (see) him about a month ago, when he just (leave) his job with the film company. 20 He (say) he (go) to France {had decided to go to France) for a holiday and (promise) to send me a postcard with his French address as soon as he (find) a place to stay. 21 But I (hear) nothing since then and (not know) even whether he (go) to France or not. 22 If you (know) his address I (be) very grateful if you (phone) me. 23 I (try) »:o phone you several times but your phone (not seem) to be working. Yours Jack Part 4 Dear Sir 24 I (be) interested in the furnished cottage near Dedham which you (advertise) in yesterdays Telegraph, for my husband and I (come) to England in June and (require) accommodation for three months. 25 You please (tell) me exactly where it (be) and give me details of bus and train services in the area. 26 I also (like) to

know about the local shops. 27 I (be able) to shop without a car? 28 My husband (hope) to hire a car, but I (not drive) and he (not be) free very often to take me shopping, so we (need) a cottage on a bus route. 29 The local shops still (deliver)? I (know) they (do) ten years ago 30 I (be) grateful also if you (tell) me whether you supply sheets etc. and whether a laundry (call) at the house. 31 The rent you (ask) (sound) reasonable for the size of the cottage. How you (like) it paid? Weekly, monthly or in advance? 32 My husband and I (be) abroad for ten years, but before that we (live) near Dedham, which is why we (want) to spend our holidays there. 33 My husband also (write) a book about Constable and (like) to finish it in the area where he, Constable, (paint) most of his pictures. 34 Mr Jones, the bank manager, (know) us since we (live) in the area and I (be) sure he (recommend) us as suitable tenants. 35 I of course (be willing) to send a deposit 36 I (be) grateful for an early

reply and (enclose) a stamped addressed envelope. Yours faithfully Pamela Smith 130 Mixed tenses: letters Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (some present participles will be required). Part 1 Dear Sir 1 I (write) to you three weeks ago, (ask) about conditions of entry into your college. 2 You (reply), (enclose) an enrolment form, which I (fill up) and (return) without delay. 3 Since then, however, I (hear) nothing and I (begin) to wonder if my application (go) astray. 4 You please (check) that you (receive) it and if you havent, please send me another enrolment form. 5 If, on the other hand, you (receive) my application but (not decide) whether to accept me as a student or not, I (be) very grateful if you (tell) me when I may expect to hear your decision. 6 Finally, if my application already (be) refused, I (like) to be informed as soon as possible because if I do not get into your college I (have) to apply to another and the sooner I (do) this, the better chance I

(have) of being accepted. Yours faithfully P. Smith Part 2 Dear Mr Jones 7 My family and I (suffer) a good deal lately from the noise made by your guests when they (leave) your house on Saturday nights. 8 They (stand) in the street, (laugh) loudly and (call) goodbye to you and to each other. 9 Then they (get) into their cars, (bang) the doors loudly, and finally they (reverse) their cars on to the road. 10 This (sound) a fairly simple manoeuvre, but there is always at least one of your guests who (find) it almost beyond himwhether because he (have) too much to drink or still (learn) to drive I (not know)but I (know) that it (take) him ages to get out, and all the time we hear his engine (roar) and his friends (shout) advice. 11 By the time all your guests (go) and the road is quiet again, my family all (be) wakened up, and the children often (find) it very hard to get to sleep again. 12 I (be) very grateful if you (ask) your guests to leave more quietly, and perhaps you (be able)

persuade any learner drivers to come by taxi. Yours sincerely Andrew Brown Part 3 Dear Ann 13 You (be) free to come to dinner here on Saturday next at 8.00? 14 My brother Paul (come) and (bring) a friend of his called Tom Edwards. 15 You (not meet) Tom but I (think) you (like) him. 16 He is an assistant stage manager at the Gate Theatre and (be able) to tell you about the actors. 17 Paul says Tom (receive) hardly any salary and often (not get) enough to eat, so he (ask) me to have roast beef and Yorkshire pudding for dinner, with apple dumpling to follow. 18 He probably (ring) up between now and Saturday, to say that it (be) a good idea to start with a substantial soup, such as ox-tail! 19 I (know) you not usually (eat) heavy three-course meals of this type, but I (hope) the conversation (not be) so heavy. Anyway, come if you (be able) Love Mary 20 PS. The 14 bus (pass) the door as you probably (remember), and Paul (give) you a lift home. 131 Mixed tenses: telephone conversations 3

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense and fill the spaces with suitable forms. Part 1 1 Caller: this is Mrs Jones at 22 High Street. I have an appointment for a shampoo and set, please? 2 Receptionist: Yes, Mrs Jones. Who usually (do) your hair? 3 Caller: Peter usually (do) it, but the last time I (come) he (be) on holiday and Ann (do) it. So if Peter (be) not available, Ann (do) very well 4 Receptionist: When you (want) to come, Mrs Jones? 5 Caller: I (like) to come tomorrow afternoon if possible. 6 Receptionist: Im afraid that that afternoon is full. Thursday afternoon at 400 (suit) you? 7 Caller: Im afraid it . My mother-in-law (come) to tea 8 Receptionist: Then what about Friday afternoon? Peter (be able) (do) you at 4.00 9 Caller: That (be) splendid. Thank you very much 10 Receptionist: Thank you, Mrs Jones. We (expect) you at 400 on Friday then Goodbye. Part 2 11 Tom: . I speak to Ann, please? 12 Ann: Ann (speak). 13 Tom: Tom here. Where you (be), Ann? I (try) to

get on to you for the last half hour You (not leave) your office at 5.00? 14 Ann: Yes, I ., but today I (go) shopping and only just (get) in It (be) nice to hear your voice, Tom. I (not know) you (be) in London 15 Tom: I only (arrive) this morning. I (ring) you before but I (be) terribly busy all day covering a conference. It only just (end) You (do) anything tonight, Ann? 16 Ann: Yes, I (go) to the theatre. 17 Tom: But that (be) terrible! I (be) only here for one night! 18 Ann: I (be) sorry, Tom. If you (tell) me you were coming up, I (keep) the evening free But you didnt tell me. 19 Tom: I (not know) myself till this morning when the boss suddenly (dash) into the office and (tell) me to rush up here to cover the conference. 20 Ann: I thought Peter usually (do) the conferences. 21 Tom: Yes, he (do) but when he (drive) up here last night he (have) accident and (take) (passive) to hospital. So I (do) it instead Ann, you really (go) out tonight? (negative interrogative) you get out of

it? 22 Ann: No, I . (negative) Im free tomorrow but I (suppose) that (be) too late 23 Tom (suddenly changing his plans): No, I (stay) another day. I daresay the boss (get) over it. You (like) to meet me for dinner tomorrow? 24 Ann: I (love) to. But Tom, you (be) sure it (be) all right? I (hate) you to lose your job 25 Tom: It (be) all right. I (ring) the boss and tell him I (stay) another night I (stay) an extra night in York last month and he (not seem) too put out about it. 26 Ann: Why you (stay) an extra night in York? Tom: I (tell) you tomorrow. Goodnight, Ann Future forms 132 The present continuous and the future simple PEG 202,207 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. 1 Tom: Where you (go) for your next holiday? ( Where have you arranged to go?) Ann: I dont know yet but we probably (go) to Spain. 2 We (have) a drink with Peter tonight. (He has invited us) Its his last night; he (leave) tomorrow. 3 Ann: Do you think we (see) Bill tomorrow? Mary: I hope so. He

probably (look) in on his way to the airport 4 I (see) my bank manager tomorrow. (7 have arranged this) Im going to ask him for a loan but I expect he (refuse). 5 I (know) the result tomorrow. As soon as I hear, I (tell) you 6 Jacks mother: Jack (be) ready in a moment. He is just finishing breakfast Jacks father: If I wait for him any longer I (miss) my train. I think I (walk) on; he probably (catch) me up. 7 I probably (come) to London some time next month. I (give) you a ring nearer the time and tell you when I (come), {when I have decided/arranged to come) 8 Hotel Porter: You (get) a parking ticket if you leave your car there, sir. If you (stay) the night (have arranged to stay) you (have to) put it in the hotel garage. Tourist: All right. I (move) it as soon as Ive arranged about a room 9 Ann: Ive scorched Bills shirt. Whatever he (say)? Mary: Oh, he (not mind). He just (buy) another shirt He has plenty of money 10 Peter: Wed better leave a message for Jack. Otherwise he (not know)

where weve gone. George: All right. I (leave) a note on his table 11 Jack: I dont want to get married. I never (get) married Mother: You think that now. But one day you (meet) a girl and you (fall) in love 12 Tom: I (go) to York tomorrow. (/ have arranged to go) Ann: You (come) back the same day? (Have you arranged to come back?) Tom: No. I probably (have) to spend the night there 13 Peter: You (walk) home? (Have you decided to walk?) Andrew: Yes. Its too late for a bus Peter: But its pouring. You (get) soaked! Here, take this umbrella Andrew: Thanks very much. I (bring) it back tomorrow 14 Jack: I (have) another window put in. (I have arranged this) They (start) work on it tomorrow. Ann: That (make) the room much brighter. 15 You (take) any exams this term? (Have you decided to take an exam?) ~ Yes, I (take) an English exam at the end of the month. ~ Do you think you (pass)? ~ I dont know. If I dont, I (take) it again at the end of next term 16 Where you (meet) Tom? (Where have you

arranged to meet him?) ~ We (meet) at Covent Garden. He (take) me to see The Magic Flute 17 What you (do) next weekend? ( What plans have you made?) ~ It depends on the weather. If its fine we (go) somewhere in the car; if its wet we probably (stay) at home. 18 When Jack (arrive)? ( When did he say he d arrive?) ~ Some time this evening. ~ And how he (get) here? (How has he arranged to travel?) ~ I dont know yet. I suppose he (come) by car 19 What they (do) for their holidays? (Have they decided to do?) ~ They (go) camping. ~ And what (happen) to their dog? (What plans have they made for the dog?) ~ They (take) the dog with them. I think he (enjoy) it more than they will 20 Dont make a sound or you (wake) the baby; and then he (not get) to sleep again. 21 Mary: Dont forget that Toms four boys (spend) the weekend here. I dont know how we (manage) with four boys under our feet in this small house. Jack: I have an idea. We (turn) the attic into a playroom Then they (be able) to play

trains without tripping anyone up. 22 Tom: Peters just phoned to say that he (catch) (has arranged to catch) the 8.10 train and (be) here by 9.00 23 When George (come) out of hospital? (What date has been fixed?) ~ I dont know. They (move) him (have arranged to move) to the County Hospital next week so I (have) to ask them about coming out dates. 24 I (ring) Peter tonight. (We have arranged this) I (ask) him to ring you?~ No, dont bother. I (be) away most of the week I (write) to him (not a previous decision) 25 Dont worry about meals tomorrow. Everythings been arranged (have) breakfast on the train, we (lunch) with the managerhe (stand) us lunchand the Smiths (give) us dinner after the show. 26 Tom (who has just dropped his key on the path): Never mind; Marys at home. She (let) us in and we (find) the key tomorrow when its light 27 George and Lucy (get) married next week. You (go) to the wedding? ~ No, I wasnt invited. They (have) a big wedding? 28 I (wait) for you? ~ No, dont bother.

This (take) a long time Im sure, and I dont want you to miss your train. 29 Tom, the host: What you (have), Paul? Paul: I (have) the grilled steak, please. Tom: And I (have) roast duck. (He gives his orders to the waiter and then studies the wine list.) Hm You (have) steak and I (have) duck We (have) some red wine. 30 Jack: I (give) you a lift to work tomorrow if you like. Tom: Have you borrowed a car? Jack. No, Ive just bought one I (collect) it this afternoon 31 Ann: Peter has set his alarm clock for 5 a.m He (get) up very early, isnt he? Mother: Early! Do you know what (happen)? The alarm bell (ring). Peter (sleep) through it and he (come) down to breakfast at the usual time or a little later. 32 Peter: I (be) promoted next week. Mr Jones (leave) and I (take) over the department (These arrangements have already been made.) Ann: At this rate you soon (be) a director, and then you (spend) two hours a day on business lunches and (lose) your figure. 33 Tom: I (fly) to New York next

week. (This has been arranged) Jack: You (take) your wife with you? Tom: No. I know that if I take her she (spend) all her time and most of my money in the New York shops. 34 Mary: Jack and I (go) out tonight. We (have) dinner at the Festival Hall and (go) to a concert afterwards. Ann: And what about the children? I (come) and babysit if you like. Mary: Oh, my neighbour (come) in to sit with them. But thank you for offering, Ann I (ask) you next time. 35 Nadia: I see that Amadeus (come) to our local cinema next week. George: Oh, good. We (go) and see it together on Monday night? Nadia. Yes, lets I (get) the book out of the library and then I (be able) to compare the book and the film. George: If you do that out loud during the film I (not pay) for your supper afterwards. 36 Ann (reading newspaper): It says here that Smiths (open) their new department next week, and that they (have) a sale to give it a good start. I think I (look) in on Monday at lunchtime. Mary: Good idea! I (come)

too. Peter (entering room): Where you girls (have) lunch today? Mary: We (miss) lunch. We (go) to a sale instead 133 The present continuous and be going to PEG 202-6 Put the verbs in brackets into one of the above forms, using the present continuous wherever possible. 1 Where you (go) for your holidays? ~ I (go) to Norway. ~ What you (do) there? ~ I (fish). 2 Where you (go) this evening? ~ I (not go) anywhere. I (stay) at home I (write) some letters 3 Take an umbrella; it (rain). 4 How long you (stay) in this country? (Have you decided to stay?) ~ Another month. I (go) home at the end of the month ~ What you (do) then? ~ I (try) to get a job. 5 I (dye) these curtains. ~ You (do) it yourself, or (have) it done? ~ I (have) it done. Who should I take them to? 6 Ive seen the film, now I (read) the book. Ive just got a copy from the library (I havent started the book yet.) 7 You (do) anything next weekend? ~ Yes, my nephews (come) and I (show) them round London. ~ You (take) them to the

theatre? {Have you booked seats?) ~ No, theyre too young for that. I (take) them to the zoo 8 We (start) early tomorrow. We (go) to Ben Nevis ~ You (climb) Ben Nevis? ~ Not me. Tom (climb) it I (sit) at the bottom and (do) some sketching 9 Uncle: I hear you (go) to the regatta tomorrow. You (sail) in it? Niece: No, but we (take) our cameras. We (try) to photograph the winning yachts 10 You (not ask) your boss to give you a fire in your office? ~ It isnt worth while. I (leave) at the end of the week ~ Really? And what you (do) then? You (have) a holiday? No, I (start) another job the following Monday. 11 I hear youve bought a caravan. You (use) it for your holidays? ~ No, I (live) in it. I (start) moving my things next week ~ What you (do) with your house? ~ I (sell) it to the man who sold me the caravan. He (get) married next month 12 Mrs Jones (go) to hospital. She (have) her appendix out ~ Who (look) after the children? ~ Her sister (come) down from Scotland. 13 He isnt happy at

his boarding school. I (send) him to a day school ~ Have you decided on the other school? ~ No, but I (see) (have an appointment with) the headmaster of the Park School this afternoon. Ill probably send him there 14 Tom (arrive) tomorrow. ~ He (spend) the weekend here or (catch) the night train back as usual? ~ He (spend) the weekend. He (give) a lecture on Friday and (attend) a big reception on Saturday. 15 He (bring) his wife with him? (Has he arranged to bring his wife?) ~ Yes. She (do) some shopping while he (give) his lecture 16 Ive just arranged to do a part-time job. I (start) on Monday ~ What you (do) the rest of the time?~ I (study). 17 You (go) abroad for your holiday?Well, I (get) a holiday job. I (go) to an agents on Saturday to find out about it I (ask) for a job abroad; but of course they may all be taken. ~ You might get a job picking grapes. Jack (join) a camp in the South of Francehis university arranged itand they all (pick) grapes. 18 I (buy) a new coat. The weather

report says that it (be) very cold 19 Ann has won a car in a competition but she cant drive. Tom: What you (do) with the car? You (sell) it? Ann: No, I (learn) to drive. I (have) my first lesson next Monday 20 I hear youve bought a new house. ~ Yes. I (move) in next week ~ You (have) a house warming party? ~ Not just yet. I (paint) the house first The paintworks terrible 21 You (have) it done? (Have you arranged to have it done?) ~ No, I (do) it myself. I (use) that non-drip paint so it shouldnt be too difficult And the family (help), of course. ~ What about ladders? ~ Oh, Ive fixed that. I (hire) from the local do-it-yourself shop 22 I (do) a lot of work in the garden, too. I (plant) 20 apple trees and (make) a lawn in front of the house. ~ All that digging will take years. You (give) up your job? 23 I (get) some help with the garden. (7 have arranged this) Two men (start) work on the hedge on Friday and a lawn expert (come) on Monday to advise me about the lawn. 24 The employers

(meet) the strikers again tomorrow. (This has been arranged) ~ They just (repeat) what they said today? Or they (climb) down? ~ I believe that they (offer) a 10 per cent rise plus a productivity bonus. 134 be going to and will + infinitive PEG 205 Put the verbs in brackets into one of the above forms. 1 Where are you off to with that ladder? ~ I (have) a look at the roof; its leaking and I think a tile has slipped 2 We bought our new garage in sections and we (assemble) it ourselves. ~ That sounds rather interesting. I (come) and help you if you like 3 Why do you want all the furniture out of the room? ~ Because I (shampoo) the carpet. Its impossible to do it unless you take everything off it first. 4 Here are the matches: but what do you want them for? ~ I (make) a bonfire at the end of the garden; I want to burn that big heap of rubbish. ~ Well, be careful. If the fire gets too big it (burn) the apple trees 5 Have you decided on your colour scheme? ~ Oh yes, and Ive bought the paint.

I (paint) this room blue and the sitting room green 6 Why are you asking everyone to give you bits of material? ~ Because I (make) a patchwork quilt. 7 I wonder if Ann knows that the time of the meeting has been changed. ~ Probably not. I (look) in on my way home and tell her Im glad you thought of it 8 Leave a note for them on the table and they (see) it when they come in. 9 Im afraid Im not quite ready. ~ Never mind. I (wait) 10 Do you have to carry so much stuff on your backs? ~ Yes, we do. We (camp) out and (cook) our own meals, so we have carry a lot 11 Ive been measuring the windows. I (put) in double glazing 12 You (wear) that nice dress in a dinghy? ~ Of course not! I (sit) on the pier and (watch) you all sailing. I (not get) all wet and muddy and pretend that Im enjoying it! 13 If you leave your keys with the hall porter he (take) the car round the garage. 14 Shop assistant: We have some very nice strawberries. Customer: All right. I (have) a pound 15 Husband: This bread is

absolutely tasteless! I wish we could have home-made bread. Wife: All right. I (start) making it I (get) a book about home baking today, and from now on I (bake) all our bread! 16 Mary: Anns busy baking. Apparently she (bake) all their bread from now on Jean: She soon (get) tired of that. 17 Why have you brought your camera? You (try) to take photographs? Its not allowed, you know. ~ No, I (try) to sell the camera. ~ Thats not allowed either. If a policemen sees you, he (confiscate) the camera 18 Tom to Jack, who has just helped him to change a wheel: I (have) to leave this at the garage; I dont know how to mend a puncture in a tubeless tyre. Jack: But its quite easy. I (come) round this evening and show you if you like 19 Later: Tom to wife: I (not take) the tyre to the garage. I (mend) it myself Jack (help) me. 20 Why are you rolling up the carpets? You (paint) the ceiling? ~ No, I (take) the carpet to the cleaners. 21 Ann: Heres the letter to the landlord. If theres anything I

should add, say so and I (add) it. Peter: Its fine, but its illegible. He (not be able) to read it Ann: Oh, I (type) it! {She had always intended to type it.) Peter: Good, then we (have) a copy. 22 Employer: But there are a lot of mistakes in this. Miss Jones Miss Jones: Yes, I suppose there are. All right, I (type) it again 23 Mrs Smith: Your colds worse, Ann. Go back to bed and I (ring) the school and tell them you cant come. 24 Mrs Smith was just picking up the receiver when her husband came downstairs. Anns not well, she said. 1 (ring) the school and say that she cant come 25 Ann: Why are you taking fishing rods? You (not climb) the mountain after all? Tom: We (climb) and fish. Theres a lake on top and we (try) to get some fish out of it Ann: Well, if you catch any I (cook) them; but I think I (buy) some all the same. 26 Mary, meeting Jack carrying two buckets of water: Hello, Jack! Wheres the fire? Jack: I (wash) the car, if you want to know. Would you like to help me? Mary: Im

not dressed for it but I (come) and watch. 27 Where are all those children off to with baskets? ~ They (pick) blackberries. They probably (come) back at 600 with their baskets crammed and then their mothers (start) making jam. 28 Ann: You (have) to go now, Tom, or you (be) late. Mary: But its pouring. He (get) soaked if he goes out in that Tom: Youre right. You (let) me stay a little longer? 29 George and Paul find an injured man lying by the roadside. Paul: I (stay) with him, George, if you go back and get help. George: All right. I (try) to get a lift back 30 No, Im not going away for the weekend. Im staying at home I (start) building my garage. The bricks have come at last ~ You (do) it all by yourself? ~ No, my nephew (help) me. I suggested it to him yesterday and he was quite enthusiastic. 31 He says hes tired of writing books about horrible people who get more and more horrible on every page, and now he (write) about perfectly charming people who are happily married. ~ I

wonder if anyone (buy) it. ~ Oh yes, people (buy) it. Hes a famous writer 32 I hear the farmer down the road has hired a bulldozer. ~ Yes, he (dig) up all his hedges and put in fences instead. 33 The new owner (make) any changes? ~ Hes made some already. You should see his new menus He (concentrate) more on the restaurant than the shop. 34 What do you want all those corks for? ~ Ive bought a cask of wine and I (bottle) it myself. 35 Theres someone at the door. ~ I (go). But I expect its someone for you 36 Where are you all going? ~ Theres nothing to eat or drink here except one chop and a bottle of champagne, so we (buy) some fish and chips and eat them in the car. Come with us. ~ No, thanks. I think I (stay) and use up the chop and champagne 135 The future continuous and will + infinitive PEG 214-15 Put the verbs in brackets into one of the above forms. 1 Jack usually gives me a lift home, but we both (come) home by train tomorrow as his car is being repaired. 2 He says he (meet) us

at the bus stop, but Im sure he (forget) to turn up. 3 Dont ring now; she (watch) her favourite TV programme. ~ All right. I (ring) at 830 4 I wonder what I (do) this time next year. ~ I expect you still (work) at the same office. 5 Id like to double-glaze the bedroom windows. ~ All right. I (get) the materials at once and we (do) it this weekend 6 Wait a bit. Dont drink your tea without milk The milkman (come) in a minute 7 What are you doing next weekend? ~ Oh, I (work) as usual. Im always on duty at weekends 8 Air hostess: We (take) off in a few minutes. Please fasten your seat belts 9 He (come) if you ask him. 10 I arranged to play tennis with Tom at nine tonight. ~ But you (play) in semi-darkness. You wont be able to see the ball 11 I (get) you some aspirins if you like. The chemists still (be) open ~ No, dont bother. The office boy (go) out in a minute to post the letters; I (ask) him to buy me some. 12 It (be) very late when she gets home and her parents (wonder) whats happened.

13 I never (be) able to manage on my own. ~ But you wont be on your own. Tom (help) you Lookhis name is bracketed with yours on the list. ~ Oh, thats all right. But Tom (not help) me: I (help) Tom He always takes charge when were on duty together. 14 I (write) postcards every week, I promise, and I (try) to make them legible. If necessary I (type) them. 15 Typist: Are you in a hurry for this letter, Mr Jones? Because I (type) Mr Whites letters at four oclock and if yours could wait till Mr Jones: Id like it a little earlier than four if possible. Typist: All right. I (type) it for you now 16 What happened at last nights meeting? I hear there was quite a disturbance. ~ Come and see me and I (tell) you. I dont want to talk about it on the phone 17 Im going to Switzerland next week. ~ Youre lucky. The wild flowers just (come) out 18 This time next month the snow (melt) and skiing will be over. 19 The first day of the term will be horrible, for everybody (talk) about their holidays and

(show) photographs of marvellous foreign beaches, and as I havent been anywhere I (feel) terribly out of it. 20 I (tell) her what you say but she (not believe) it. 21 Its 7 a.m and here we are on top of a mountain At home people just (get) up now 22 But you cant go to a fancy dress party in a dinner jacket! ~ Why not? ~ Because everyone (wear) fancy dress. ~ All right. I (wrap) the hearthrug round me and (go) as a caveman 23 The coming election (be) the main topic of conversation for the next fortnight. The party leaders (speak) on TV and the local candidates (address) meetings in the constituencies. 24 This time tomorrow everyone (read) of your success, and all sorts of people (ring) up to congratulate you. 25 That oak tree still (stand) there fifty years from now. 26 You please (forward) my mail to the Grand Hotel? I (stay) there as usual for the first fortnight in August. 27 Heavens! Look at the time. Your father (come) home in a minute and I havent even started getting dinner

ready! 28 James (leave) for Australia quite soon. He has got a job there 29 The car (not start). ~ If you get in, Tom and I (give) it a push. 30 Its nearly Christmas already. Carol singers (come) round soon 31 On the news tonight they mentioned the possibility of a power strike. Everybody (look) for candles tomorrow. . 32 Hotel receptionist on phone to client: What time you (arrive), Mr Jones? Mr Jones: I (travel) on the 4.30 from Victoria There (be) taxis at the station? Receptionist: Dont bother about taxis, Mr Jones. We (send) the hotel car down for you. 33 You (use) your dictionary this afternoon? ~ No. You can borrow it if you like ~ Thanks very much. I (put) it back on your desk this evening 34 Ann: This time next week I (have) my first skating lesson. Tom: And this time next month you (hobble) about, covered in bruises! 35 Its a beautiful drive. Im sure you (enjoy) the scenery ~ I (not have) a chance to look at it. I (map-read), and Tom gets so furious if I make a mistake

that I (be) afraid to take my eyes off the map. 36 I (write) in code if you insist, but I dont think its at all necessary. 136 The future continuous and will (mostly negative) PEG 214-15 Put the verbs in brackets into one of the above forms. 1 You ask him. Its no good my asking him He (not do) anything I say 2 Ann says she (not come) if Tom is driving. She says she doesnt want to die yet ~ Well, tell her Tom (not drive). Hes had his licence suspended 3 Pupil to teacher: I (not come) back next term. My parents want me to get a job 4 Headmaster: I (not have) girls here in slacks. If you come here tomorrow in slacks, Ill send you home. Girl: All right, I (not come) tomorrow. Ill get a job 5 Mother: Im so grateful for the help youve given Jack; I hope youll be able to go on helping him. Teacher: Im afraid I (not teach) him next term because I only teach the fifth form and hell be in the sixth, 6 Schoolboy (in school dining hall): The last week of our last term! I wonder what we (do) this

time next year. Friend: Well, we (not eat) school dinners anyway. Thats one comfort 7 They give very good dinners at the school but my daughter (not eat) them. She prefers to go out and buy fish and chips. 8 Yes, you can stroke the dog; he (not bite) you. 9 Shall we meet him at the station? ~ Oh, he (not come) by train. He never comes by train 10 Ive fished that river every year for the last fifteen years. ~ Well, nobody (fish) it next year. The waters been polluted All the fish are dead 11 Ill cook any fish you catch, but I (not clean) them. Youll have to do that yourself 12 I (not show) any films this time. The projectors broken down 13 Housewife: This time next week I (not wash) up the breakfast things. I (have) breakfast in bed in a luxury hotel. 14 I (not wear) glasses when you see me next. Ill be wearing contact lenses You probably (not recognize) me. 15 Ill tell him the truth of course. But it (not be) any good He (not believe) me 16 Customer: When you deliver my next order –

Shop assistant: We (not deliver) any more orders. Im afraid This branch is closing down. 17 Itll be easy to pick her out in that bright red coat of hers. ~ But she (not wear) the red coat! Shes given it away. 18 No, I (not tell) you the end! Go on reading and find out for yourself! 19 You (not use) your car when youre on holiday, will you? ~ No, but dont ask me to lend it to you because I (not do) it. Not after what happened last time. 20 I (have) to be a bit careful about money when I retire because Ill only be getting half my present salary. But of course I (not pay) so much tax 21 You can either pay the fine or go to prison for a month. ~ I (not pay) the fine. ~ Then you (have) to go to prison. 22 Hes a clever boy but hes lazy. He (not work) 23 I wonder how Jack (get on) with the new secretary. ~ Oh, Jack (not work) here after this week. Hes being transferred 24 According to the brochures this hotel prides itself on its service, but the staff not even (show) a guest to his room

unless he insists. I (not come) here again 137 The future perfect PEG 216 Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense. will is replaceable by shall in 3, 6, 7, II, 13, 14 and 17. 1 I hope they (repair) this road by the time we come back next summer. 2 By the end of next week my wife (do) her spring cleaning and well all be able to relax again. 3 Yes, I make jam every week. I (make) about 200 kilos by the end of the summer 4 In two months time he (finish) his preliminary training and will be starting work. 5 He spends all his spare time planting trees. He says that by the end of next year he (plant) 2,000. 6 Ill be back again at the end of next month. ~ I hope I (pass) my driving test by then. If I have, Ill meet your train 7 Come back in an hour. I (do) my packing by then and well be able to have a talk 8 When he reaches Lands End he (walk) 1,500 miles. 9 Hes only 35 but hes started losing his hair already. He (lose) it all by the time hes 50 10 His father left him

£400,000, but he lives so extravagantly that he (spend) it all before hes 30. 11 By the end of next year I (work) for him for 45 years. 12 Everywhere you go in central London you see blocks of flats being pulled down and huge hotels being erected. In ten years time all the private residents (be driven) out and there 11 be nothing but one vast hotel after another. 13 Our committee is trying to raise money to buy a new lifeboat. By the end of the year we (send) out 5,000 letters asking for contributions. 14 By the end of my tour I (give) exactly the same lecture 53 times. 15 A hundred people have died of starvation already. By the end of the week two hundred (die). When are you going to send help? 16 Since he began driving, Tom has driven an average of 5,000 miles a year, and had an average of 21/2 accidents a year. So by the time he is 60 he (drive) 200,000 miles and had 50 accidents. Lets try to persuade him to go back to cycling 17 Did you say you wanted help picking apples? I

could come on 1 October. ~ We (pick) them all by then. But come all the same 18 Apparently Venice is slowly sinking into the sea. Scientists are trying to save it but by the time theyve found the answer the city probably (sink). 138 The present simple and continuous, the future simple and conditional PEG 164-7, 172-4, 207-9, 219 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. Note that in nos If 13, 17 and 18 the dramatic present tense is used (see PEG 174 C). Part 1 1 Ann (look) for a bed-sitter. She (see) an advertisement in the local paper and (ring) up Mrs Smith, the owner of the house. Mrs Smith (answer) the phone 2 Ann: Good afternoon. I (ring) about the room you advertised Mrs Smith: Oh yes. 3 Ann: The advertisement (say) Share bathroom and kitchen. How many other people (use) the bathroom and kitchen? 4 Mrs Smith: Only one otheran Italian girl. And she (use) the kitchen very little She (eat) out most of the time. I (not think) she (like) cooking 5 Ann: That (suit) me all

right. I (like) cooking But how we (arrange) about paying for the gas we (use) in the kitchen? 6 Mrs Smith: The rent (include) gas for cooking, also hot water and light. But it (not include) heating. Each room has its own fire and meter 7 Ann: I (see). And the room (face) the front or the back? 8 Mrs Smith: It (face) the front. It (looks) out on the garden square; and it (get) a lot of sun. 9 Ann: That (sound) very nice. Could I come and see it this evening? Mrs Smith: Yes, the earlier the better. 10 Ann: 7 p.m (suit) you? I (not be able to) come before that as I usually (not get) away from the office till 6 p.m 11 Mrs Smith: 7 p.m (be) all right I (not think) you (have) any difficulty in finding us The 14 bus (pass) the house and (stop) a few doors further along, outside the Post Office. 12 Ann: Im sure I (find) it all right. I (see) you at 700 then, Mrs Smith Goodbye 13 At 6.30 Mr Smith (come) home from work He (ask) his wife about the room 14 Mrs Smith: I havent let it yet but a

girl (come) to see it at 7.00 15 Mr Smith: She probably (come) at 7.30 just as we (sit) down to supper People coming here for the first time always (get) lost. I (not think) you (give) proper directions 16 Mrs Smith: Oh yes, I (do). But nobody (listen) to directions these days Anyway Im sure this girl (be) in time. 17 Just then the doorbell (ring). Mrs Smith (look) at her husband and (smile) 18 You see, she (say), and (go) to open the door. Part 2 Weekend plans. 19 Bill (on phone): Hello, Peter. Bill here I (speak) from Southwold I (spend) my holidays here this year in a caravan. You (like) to come for the weekend? 20 Peter: I (love) to. But how I (get) to you? 21 Bill: Get the 8 oclock train to Halesworth and I (meet) you at the station. 22 Peter: OK. I (do) that Are you near the sea Bill? 23 Bill: Yes. When the tide (come) in Im almost afloat! 24 Peter: It (sound) marvellous! 25 Bill: It is. Wait till you (see) it! 26 (Friday) Peters mother: What you (do) this weekend, Peter?

(What plans have you made?) 27 Peter: I (spend) it with Bill in a caravan on the Suffolk coast. 28 Mother: The east coast in this wind! You (freeze) to death – if Bills cooking (not kill) you first! How you (get) there? (What travel arrangements have you made?) 29 Peter: I (catch) the 8 oclock train and Bill (meet) me at Halesworth. 30 Mother: Then I (lend) you my alarm clock, and wed better have breakfast at seven. I (tell) Mary. 31 Peter: Poor Mary! She (like) a lie-in on Saturdays! 32 (Friday evening) Mother: I (give) you a call at 6.30, Peter, in case you (fall) asleep again after your alarm (go) off. By the way, Mary, we (have) breakfast at seven tomorrow as Peter (go) away for the weekend and (catch) an early train. 33 Mary (petulantly): Peter always (go) away. I never (go) anywhere! 34 Mother: When he (come) home on Sunday night and you (hear) how awful it was, you (be) very glad you stayed at home! Conditionals 139 Conditional sentences: type I PEG 221 Put the verbs in

brackets into the correct form. 1 Ill look for your notebook and if I (find) it I (give) you a ring. 2 If you (smoke) in a non-smoking compartment the other passengers (object). 3 Ill wash the glasses in this nice hot water. ~ No, dont. If you (put) them into very hot water they (crack) 4 If you (see) Tom tell him I have a message for him. 5 If he (win) he (get) £1,000; if he (come) in second he (get) £500. 6 If you (feel) too hot during the night turn down the central heating. 7 Tom: Jack is a translator; he translates 1,000 words a day and gets £100 a week, which he says isnt enough to live on. Bill: Well, if he (want) more money he (have) to do more work. Advise him to translate 2,000 words a day. 8 If you (finish) with your dictionary Id like to borrow it. 9 Jack (in canoe): Watch me! Im going to stand up! Tom (on the bank): Hes an idiot! If he (stand) up in the canoe it (capsize). 10 The lift wasnt working when I was here last. If it still (not work) we (have) to use the

stairs. 11 I shant wake if the alarm clock (not go) off. 12 I shant wake unless I (hear) the alarm. 13 If youd like some ice I (get) some from the fridge. 14 Hes only sixteen but he wants to leave school at the end of the term. ~ If he (leave) now he (be) sorry afterwards. 15 I expect it will freeze tonight. ~ If it (freeze) tonight the roads (be) very slippery tomorrow. 16 That book is overdue. If you (not take) it back to the library tomorrow you (have) to pay a fine. 17 Unless Tom (take) his library book back tomorrow he (have) to pay a fine. 18 Youd better take the day off if you (not feel) well tomorrow. 19 If a driver (brake) suddenly on a wet road he (skid). 20 If you (like) I (get) you a job in this company. 21 If you (like) a job in this company, Ill get you one. 22 My dog never starts a fight. He never growls unless the other dog (growl) first 23 You can use my phone if yours (not work). 24 If you (not know) the meaning of a word you may use a dictionary. 25 If Jack (refuse)

to help well have to manage without him. 26 If Jack (not help) well have to manage without him. 27 (Tom is putting his coat on.) Ann: If you (go) out would you buy me some cigarettes? 28 Henry cant count. ~ Why you (employ) him as a cashier if he cant count? 29 The police will test the knife for fingerprints. If your fingerprints are on it you (be) charged with murder. 30 Tom: I hate my job Peter: If you (hate) it why you (not change) it? 31 You can ask for a continental breakfast if you (not want) a full breakfast. 32 If you (hear) from Tom could you please let me know? 33 Caller: Could I speak to Mr Jones, please? Secretary: If youd wait a moment I (see) if hes in. 34 Im not expecting any messages, but if someone (ring) while I am out could you say that Ill be back by 6.00? 35 (Notice in a box of chocolates): Every care has been taken with preparation and packing, but if these chocolates (reach) you in a damaged condition please return them to us and we will send you another box. 36

If you (care) to see some of his drawings I (send) them round to your office. 140 Conditional sentences: type I PEG 221 Drill: reply to the following sentences as shown in the example: If Tom meets us at the station well be all right. But whatll we do if he doesn t meet us? 1 If he pays me tonight, Ill have enough money for the tickets. 2 If I get a work permit, Ill stay for another six months. 3 If I pass this exam, Ill go to the university next October. 4 If he agrees to let me go on working after marriage, Ill marry him (Use refuse.) 5 Im going to say to the boss, I cant work with Smith. Either I go or he goes Youll have to choose between us. 6 If I can find a cheap room Ill stay a fortnight. 7 Your parachute should open after ten seconds. 8 Provided you remember the password youll be in no danger. (Use forget) 9 Tell the police the truth. Im sure theyll believe you 10 If the baby is a girl were going to call her Ann. 11 If we get a lift well be in time. 12 If London airport is

clear of fog well land there. 13 If Tom helps us the job will only take half an hour. 14 I havent got a key but Jack will let us in if he is at home. 15 If the ice is thick enough well be able to walk across the river. 16 The sands are quite safe as long as you dont walk on them when the tide is coming in. 17 If its fine tomorrow well go for a walk. 18 Driver (having just changed a wheel): Well be all right provided we dont have another puncture. Part 2 Rewrite the following sentences replacing would like by like and making any necessary changes. If youd like to wait you can wait here. If you like you can wait here or You can wait here if you like. 1 If youd like a copy of the book, I can get you one. (If you like, I ) 2 If youd like me to ask if there are any vacancies I will. (If you like, Ill) 3 If youd like to see the photographs, Ill bring them round tonight. 4 If youd like me to give you a hand, I will. 5 If youd like to watch the procession from my balcony, you can. 6 If youd

like to see London from the air, Ill arrange a helicopter trip for you. 7 You knitted a very nice sweater for Tom. ~ Yes, if youd like me to knit you one I will. 8 If youd like to borrow my car, you can. 9 Ill come back and finish it tomorrow if youd like me to. 10 If youd like Ann to type it again, Ill ask her to. 11 If youd like an application form, Ill get you one. 12 If youd like me to go with you, I will. 13 Ill paint the front door blue, if youd like that. 14 If youd like to leave the washing-up till tomorrow, you can. Part I 15 16 17 18 If youd like to postpone the trip till next week, well do that. If youd like me to ask him to our next party, I will. If youd like to meet the President, I will arrange it. If youd like to go sailing tomorrow, we will. 141 Conditional sentences: type 2 PEG 222 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. 1 Of course Im not going to give her a diamond ring. If I (give) her a diamond ring she (sell) it. 2 Tom: I woke up to find the room

full of smoke; but I knew exactly what to do. Ann: If I (wake) up to find the room full of smoke I (have) no idea what to do. 3 Ann: I couldnt live without Tom. If he (go) off with another girl I (pine) away and die But I have complete confidence in Tom. 4 Husband: But Im not going on a diet. Why should I go on a diet? Wife: If you (go) on a diet you (lose) weight. 5 If someone (say), Ill give you £500 to go into court and swear that this statement is true, what you (do)? 6 If we (work) all night we (finish) in time; but we have no intention of working all night. 7 You must never blow out a gas light. Do you know what (happen) if you (blow) out a gas light? 8 If I (see) a tiger walking across Hyde Park I (climb) a tree. ~ That (not be) any use. The tiger (climb) after you 9 If I (come) across two men fighting with knives I (call) the police. ~ But this is a very peaceful area. 10 Ann: All your clothes are years out of date. Why dont you throw them away? Mary: Dont be ridiculous! If I

(throw) my clothes away I (have) to ask my husband for £1,000 to buy new ones. 11 Ann: If you (ask) him for £1,000 what he (say)? 12 Mary: He (be) too horrified to speak at first. But when hed recovered from the shock, he probably (start) talking about a divorce. 13 If someone (ring) my doorbell at 3 a.m I (be) very unwilling to open the door 14 If I (see) a python in Piccadilly I (assume) it had escaped from a circus. 15 Tom: The plane was on fire so we baled out. Ann: I dont think I (have) the nerve to do that even if the plane (be) on fire. 16 We train the children to file out of the classroom quietly, because if a whole class (rush) at the door someone (get) hurt. 17 Why dont you buy a season ticket?Because I lose everything. If I (buy) a season ticket I (lose) it 18 Why dont you bring your car to work? If I (have) a car I (bring) it to work. 19 Jack: They get £150 a week. Tom: They cant get £150 a week. If they (do) they (not be) striking for £120 20 Ann: George is fourteen.

Tom: He must be older than that. Hes in a full-time job If he (be) only fourteen he still (be) at school. 21 He is staying at the Savoy in London. ~ Is he very rich? ~ I suppose he is. If he (be) a poor man he (not stay) at the Savoy 22 If I (have) heaps of money I (drink) champagne with every meal. 23 If you (drink) champagne with every meal you soon (get) tired of it. 24 Prime Minister on golf course: Im not at all worried about the situation. If I (be) worried I not (play) golf at this moment. 25 But I dont want to buy an elephant! ~ I know that. But where you (go) if you (do) want to buy one? 26 Why dont you get a cat? If you (keep) a cat the mice (not run) about everywhere. 27 What time of year do you think it is in this picture? Summer? ~ No, it must be winter. If it (be) summer the people (not sit) round that big fire 28 Tom: Oh yes, I heard the phone ringing. Peter: Well, if you (hear) the phone ringing why you (not answer) it? (Be careful; this is not a true conditional

sentence.) 29 Your notes are almost illegible. Why dont you type them? If you (type) them they (be) a lot easier to read. 30 If only we (have) a light! Its depressing waiting in darkness! 31 A university degree is a useful thing. If I (have) a university degree I now (sit) in a comfortable office instead of standing at a street corner selling newspapers. 32 I (be) very grateful if you kindly (sign) this document and let me have it back as soon as possible. 33 If the earth suddenly (stop) spinning we all (fly) off it. 34 Why are you so late? ~ We got stuck in a snowdrift! Luckily a lorry-driver saw us and towed us out. But for him we still (be) there! 35 We didnt exactly break down. We had a puncture ~ But if it (be) only a puncture why you (not change) the wheel and come on? (See 28 above.) 36 I have no particular desire to win the Football Pools. If I (win) an enormous sum everybody (write) to me asking for money. 142 Conditional sentences: type 2 PEG 222 Rewrite these sentences,

using an if construction. He smokes too much; perhaps thats why he cant get rid of his cough. If he didn t smoke so much he might get rid of his cough or If he smoked less he might (be able to) get rid of his cough. 1 She is very shy; thats why she doesnt enjoy parties. 2 He doesnt take any exercise; thats why he is so unhealthy. 3 I havent the right change so we cant get tickets from the machine. 4 They speak French to her, not English, so her English doesnt improve. 5 He doesnt work overtime, so he doesnt earn as much as I do. 6 My number isnt in the directory so people dont ring me up. 7 The police are not armed so we dont have gun battles in the streets. 8 The shops dont deliver now, which makes life difficult. 9 Hes very thin; perhaps thats why he feels the cold so much. 10 We havent any matches so we cant light a fire. 11 Its a pity we havent a steak to cook over our camp fire. 12 Im fat; thats why I cant get through the bathroom window. 13 He doesnt help me, possibly because

I never ask him for help. 14 I cant drive so we cant take the car. 15 We have no ladder so we cant get over the wall. 16 My friend advised me to sell it. (My friend said If 1 you 1 ) 17 I havent much time so I read very little. 18 They dont clean the windows so the rooms look rather dark. 19 He never polishes his shoes, so he never looks smart. 20 He doesnt pay his staff properly; perhaps thats why they dont work well. 21 We havent got central heating, so the house is rather cold. 22 I have no dog, so I dont like being alone in the house at night. 23 He spends hours watching television; thats why he never has time to do odd jobs in the house. 24 I havent got a vacuum cleaner; thats why Im so slow. 25 I dont know his address, so I cant write to him. 26 He never shaves; thats the only reason he looks unattractive. 27 You work too fast; thats why you make so many mistakes. 28 I cant park near my office; thats why I dont come by car. 29 I live a long way from the centre; thats why I am

always late for work. 30 I havent a map so I cant direct you. 31 People drive very fast. Thats why there are so many accidents 32 English people speak very quickly. Perhaps thats why I cant understand them 33 My house is guarded by two Alsatian dogs. Thats the only reason it isnt broken into every night. 34 The flats are not clearly numbered, so it is very difficult to find anyone. 35 You dont wipe your feet, so you make muddy marks all over the floor. 36 I live near my office, so I dont spend much time travelling to work. 143 Conditional sentences: type 3 PEG 223 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. 1 If he (not take) his gloves off he (not get) frost bitten. 2 She was sent to prison only because she refused to pay the fine; if she (pay) the fine she (not be) sent to prison. 3 He didnt tell me that he was a vegetarian till halfway through the meal. If he (tell) me earlier I (cook) him something more suitable. 4 I had no map; thats why I got lost. If I (had) a map I (be)

all right 5 Why didnt you say that you were short of money? If I (know) I (lend) you some. 6 Its lucky he had his torch with him. If he (not have) it he (fall) down the cellar steps 7 The job is much worse than I expected. If I (realise) how awful it was going to be I (not accept) it. 8 It was the drug, not the disease, that killed him. He would still be alive today if He (not take) that drug. 9 This rooms freezing because the fire has only just been lit. ~ If it (be lit) this morning, as I suggested, the room would be warm enough to sit in now. 10 I overslept; thats why Im half an hour late; and if my phone (not ring) at nine oclock I might still be in bed. 11 It was rather a dull game so I left before the end; if I (wait) another five minutes I (see) Chelsea scoring a really exciting goal. 12 The paraffin heater was perfectly safe. There (not be) a fire if the children (not knock) it over. 13 Its a pity he never patented his invention. If he (patent) it he (make) a lot of money

14 The fog came down suddenly and I suppose they didnt know which way to turn; if only they (have) a map and compass with them they (not be) drowned. 15 He asked his parents for a loan but he didnt say what he wanted the money for, so they refused. I think if he (tell) them that he wanted to open a restaurant they (agree) 16 The accident was mainly Toms fault. He was driving much too close to the car in front. If he (be) further away he (be able) to stop in time 17 The launching of the rocket was delayed half an hour by bad weather. If the weather (be) good they (launch) it at 8.30 instead of at 900 18 Why did you throw away those newspapers? I hadnt finished with them. ~ Im sorry. If I (know) you were still reading them I (not throw) them away 19 Im sorry you didnt tell me that dogs were allowed in the hotel; if I (know) I (bring) my dog. He (enjoy) the walk 20 Most people (attend) the union meeting if they had had longer notice of it. 21 He says he refused the job, but that this was

nothing to do with the salary. He (refuse) even if they (offer) him twice as much. 22 The club secretary is useless. He never tells anybody anything We (not know) about this meeting if the chairman (not tell) us. 23 When the director asked her to play the lead she agreed though she didnt know anything about the play. I think that if she (read) the play first she (refuse) the part 24 The burglar made quite a lot of noise getting into the house; but fortunately for him the family were watching a noisy TV play. If they (play) cards they certainly (hear) him 25 If you had been there what you (do)? 26 It rained, which spoiled our picnic; but if it (not rain) it (be) a great success. 27 Why are you in such a bad temper? ~ Because Ive been waiting for 40 minutes in an icy wind. If you (wait) 40 minutes in an icy wind youd be bad-tempered, too. 28 You used wet sticks; thats why the fire took so long to light. If you (use) dry sticks it (light) long ago. 29 I didnt recognize him at first

because he was wearing dark glasses; if he (not wear) them I (recognize) him immediately. 30 You knew that horse was going to win! ~ Dont be ridiculous! If I (knew) I (back) him myself. 31 Why didnt you phone from the village?Because there was no phone in the village. If there (be) of course we (phone) from there. 32 When the weather got bad the climbing party turned back, all except Tom and his brothers, who decided to go on. If only they (turn) back with the others they would be alive today. 33 He was not very happy at school because" he was a bookish boy, not at all interested in games. If he (play) games like the other boys he (have) a much better time 34 We had to stand almost all the way. It was all Toms fault If he (book) seats, as I told him to, we (have) quite a comfortable journey. 35 We were travelling with false passports. That was the trouble If our passports (be) all right we (not be) arrested. 36 They voted by a show of hands and decided in favour of a strike.

But it was by a narrow margin and I think that if they (hold) a secret ballot there (not be) a strike. 144 Conditional sentences: type 3 PEG 223 Rewrite these sentences using an if construction. You didnt tell me we had run out of bread, so I didnt buy any. If you had told me we had run out of bread Id have bought some. 1 I didnt see the signal, so I didnt stop. 2 I didnt know your number, so I didnt ring. 3 She didnt know you were in hospital, so she didnt visit you. 4 We only came by bus because there were no taxis. 5 She didnt speak to him, possibly because she was so shy. 6 Landlord: She threatened to set fire to her flat; thats the only reason I asked her to leave. 7 We didnt visit the museum because we hadnt time. 8 I only came up the stairs because the lift wasnt working. 9 We didnt listen carefully; perhaps thats why we made this mistake. 10 We got a lift, so we reached the station in time. 11 You washed it in boiling water; thats why it shrank. 12 We missed the train because

we were using an out-of-date timetable. 13 His own men deserted him; thats the only reason why he failed. 14 They were driving very quickly. Thats why the accident was so terrible 15 It was raining. Thats the only reason I didnt take the children to the beach 16 When I bought this house I didnt realize that in summer planes skimmed the roof every five minutes. {If I (knew) Knot buy) etc) 17 Toms father was on the Board. Thats the only reason he got the job 18 He wasnt looking where he was going. Thats why he was run over 19 I dont like country life, perhaps because I wasnt brought up in the country. 20 I didnt know he was so quarrelsome. Im sorry now that I invited him 21 It rained all the time. Perhaps thats why he didnt enjoy his visit 22 I didnt work hard at school so I didnt get a good job when I left. 23 They used closed-circuit television. Thats how they spotted the shop-lifter 24 They asked him to leave the dining-room because he wasnt wearing a shirt. 25 It took us a

long time to find his house because the streets were not clearly marked. 26 We didnt go by air only because we hadnt enough money. 27 The bus didnt stop because you didnt put your hand up. 28 He turned up at the interview looking so disreputable and unshaven that they didnt give him the job. 29 I didnt know how thin the ice was, so I was walking on it quite confidently. 30 The champion didnt take the fight seriously at first; perhaps thats why he didnt win it. 31 They got the children back alive only because they paid the ransom at once. 32 The examiner read the passage very quickly, so the candidates didnt understand it. 33 They werent wearing life-jackets; perhaps thats why they were drowned. 34 He didnt get to the top of his profession, perhaps because his wife didnt encourage him. 35 The exit doors were blocked so people couldnt escape from the burning hall. 36 The astronauts didnt walk very far on the moon because they were hampered by the thick dust. 145 Conditional sentences:

mixed types PEG 221-8 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms. 1 Ive hung out the clothes. Its lovely and sunny; if it (stay) like this they (be) dry in two hours. 2 French is essential in this job. All the telephonists speak it If they (not know) French they (not understand) half the callers. 3 How did you do in the car rally? ~ We came in last actually; but only because we got lost. If we (not got) lost we (come) in somewhere in the middle. We certainly (not be) last 4 I wasnt really surprised that we got lost because I knew that the navigator couldnt mapread. ~ But if you (know) that why you (take) him as navigator? 5 This flat would be all right if the people above us (not be) so noisy. 6 A group of spectators, including myself, left the stand just before the end of the game. When we were half way down the stairs a goal was scored and there was a great cheer from the spectators. If there (not be) a goal the crowd (not cheer) 7 If the crowd (not cheer) we (not run) back up

the stairs to see what had happened. 8 If we (not run) back we (not crash) into the rest of the spectators on their way down, and there (not be) this frightful accident. 9 If the pain (return) youd better take another pill. 10 If you arent going to live in the house why you (not sell) it? If I (have) a house I couldnt use I (sell) it at once. 11 No, I didnt know any Russian at that time. ~ But if you (not know) Russian why you (offer) to give him Russian lessons? ~ Because I knew that he (refuse). He always rejected my offers 12 Tell him to bring his bicycle inside. If he (leave) it outside someone (steal) it 13 Why do people always wear dark clothes at night? If pedestrians (wear) light coloured clothes drivers (see) them much more easily. 14 She must have loved him very much because she waited for him for fifteen years. If she (not love) him she (not wait) so long. 15 He looked so small and weak that nobody asked him to do anything. If he (look) strong he (be) expected to dig all

day like everyone else. 16 The government are talking of pulling the village down to make room for an airport. ~ If they (start) doing it the village people (resist)? 17 If you are catching an early train tomorrow you (like) to have breakfast at 7.00? 18 Well have to break the ice on the pond; otherwise the ducks (not be able) to swim. And if they (not be able) to swim they (not be able) to get food. (Use can/could forms where possible.) 19 When he left school he became a fisherman. His family didnt like it at all They (be) much happier if he (become) a greengrocer like his father. 20 They still say that if he (go) into the greengrocery business when he left school he (be) comfortably off now instead of being poor. 21 But he says that if he (have) his life again he (make) the same choice. 22 So many parcels and no baskets! If I (know) that we were going to buy so much I (bring) a basket. 23 No one bathes here. The water is heavily polluted If you (bathe) in it you (be) ill for a

fortnight. 24 I can hear the speaker all right but I wish I could see him too. ~ If he (stand) on a barrel we all (see) him and that (be) much better. 25 Look at poor Tom trying to start his car by hand again! If I (be) Tom I (get) a new battery. 26 I expect youll see Jack at the lecture tonight. If you (do) you please (remind) him about tomorrows meeting? 27 The headmaster decided that Peter was the culprit and expelled him from the school. A more intelligent man (realize) that Peter couldnt have been guilty. (If the headmaster had been more intelligent he . ) 28 But I blame the real culprit even more. If he (admit) his guilt Peter (not be) expelled 29 The only thing I havent got is a balcony. If I (have) a balcony I (grow) plants in pots Then my flat (be) perfect! 30 Jack rang while you were out. ~ Oh dear! If I (know) he was going to ring I (stay) at home. 31 My unmarried friends are always telling me how to bring up my children. I sometimes think that if they (have) children they

(make) just as many mistakes as I do. 32 (At a cinema) Ann: Dont worry. They get married in the end Mary: Then youve seen it before If you (tell) me that we (go) to something else! 33 Be careful about the time. If you (spend) too long on the first question you (not have) enough time to do the others properly. 34 We had a lot of trouble putting the tent up. If it (not be) so windy perhaps it (not be) quite so difficult. 35 Ann (sitting beside her open fire): I love open fires; if I (have) nothing but a radiator to sit beside I (get) quite depressed. 36 Lucy, a student at a residential college: Couldnt I leave the hostel and get a flat, mother? Mother: No, you couldnt. I know very well what (happen) if you (have) a flat You (play) the guitar all night and (miss) your classes in the morning; then you (fail) your exams and (have) to repeat the year. And you (not feed) yourself properly and (get) run down. And then you (catch) some infection and (die) of it, and we (have) to leave this

district as the neighbours (keep) saying that we had caused you death by letting you have your own way! 146 Conditional sentences: mixed types PEG 221-8 Finish the following sentences. 1 If you had a carpet on the stairs . 2 If you should see a snake . 3 If I lived in the country . 4 If you want to get to the station in time to catch the 8.10 train 5 He was sleepwalking. When I saw him going towards the window I stopped him If I hadnt stopped him . 6 She is simply terrified of rats. If she hears the rats running round your attics she 7 The milk wouldnt have turned sour if . 8 They were completely lost and didnt know which way to turn; but for the dog . 9 If you took a course in computer programming . 10 Jack (trying to phone Peter): I can hear the phone ringing. Peter must be out If he were in he . 11 If we have another puncture . 12 I could have walked more quickly if my suitcase . 13 My room would be all right if it . 14 If you arent going to use the car tomorrow, .

? 15 If you dont like films why . ? 16 There were plenty of fish in the bay; if wed had fishing lines . 17 The hijackers threatened to kill the pilot unless he . 18 Well test your voice and if it is good enough . 19 If buses and trains were free . 20 If children were allowed to do exactly as they liked in school . 21 Id have taken a photograph if . 22 Your job sounds awful. If I were you 23 If you thought he was unreliable why . ? 24 If Id known that there was going to be an electricity strike I . 25 If the price of petrol goes up . 26 You can camp in this field provided . 27 Unless you isolate people with infectious diseases . 28 Everyone was going much too fast. The pile-up wouldnt have be nearly so terrible if the drivers . 29 They would have paid you more if . 30 If you dont boil the water before you drink it . 31 He expected absolute punctuality. He was furious if 32 If you lived on the 40th floor and there was a power strike . 33 We could have got seats . 34

Mother to little boy: If you dont eat up your nice rice pudding . 35 Tom (looking at his watch): Well have to go without Peter if . 36 If you breathe a word of this to anybody . 147 will and shall PEG 201, 207-8, 223, 282 Insert either will or shall in the spaces; in some examples, shall would be correct in formal English but will is used in conversation. In these cases, the answer shall/will will be given in the key. 1 I . know tomorrow It be in the papers 2 These pigeons are quite tame; they . take crumbs from your fingers 3 .I call for you? ~ No, I . get a taxi and meet you at the station 4 Hold the door open for me, . you? 5 Loudspeaker announcement at an air terminal: . Mr Jones, passenger to New York, please come to Gate 3. 6 The Head of the Department has just told me that I . (not) have any nine oclock classes next term. So I (not) have to get up early, which be a comfort And I . have time to read the paper at breakfast 7 Zoo keeper: In spite of all the

notices, people . feed these animals 8 Committee regulations: Ten persons . constitute a quorum 9 You can trust me; nobody . know that you are here (I promise to keep it secret) I . (not) even tell my wife 10 Shop assistant: The small ones are £1 each and the large ones are £2. Customer: I . have six small ones, please 11 . we stop here for a drink? ~ If we do we. miss the overture, and they probably (not) let us in till the end of the act. 12 . you have another piece of pie?~ Yes, please. 13 Jones: Stand away from that door! You cant keep me here against my will! Smith: You . (not) go till you have given me an explanation! (I wont let you go) 14 Police Officer (in a loud-speaker van beside a motorway in thick fog): They are going much too fast. I keep warning them to reduce speed but they (not) do it 15 Extract from a clubs regulations: Club officers . be elected yearly and (not) be eligible for re-election at the end of that year. 16 The train . be

very crowded Im afraid I expect we have to stand most of the way. 17 Ann (on phone): You left your gloves here last night. I post them to you? Mary: No, dont bother. I pick them up some time this evening You be in, (not) you? 18 Tom (at the races): Who won? Jack: I dont know; it was a photo-finish. But we see in a moment They put the winners number up. 19 Ann: She says shed rather go to prison than pay the fine. Tom: She . (not) go to prison (/ wont let this happen ) I pay her fine for her! 20 Where . we go to get shoes? ~ What about Oxford Street? ~ Oxford Street? Are you mad? Its Saturday morning! The shops . be packed 21 I . (not) see her Im sorry to say She have left by the time I arrive 22 Secretary: Theres a Mr Peterson in the outer office, sir. He says he has an appointment. you see him now? Mr Smith: I . (not) see him now or at any other time I told him so when we last met. And he hasnt an appointment! 23 Angry villagers, who have just heard

that the government intends to pull down their houses and build an airport: They . (not) build an airport here! We fight for our village! 24 I am determined that my son . have the best possible education 148 would and should PEG 160, 222-4, 232, 235-7 Insert would or should in the spaces in the following sentences. 1 Lets go shopping. The shops not be crowded Monday mornings usually quiet 2 Why . everyone be promoted except me? Its not fair 3 He used to have a day off once a week, and on that day he . get up early, have a hasty breakfast and set out for the river. 4 . nt it be better to roll up the carpet before painting the ceiling? 5 I know that it will be difficult to pick him out in such a crowd, but if you . happen to see him give him this packet. 6 The car . nt start so we had to ring for a taxi 7 If you . wait a moment, Ill ring our stockroom and see if we have another bale of this material. 8 I . tell him the truth if I were you 9 I wish he . get up

earlier Hes late for work every day 10 It is astonishing that a person of your intelligence . be taken in so easily 11 The people in the flat above us were members of a band. We liked them very much but they . practise the drums at night Nothing we said made any difference 12 . you like to come with us? There is plenty of room in the car 13 Do you know where Tom is? ~ He. be in the canteen Hes usually there between twelve and one 14 She asked what she . do if any letters came for me while I was away I told her that my brother . come every day to pick up my mail 15 . you like some cake? Yes, please, though 1. nt eat it really as Im on a diet 16 He always carried food for himself and his horse in case they . have to spend a night away from camp. 17 Have I spelt it right? Or . there be another s? 18 If Tom were here he . know what to do 19 Bill proposed that women . be allowed to join the club 20 It . take too long to handsew it; well have to hire a machine 21 It

is only fair that you . know what people are saying about you behind your back 22 It is essential that everyone . be able to see the stage 23 They . nt allow parking in this street at all Its much too narrow 24 I hoped they . be pleased when they saw the photographs 25 . you mind opening the windows? Its very stuffy in here 26 Have you a screwdriver? ~ Yes, there . be one in that drawer 27 I suggested that they . have a hot breakfast and a cold supper 28 You . love your father (It is natural and right) ~ Why . I love him? Ive never seen him 29 The headmaster suggested that the school . buy its own minibus 30 I wish you . tell me what he said in his letter 31 He . nt use the electric blanket He said it was faulty 32 They used to work in pairs. One pretend that he wanted to buy something while the other helped himself from the shelves. 33 Small children . nt be left alone in a house They might set themselves on fire 34 You . nt leave a small child alone

(You: are far too conscientious) 35 Father to child: You . be in bed What are you doing running about at this hour? 36 There , . be a switch somewhere Ah yes, here it is Gerund, infinitive and present participle 149 Gerund, infinitive and present participle PEG 266-71 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms. Note that sometimes a bare infinitive will be required. 1 I was lonely at first, the old man admitted, but after a time I got used to (live) alone and even got (like) it. 2 Before trains were invented people used (travel) on horseback or in stage coaches. It used (take) a stage coach three days (go) from London to Bath. 3 I meant (buy) an evening paper but I .didnt see anyone (sell) them 4 Tom: I want (catch) the 7 a.m train tomorrow Ann: But that means (get) up at 6.00; and youre not very good at (get) up early, are you? 5 He accepted the cut in salary without complaint because he was afraid (complain). He was afraid of (lose) his job. 6 She remembers part of her

childhood quite clearly. She remembers (go) to school for the first time and (be) frightened and (put) her finger in her mouth. And she remembers her teacher (tell) her (take) it out. 7 Did you remember (lock) the car? ~ No, I didnt. Id better (go) back and (do) it now 8 No, I didnt move the bomb. I was afraid (touch) it; I was afraid of (be) blown to pieces! 9 Next time we go (house-hunt), remember (ask) the agent for clear directions. I wasted hours (look) for the last house. 10 Tom: Lets (go) for a swim. Ann: Im not particularly keen on (swim). What about (go) for a drive instead? 11 The hunters expected (be paid) by the foot for the snakes they caught. This meant (take) the snakes out of the sack and (measure them. They seemed (expect) me (do) it; but I wasnt particularly anxious (be) the first (die) of snakebite. 12 After (spend) two days (argue) about where to go for their holiday they decided (not go) anywhere. 13 He is talking about (give) up his job and (go) (live) in the

country. 14 I was just about (leave) the office when the phone rang. It was my wife; she wanted me (call) at the butchers on my way home. 15 He said, Im terribly sorry to (keep) you (wait). I said, It doesnt matter at all, but he went on (apologize) for nearly five minutes! 16 The lecturer began by (tell) us where the island was, and went on (talk) about its history. 17 My father thinks I am not capable of (earn) my own living, but I mean (show) him that he is wrong. 18 Tom: I cant get my car (start) on cold mornings. Jack: Have you tried (fill) the radiator with hot water? That sometimes helps. 19 Did he manage (carry) the trunk upstairs? ~ No, he didnt. He isnt strong enough (move) it, let alone (carry) it upstairs 20 Jack: Dont forget (take) a hacksaw with you. Ann: Whats a hacksaw? And why should I (take) one with me? Jack: Its a tool for (cut) metal. You see, Tom is bound (get) into trouble for (take) photographs of the wrong things, and youll be arrested with him. With a hacksaw

youll be able (saw) through the bars of your cell and (escape). 21 Peter: Wouldnt it be better (ask) Tom (leave) his camera at home? Jack: It would be no good (ask) Tom (do) that. It would be like (ask) a woman (travel) without a handbag. 22 Ive got the loaf; now Im looking for a breadknife (cut) it with. ~ I saw Paul (sharpen) a pencil with the breadknife a minute ago. 23 We stopped once (buy) petrol and then we stopped again (ask) someone the way. 24 When I caught them (cheat) me, I stopped (buy) petrol there and started (deal) with your garage instead. 25 Do you feel like (dine) out or would you rather (have) dinner at home? ~ Id like (go) out. I always enjoy (have) dinner in a restaurant 26 Your hair needs (cut). Youd better (have) it done tomorrowunless youd like me (have) a go at it for you. 27 I tried (convince) him that I was perfectly capable of (manage) on my own, but he insisted on (help) me. 28 Jack: I dont mind (travel) by bus, but I hate (stand) in queues. Tom: I dont

care for (queue) either; and you waste so much time (wait) for buses. I think its better (go) by tube, or taxi. 29 He took to (follow) me about and (criticize) my work till I threatened (hit) him. 30 I have (stay) here; Im on duty. But you neednt (wait); youre free (go) whenever you like. 31 In Animal Farm the old pig urged the animals (rebel) against man but he warned them (not adopt) mans habits. 32 There is no point in (arrive) half an hour early. Wed only have (wait) ~ I dont mind (wait). Its better (be) too early than too late 33 I always try (come) in quietly but they always hear me (go) upstairs. Its impossible (climb) an old wooden staircase at night without (make) a noise. 34 If you agree (work) for me Ill see about (get) you a work permit. 35 Wed better (start) early. We dont want (risk) (get) caught in a traffic jam 36 He suggested (call) a meeting and (let) the workers (decide) the matter themselves. 150 Gerund, infinitive and present participle PEG 266-71 Put the verbs in

brackets into the correct forms. Remember that sometimes a bare infinitive is required. 1 We suggested (sleep) in hotels but the children were anxious (cam) out. 2 Paul: Would you like (come) to a lecture on Wagner tonight? Ann: No, thanks. I like (listen) to music but I dont like (listen) to people (talk) about it 3 If you want the milkman (leave) you milk in the morning, remember (put) a milk bottle outside your door. 4 They let us park motorcycles here but they wont allow us (park) cars. 5 They dont allow (smoke) in the auditorium; they dont want (risk) (set) it on fire, but you can (smoke) in the foyer during the interval. 6 Mr Shaw is very busy (write) his memoirs. He is far too busy (receive) callers (he is so busy that he cant receive callers), so youd better just (go) away. 7 What about (buy) double quantities of everything today? That will save (shop) again later in the week. 8 The inspector asked (see) my ticket and when I wasnt able (find) it he made me (buy) another. ~ He

probably suspected you of (try) (travel) without one. 9 Would you like me (turn) down the radio a bit? ~ No, its all right. Im used to (work) with the radio on 10 One of the gang suggested (take) the body out to sea, (drop) it overboard and (pretend) that it had been an accident. 11 I want the boy (grow) up hating violence but his father keeps (buy) him guns and swords. ~ Its almost impossible (prevent) boys (play) soldiers. 12 Would you children mind (keep) quiet for a moment? Im trying (fill) in a form. ~ Its no use (ask) children (keep) quiet. They cant help (make) a noise 13 lm thinking of (go) to Oxford tomorrow on my motorbike. Would you like (come)? ~ No, thanks. I want (go) Oxford, but Id rather (go) by train I loathe (travel) by road 14 Lets (go) (fish) today. Theres a nice wind What about (come) with us, Ann? No, thanks Im very willing (cut) sandwiches for you but Ive no intention of (waste) the afternoon (sit) in a boat (watch) you two (fish). 15 He resented (be) asked

(wait). He expected the minister (see) him at once 16 The police have put up a railing here (prevent) people (rush) out of the station and (dash) straight across the road. 17 All day long we saw the trees (toss) in the wind and heard the waves (crash) against the rocks. 18 I didnt mean (eat) anything but the cakes looked so good that I couldnt resist (try) one. 19 Do you feel like (walk) there or shall we (take) a bus? ~ Id rather (go) by bus. Besides, itll take ages (get) there on foot 20 All right. When would you like (start)? In a few minutes? ~ Oh, lets wait till it stops (rain); otherwise well get soaked (walk) to the bus station. 21 The old miser spent all his time (count) his money and (think) up new hiding-places. He kept (move) it about because he was terrified of (be robbed). He used (get) up at night sometimes (make) sure it was still there. 22 Jack suggested (let) one flat and (keep) the other for myself. But Tom advised me (sell) the whole house. 23 The child used (lean)

on the gate (watch) the people (go) to work in the mornings and (come) home in the evenings. And he used to hear them (shout) greetings to each other and (talk) loudly. 24 He soon got (know) most of them and even managed (learn) the greetings. Then they began (greet) him too on their way to work and sometimes would stop (talk) to him on their way home. 25 He succeeded in (untie) himself, (climb) out of the window and (crawl) along a narrow ledge to the window of the next room. 26 Did you have any trouble (find) the house? ~ No, but I had a lot of difficulty (get) in. Nobody seemed (know) where the key was 27 Bill couldnt bear (see) anyone (sit) round idly. Whenever he found me (relax) or (read) he would (produce) a job which, he said, had (be) done at once. I wasted a morning (perform) his ridiculous tasks and spent the rest of the weekend (keep) out of his way. 28 After (spend) a week in the cottage, he decided that he didnt really enjoy (live) in the country and began (think) of

an excuse for (sell) the cottage and (return) to London. 29 Its no use (argue) with him. You might as well (argue) with a stone wall He is incapable of (see) anyone elses point of view. 30 Im delighted (hear) that you can come on Saturday. We are all looking forward to (see) you. Remember (bring) your rubber boots 31 He has been charged with (receive) and (sell) stolen goods. He has admitted (receive) but denies (sell) them. The fact is that he hasnt had time (sell) them yet 32 He noticed the helicopter (hover) over the field. Then, to his astonishment, he saw a rope ladder (be) thrown out and three men (climb) down it. He watched them (run) across the field and out through a gate. Later he saw a car with four men in it (come) out of the lane (lead) to the field, 33 He admitted that it was possible that the car happened (be passing) and that the three men persuaded the driver (give) them a lift; but throught it much more likely that they had arranged for the car (pick) them up and that

the driver had been waiting in the lane for I the helicopter (drop) them. 34 What about (have) a picnic in Piccadilly Circus? ~ What an extraordinary place (have) a picnic! Fancy (sit) there with the traffic (swirl) round you and the pigeons (take) bites out of your sandwiches! 35 Would you mind (write) your address on the back of the cheque and (show) us some proof of your identity? 36 Lets (swim) across. ~ Im not really dressed for (swim). Whats wrong with (go) round by the bridge? Unreal pasts and subjunctives 151 Unreal pasts and subjunctives PEG 228, 292, 297-8, 300 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Its just struck midnight. Its high time we (leave)! If only we (have) a phone! Im tired of queuing outside the public phone box. You (have) better take off your wet shoes. He walks as if he (have) a wooden leg. He talks as if he (do) all the work himself, but in fact Tom and I did most of it. Father: Ive supported you all through university. Now I think

its time you (begin) to support yourself. 7 I wish I (know) what is wrong with my car. 8 It looks like rain; you (have) better take a coat. 9 I wish I (ask) the fishmonger to clean these fish. (Im sorry I didnt ask him) 10 Its time we (do) something to stop road accidents. 11 The cheese looks as if rats (nibble) it. 12 Its high time they (mend) this road. 13 He always talks as though he (address) a public meeting. 14 He treats us as if we (be) all idiots. 15 Wife: Id like to get a job. Husband: Id much rather you (stay) at home and (look) after the house. 16 If you (tie) the boat up it wouldnt have drifted away. 17 I wish you (not give) him my phone number. (7 m sorry you gave it to him ) 18 If only he (know) then that the disease was curable! 19 Suppose you (not know) where your next meal was coming from? 20 You talk as though it (be) a small thing to leave your country for ever. 21 I hate driving. Id much rather you (drive) 22 If only I (be) insured! <But I wasn t insured.) 23

If you (not take) those photographs we wouldnt have been arrested. 24 I wish transistor radios never (be) invented. 25 If only I (keep) my mouth shut! (/ said something which made matters much worse. ) 26 Ill pay you by cheque monthly. ~ Id rather you (pay) me cash weekly. 27 When someone says something to me, I translate it into French, and then I think of a reply in French, and then translate it into English and say it. ~ Its high time you (stop) doing all this translation and (start) thinking in English. 28 I said Sunday. ~ I wish you (not say) Sunday. Well never be ready by then 29 But I told you what to do. ~ I know you did. If only I (take) your advice! 30 A flower pot fell off the balcony on to the head of a man who was standing below. It was most unfortunate that he happened to be standing just there. If he (stand) a foot to the right or left hed have been unharmed. 31 That man has brought us nothing but trouble. I wish I never (set) eyes on him 32 Can I take your best

umbrella? ~ Id rather you (take) the other one. 33 If you (have) a peep hole in your door you would have seen who standing outside and kept the door shut. 34 I wish I (not try) to repair it. I only made it worse 35 If I (not have) rubber gloves on I would have been electrocuted. 36 He looks as though he never (get) a square meal, but in fact his wife feeds him very well. 152 would rather + subject + past tense PEG 297-8 Answer the following questions by expressing a preference for different action. Question: Can I write my essay on the back of an envelope? Possible answer: Id rather you wrote it on a sheet of foolscap. Similarly: Can we bring our pet snake to your party? Id rather you didn t or Id rather you left it at home. It would also of course be possible to answer with prefer + object infinitive: Id prefer you to write it on foolscap, Id prefer you to leave it at home. Use you in all answers. 1 Can I go by bus? 2 Can I go alone? 3 Can we start tomorrow? 4 Can I ring New York

on your phone? 5 Can we sleep in the garden tonight? 6 Can we cook our steak by holding it in front of your electric fire? 7 Can we use your scissors to cut this wire? 8 Can I leave school at sixteen? 9 Can we come in late tomorrow? 10 Shall I wake you up when I come in and tell you what happened? 11 Can I clean my motorcycle in the kitchen? 12 Can I tell Tom what youve just told me? 13 Can I go barefoot? 14 Can I have a snake tattooed round my ankle? 15 Shall we paint your door pink with yellow stars? 16 Shall I ring you at 3 a.m? 17 Shall I threaten to burn down his house? 18 Can we bathe after dark? 19 Can I park my helicopter on the roof of your house? 20 Can I put the goldfish in the bath? 21 Can we hitch-hike to Rome? 22 Can I borrow your best umbrella? 23 Will it be all right if I write it in longhand? 24 Can I leave the washing up till the day after tomorrow? 153 wish + subject + past, past perfect or conditional PEG 300-1 Rewrite the following using a wish construction

(phrases in brackets should be omitted). 1 Im sorry I havent got a washing machine. 2 Im sorry I dont live near my work. 3 Im sorry our garden doesnt get any sun. 4 Im sorry I called him a liar. 5 Im sorry I dont know Finnish. 6 Im sorry I didnt book a seat. 7 Im sorry I havent got a car. 8 Im sorry I cant drive. 9 Id like Tom to drive more slowly (but I havent any great hopes of this). 10 Id like you to keep quiet. ( You re making so much noise that I cant think) 11 Im sorry we accepted the invitation. 12 Im sorry that theatre tickets cost so much. 13 Its a pity that shops here shut on Saturday afternoon. 14 Its a pity he didnt work harder during the term. 15 Im sorry you didnt see it. 16 Its a pity you are going tonight. 17 Its a pity I havent got a work permit. 18 I would like it to stop raining (but Im not very hopeful). 19 Id like you to wait for me (even though you are ready to start now). 20 Im sorry I didnt bring a map. 21 Im sorry I ever came to this country. 22 Im sorry I

left my last job. 23 Im sorry I didnt stay in my last job. 24 Id like him to cut his hair (but I dont suppose he will). 25 Id like him to stop smoking in bed (but I havent any great hopes). 26 Im sorry he goes to bed so late. 27 Motorist in fog: Its a pity we dont know where we are. 28 Its a pity we havent a torch. 29 Im sorry I didnt know you were coming. 30 Im sorry you told Jack. 31 Im sorry I didnt ask the fishmonger to open these oysters. 32 Im sorry I cant swim. 33 Im sorry you arent coming with us. 34 Im sorry you arent going to a job where you could use your English. 35 Its a pity you didnt ask him how to get there. 36 I would like every country to stop killing whales (but haw no real hope of this). The passive 154 Active to passive PEG 302-6 Put the transitive verbs into the passive voice. Do not mention the agent unless it seems necessary. 1 The milkman brings the milk to my door but the postman leaves the letters in the hall. 2 In future, perhaps, they wont bring letters to

the houses, and we shall have to collect them from the Post Office. 3 People steal things from supermarkets every day; someone stole twenty bottles of whisky from this one last week. 4 Normally men sweep this street every day, but nobody swept it last week. 5 The postman clears this box three time a day. He last cleared it at 230 6 Someone turned on a light in the hall and opened the door. 7 Women clean this office in the evening after the staff have left; they clean the upstairs offices between seven and eight in the morning. 8 We never saw him in the dining-room. A maid took all his meals up to him 9 Someone left this purse in a classroom yesterday; the cleaner found it. 10 We build well over 1,000 new houses a year. Last year we built 1,500 11 We serve hot meals till 10.30, and guests can order coffee and sandwiches up to 1130 12 Passengers leave all sorts of things in buses. The conductors collect them and send them to the Lost Property Office. 13 An ambulance took the sick man

to hospital. (Mention ambulance) 14 We kill and injure people on the roads every day. Cant we do something about this? 15 Dogs guard the warehouse. The other day a thief tried to get in and a dog saw him and chased him. (A thief who ) 16 The watchman called the police. The police arrested the man 17 Tom had only a slight injury and they helped him off the field; but Jack was seriously injured and they carried him off on a stretcher. (Tom, who had. , but Jack, who was ) 18 You cant wash this dress; you must dry-clean it. 19 They are demolishing the entire block. 20 He recommends fitting new tyres. (Use should; see Exercise 157) 21 He suggested allowing council tenants to buy their houses. 22 Men with slide rules used to do these calculations; now a computer does them. 23 The court tried the man, found him guilty and sent him to prison. 24 The hall porter polishes the knockers of all the flats every day. ~ Well, he hasnt polished mine for a week. 25 They are repairing my piano at the

moment. 26 Passengers shouldnt throw away their tickets as inspectors may check these during the journey. 27 They invited Jack but they didnt invite Tom. 28 The guests ate all the sandwiches and drank all the beer. They left nothing 29 Has someone posted my parcel? 30 Why did no one inform me of the change of plan? 31 Tom Smith wrote the book and Brown and Co. published it 32 We shall have to tow the car to the garage. 33 Im afraid we have sold all our copies but we have ordered more. 34 We will prosecute trespassers. 35 Someone stole my car and abandoned it fifteen miles away. He had removed the radio but done no other damage. 36 You must keep dogs on leads in the gardens. 155 Active to passive PEG 302-6 Put the transitive verbs into the passive voice. Do not mention the agent unless it seems necessary. 1 They havent stamped the letter. 2 They didnt pay me for the work; they expected me to do it for nothing. 3 He escaped when they were moving him from one prison to another. 4 She

didnt introduce me to her mother. 5 A frightful crash wakened me at 4 a.m 6 When they have widened this street the roar of the traffic will keep residents awake all night. 7 They threw away the rubbish. 8 A Japanese firm makes these television sets. 9 An earthquake destroyed the town. 10 A machine could do this much more easily. 11 Visitors must leave umbrellas and sticks in the cloakroom. 12 We ask tenants not to play their radios loudly after midnight. 13 We cant repair your clock. 14 We cannot exchange articles which customers have bought during the sale. (Articles) 15 We have to pick the fruit very early in the morning; otherwise we cant get it to the market in time. 16 The police shouldnt allow people to park there. 17 They are watching my house. 18 The examiner will read the passage three times. 19 Candidates may not use dictionaries. 20 You need not type this letter 21 This used to be number 13, but now I see that someone has crossed out 13 and written 12A underneath. 22 You

mustnt move this man; he is too ill. Youll have to leave him here 23 They searched his house and found a number of stolen articles. 24 Nobody has used this room for ages. 25 They took him for a Frenchman, his French was so good. 26 You should have taken those books back to the library. 27 They brought the children up in Italy. 28 They have taken down the For Sale notice, so I suppose they have sold the house. 29 Someone broke into his house and stole a lot of his things. 30 We have warned you. 31 A lorry knocked him down. 32 They returned my keys to me; someone had picked them up in the street. 33 We had to give the books back; they did not allow us to take them home. 34 You shouldnt leave these documents on the desk. You should lock them up 35 They handed round coffee and biscuits. 36 They have tried other peoples schemes. Why have they never tried my scheme? 156 Active to passive with phrasal verbs PEG 302-6 In this exercise most of the sentences contain a verb + preposition/adverb

combination. The preposition or adverb must be retained when the combination is put into the passive. In most of the sentences it is not necessary to mention the agent. 1 The government has called out troops. 2 Fog held up the trains, {agent required) 3 You are to leave this here. Someone will call for it later on 4 We called in the police. 5 They didnt look after the children properly. 6 They are flying in reinforcements. 7 Then they called up men of 28. 8 Everyone looked up to him. (agent required) 9 All the ministers will see him off at the airport, (agent required) 10 He hasnt slept in his bed. 11 We can build on more rooms. 12 They threw him out. 13 They will have to adopt a different attitude. 14 Hes a dangerous maniac. They ought to lock him up 15 Her story didnt take them in. (agent required) 16 Burglars broke into the house. 17 The manufacturers are giving away small plastic toys with each packet of cereal. 18 They took down the notice. 19 They frown on smoking here. 20

After the government had spent a million pounds on the scheme they decided that it was impracticable and gave it up. (Make only the first and last verbs passive) 21 When I returned I found that they had towed my car away. I asked why they had done this and they told me that it was because I had parked it under a No Parking sign. (four passives) 22 People must hand in their weapons. 23 The crowd shouted him down. 24 People often take him for his brother. 25 No one has taken out the cork. 26 The film company were to have used the pool for aquatic displays, but now they have changed their minds about it and are filling it in. (Make the first and last verbs passive.) 27 This college is already full. We are turning away students the whole time 28 You will have to pull down this skyscraper as you have not complied with the town planning regulations. 157 Active to passive with changes of construction PEG 119, 235, 302-6 Some of the following sentences when put into the passive require or can

have a change of construction. 1 believe, claim, consider, find, know, say, suppose and think when used in the passive can be followed by an infinitive: They say he is a spy = He is said to be a spy. They say he was a spy = He is said to have been a spy. It is said that he is/was . is also possible 2 Subject + be supposed + infinitive often conveys an idea of duty, particularly when the subject is you: It is your duty to obey him = You are supposed to obey him. 3 Infinitives after passive verbs are normally full infinitives. 4 Note the use of have + object + past participle: Get someone to mend it = Have it mended. (See PEG 119.) 5 Note the use of should in the passive. (See PEG 235) Put the following sentences into the passive, using an infinitive construction where possible. 1 We added up the money and found that it was correct. 2 Im employing a man to tile the bathroom. 3 Someone seems to have made a terrible mistake. 4 It is your duty to make tea at eleven oclock. (Use

suppose) 5 People know that he is armed. 6 Someone saw him pick up the gun. 7 We know that you were in town on the night of the crime. 8 We believe that he has special knowledge which may be useful to the police, (one passive) 9 You neednt have done this. 10 Its a little too loose; you had better ask your tailor to take it in. (one passive) 11 He likes people to call him sir. 12 Dont touch this switch. 13 You will have to get someone to see to it. 14 It is impossible to do this. (Use cant) 15 Someone is following us. 16 They used to make little boys climb the chimneys to clean them. (one passive) 17 You have to see it to believe it. (two passives) 18 You order me about and I am tired of it. (lam tired of ) 19 He doesnt like people laughing at him. 20 You dont need to wind this watch. 21 They shouldnt have told him. 22 They decided to divide the money between the widows of the lifeboatmen. (They decided that the money .) 23 People believe that he was killed by terrorists. 24 They are

to send letters to the leaders of charitable organizations. 25 We consider that she was the best singer that Australia has ever produced. (one passive) 26 We dont allow smoking. 27 We know that the expedition reached the South Pole in May. 28 Before they invented printing people had to write everything by hand. 29 They urged the government to create more jobs. (two ways) 30 They suggested banning the sale of alcohol at football matches. Indirect speech 158 Indirect speech: statements PEG 307-8, 313-14 Note applying to all indirect speech exercises When the speaker says you, and the person spoken to is not identified, it is good practice for the student to assume that the remark was made to himself, you will then become I/me or we/us. (Answers in the key will be given in first person forms.) You can phone from the office, he said. He said I could phone from his office. This must not, of course, be done when the person spoken to is identified: You can phone from my office, Ann, he

said. He told Ann that she could phone from his office. Note that when you stands for one, it is reported unchanged: You cant bathe in the rivers, he said, theyre full of piranhas. He said that you couldnt bathe in the rivers as they were full piranhas. Put the following statements into indirect speech, 1 Im going out now, but Ill be in by nine, he said. {Omit now) 2 Im working in a restaurant, and dont much care for it, she said 3 I cant live on my basic salary, said Peter. Ill have to offer to do overtime 4 My young brother wants to be a tax inspector, said Mary. I cant think why None of my family has ever been a tax inspector. 5 Were waiting for the school bus, said the children. Its late again 6 Ive made a terrible mistake! said Peter. Youre always making terrible mistakes, I said. You should be used to it by now 7 We make £450 a week, said one of the men, and send most of it I home to our wives. 8 Its lonely being away from our families, said another, but we earn three times as

much in this factory as we would in our own country. 9 Weve been here for two and a half years, said the man who have spoken first, and were going to stay another six months. 10 Ive got a job on an oil-rig, said Paul. Thatll be very hard work, I said. I know itll be hard, he replied, but I dont mind hard work, and I itll be a good experience. 11 The ice will soon be hard enough to skate on, said Tom. Ill look for my skates when I get home, Ann said. 12 Im living with my parents at present, she said, but I hope to have a flat of my own soon. 13 Im leaving tomorrow, she said, by the 4.30 from Victoria Well come and see you off, we said. 14 Ive just bought a car, said Peter, but its not insured yet so I cant take you for a drive. 15 Id like to speak to Susan, said Mary, but Im bathing the babies and they will drown if I leave them alone in the bath while I go to the phone. 16 Mary has just received a postcard from Ann, beginning, Im coming up to London next week. I hope you and Jack will

meet me for lunch one day (Imagine that Mary is reading this card to Jack. Begin: Ann says) 17 Nothing ever happens in the village, she said. Its like a dead village All the young people have drifted away to the towns. 18 Ive missed my train, said Bill. Now Ill be late for work and my boss will be furious 19 Well wait for you if youre late, they said. 20 They are supposed to be landing at London airport, I said. But if the fog gets any thicker the plane may be diverted. 21 If you lend me the chainsaw, said Mary, Ill bring it back the day after tomorrow. 22 I hate getting up on dark mornings, grumbled Peter. It is horrible, agreed his wife, but the mornings will be lighter soon and then it wont be quite so bad. 23 The sales are starting tomorrow, said the typist. As soon as we finish work the whole typing pool is going to make a dash for the shops. I hope youll all get what you want, I said. 24 I wish I had something to eat, said Peter. Youve only just had lunch, said his sister. 1

dont know how you can be hungry again so soon. 25 If youre short of money I can lend you £50, said my aunt, and you can take your time about paying it back. 26 I usually take my dog out for a walk when I come home from work, he said. 27 I have a message for your brother, I said. He isnt at home, said Ann. He left two days ago 28 I bought this bag in Milan, I said. You shouldnt have bought that colour, said Peter. It doesnt go with your coat 29 I must hurry. My father is always furious if any of us are late for meals, she said 30 If you want to smoke youll have to go upstairs, said the bus conductor. 31 Im building myself a house, said Charles. I wont show it to you just yet but when the roof is on you can come and see it. 32 The lake will probably freeze tonight, said Peter. Its much colder than last night Ill go out and look early in the morning, said Mary, and if its frozen Ill make some holes in the ice so that the ducks can feed. 33 Even if the strikers go back to work tomorrow it

will be some time before things return to normal, said the official. 34 Someone is trying to murder me! said Mrs Jones. I keep getting threatening letters 35 Im taking my children to the zoo tomorrow, she said, to see the baby polar bear. 36 All I can hear, says Ann, is a high-pitched buzz. I wonder if its some sort of signal 159 Indirect speech: statements PEG 120, 287, 307-14 See note to Exercise 158. had better Youd better can also be reported unchanged (though the pronoun may change) but can also be reported by advise: He said, Youd better tell Tom. He said Id better tell Tom or He advised me to tell Tom. I/we had better will normally be reported unchanged (though the pronoun may change): He said, Id better wait. He said he d better wait. I should . (if I were you) is best reported by advise: I said, Shall I write to Ann? 1 should phone her (if I were you), said Peter. I asked if I should write to Ann and Peter advised me to phone her. Put the following into indirect speech.

1 Theres been an accident, and the road is blocked, said the policeman. It wont be clear for some time. Youd better go round the other way 2 Lets light a fire and cook our sausages over it, said the children. 3 I was thinking of going by bus, said Paul. I shouldnt go by bus (if I were you), said his aunt. Its an awfully bad service 4 Youd better take sleeping bags; you may have to sleep out, he warned us. 5 Ive left some books on your table, said Peter. I think youll find them useful You can keep them as long as you need them but Id like them back when youve finished with them. Thank you very much, I said. Ill take great care of them 6 If children can learn a complicated language like Japanese by the time they are five, said the Japanese professor, they should be able to learn the language of music. At the moment Im teaching a class of forty three-year-olds to play the violin, he added. 7 The puppy can sleep on our bed, said Tom. Id rather he slept in a basket, said his wife. That

puppy will soon be a very big dog and then there wont be room for all three of us. 8 Ill try by myself first, said Ann, and if I find that I cant manage Ill ask Tom to help me. 9 Lets camp by this stream, said Mary. If we go on, it may be dark before we find another good place. 10 I wish wed brought our guitars, said the students. Then we could have offered to play in the restaurant and perhaps theyd have given us a free meal. 11 I booked a double room on the first floor, said Mr Jones. Im afraid we didnt get your letter, said the receptionist, and all the first and second floor rooms have been taken. But we could give you two single rooms on the third floor. That wouldnt do me at all, said Mr Jones. 12 Ive had gypsies on my land for two years, said the farmer, and theyve given nobody any trouble; but now the Council have asked me to tell them to move on. I dont see why they should be asked to move and Im writing to my MP about it. 13 This letter is full of mistakes! snorted Mr Jones.

I did it in rather a hurry, admitted the typist. I suppose Id better type it again 14 If youd like to go on any of these tours, said the receptionist, the hotel will arrange it. Wed like to go on them all, said the American couple. 15 Well try to find your passport, said the policeman, but itll be very difficult because a lot of suspicious characters sleep on the beach in summer and any one of them might have robbed you. 16 Lets go to the races! said Ann. We might make our fortunes Ive been given a very good tip for the 2.30 Ive had "good tips" from you before, said Paul. And they were disastrous 17 I dont know why you waste so much time polishing the car, said Mr Jones. The neighbours all polish their cars, said Mrs Jones, and I dont want our Mini to look like a poor relation. If you were any good youd help me instead of standing there criticizing, she added. 18 Im sorry for not having a tie on, said Peter. 1 didnt know it was going to be a formal party. 19 Id have

enjoyed the journey more if the man next to me hadnt snored all the time, said Paul. 20 I was thinking of going alone, I said. Youd better take someone with you, said the old man. Its safer with two One can keep watch while the other sleeps. 21 (Paul is speaking to Mary on the phone, and Mary is repeating his words to Ann, who is standing beside her.) Paul: The plans have been changed. Were going tomorrow now, not on the next day I want you to meet me at Victoria tonight. Mary: Paul says . 22 If I want a hot bath I have to put ten pence in the meter, said Tom, and even then its not very hot. Thats ridiculous, I said; Its high time you left that place. 23 I know the umbrella belongs to you, but I thought it would be all right if I borrowed it, said my nephew, because you arent going out tomorrow and I am. 24 Lets put your tape-recorder under the table, said Tom, and make a recording of their conversation. It would be very useful to know what they are planning But my recorder makes a

distinct hum, I said. Theyd be sure to hear it and look under the table; and then theyd find the recorder and ask all sorts of embarrassing questions. 25 Whenever my father was unhappy, said the girl, he would go out and buy something, usually something large and useless. Thats why our rooms are full of things we cant use. Im sorry for your father, said Tom, looking round. He must have been a very unhappy man. 26 You can leave your motorcycle in my garage if you like, he said. Ill keep an eye on it while youre away. 27 If you want a job you should read advertisements and write letters and ring people up, he said to Ann. Its no use sitting at home, expecting employers to form a queue outside your door. 28 This used to be a lovely quiet street, he said, but now it is impossible. When summer comes youll have to keep the windows shut all the time because of the noise. 29 You must leave a note for your mother, said Peter, otherwise shell be terribly worried when youre not in at your usual

time. 30 A letter marked "Urgent" has just arrived for Albert, said Mary, and hes on holiday. I wonder if I should ring him up and tell him about it or wait till he comes back. 160 Indirect speech: questions PEG 317 See note to Exercise 158. Put the following questions into indirect speech. 1 Who has been using my typewriter? said my mother. 2 Do you want to see the cathedral? said the guide. 3 Do you mind working on the night shifts? he asked. 4 Would you like to come with us? they said. 5 Who did you give the money to? asked Ann. 6 How long does it take to get to Edinburgh by coach? asked the tourist. 7 How much do you think it will cost? he said. 8 What did you miss most when you were in prison? Mary asked the ex-convict. 9 Another passenger came in and said, Is this seat taken? 10 How do you get on with your mother-in-law? said Paul. 11 How did you get into the house? they asked him. 12 What were you doing with these skeleton keys? said Mr Jones. Were you trying to

get at the secret files? 13 Did you sleep well? asked my hostess. 14 Have you been here long? the other students asked him. 15 Can you tell me why Paul left the university without taking his degree? Pauls sister asked. 16 How many people know the combination of the safe? said the detective. 17 Are there any letters for me? said Mary. 18 How long have you been learning English? the examiner said. 19 Why arent you taking the exams? said Paul. 20 Are these free-range eggs? said the customer. 21 Where are you going for your summer holidays? I asked them. 22 Will it be all right if I come in a little later tonight? asked the au pair girl. 23 Have you ever seen a flying saucer? said the man. 24 Where can I park my caravan? she asked the policeman. 25 Would you like a lift? said Ann. Which way are you going? I said. 26 Who do you want to speak to? said the telephonist. 27 Does anyone want tickets for the boxing match? said Charles. 28 What are you going to do with your old car? I asked him.

29 Do you grow your own vegetables? I asked. 30 What train are you going to get? my friend inquired. 31 Could you change a five-pound note? Im afraid I havent got anything smaller, said the passenger to the conductor. 32 How many sleeping pills have you taken? said the night sister. I have no idea, said Mr Jones sleepily. 33 Could we speak to the manager, please? said the two men. Have you an appointment? said the secretary. 34 Do you think you could live entirely on your own for six months, said Tom, or would you get bored? 35 Did any of you actually see the accident happen? said the policeman. 36 Could I see Commander Smith? the lady asked. Im afraid hes in orbit, I said. Would you like to leave a message? 161 Indirect speech: questions, advice, requests, invitations, suggestions PEG 283, 286-7, 289, 317-18, 322 What about often introduces a suggestion and is then reported by suggest: What about flying? he said. He suggested flying. I cant come at 1.00, said Ann Then what about

200? said Tom Ann said she couldn t come at 1.00, so Tom suggested 200 Why dont you often introduces suggestions or advice and is then reported by suggest or advise: I wonder if Tom is coming, said Ann. Why dont you ask him? I said. Ann wondered if Tom was coming. I advised her to ask him or f I suggested (her) asking him. Could I have is normally reported by ask for: Could I have a cup of coffee? she said. She asked (me) for a cup of coffee. Could you used for requests is reported by ask + object + infinitive: Could you sign the book, please? he said. He asked me to sign the book. But when Could you introduces an ordinary question the verb is reported unchanged: Could you live entirely on you own? he said. He asked if I could live entirely on my own. Would you mind waiting/signing etc. can be reported: He asked me to wait/sign etc. or He asked if I would mind waiting/signing etc. offer can be used in two constructions: Would you like a drink? He offered me a drink, Shall I wait for

you? Ill wait for you if you like. He offered to wait for me. When the infinitive is used it must be placed directly after offer. The person addressed is not mentioned in this construction. Put the following into indirect speech. 1 Shall we have dinner somewhere after the theatre? said Peter. Yes, lets, said Ann. What about going to that place Jack is always talking about? (For Yes, lets put Ann agreed.) 2 Jacks parents have asked me to supper tomorrow night, said Ann. What shall I wear? I should wear something warm, dear, said her mother. Its a terribly cold house 3 Im broke, said Jack. Shall I lend you some money? said Peter. 4 It will take a little time to look up your file. said the clerk, Is it worth waiting, said Ann, or shall I go away and come back later? 5 Shall I have to do the whole exam again if I fail in one paper? said the student. Yes, said the teacher. 6 Where will you be tomorrow, I said, in case I have to ring you? I shall be in my office till six, said the old

man, and after that at my flat. I shant be going to the club. 7 What shall I do with this cracked cup? Mary asked. Youd better throw it away, said her mother. 8 Shall I ever see him again? she wondered. 9 Would you mind getting out of the car? said the driver. I have to change a wheel Shall I help you? I said. 10 Ive run out of petrol, said the man. Could you possibly give me a lift to the next village? 11 Shall we go for a walk? said Peter. I like walking, said Ann, but at the moment my only comfortable walking shoes are being mended. What about going for a drive instead? 12 Youve got a lot of parcels, he said. Shall I carry some of them for you? 13 Shall we be in time? muttered Tom, looking at his watch. (Use wonder) 14 What shall I do with all this foreign money? said Peter. Why dont you take it to the bank and get it changed? said Mary. 15 Would you like a cigarette? said Peter. No, thanks, said Jack. 1 dont smoke 16 Would you like to come with us? they said. Theres plenty of room

in the car Id love to, said Ann. 17 Ann (on phone): Could you do without me today, Mr Jones? Ive got an awful cold and I think it might be better if I stayed at home. Mr Jones: I should certainly stay at home, Ann. And youd better take tomorrow off too if you arent better. 18 Mary (on phone): Paul, Ive just come back to my flat to find a complete stranger asleep in my chair. Hes still here, and still asleep! What shall I do? Paul: Why dont you wake him up and ask him who he is? Theres probably some quite simple explanation. 19 Im not quite ready, said Peter. Could you wait a few minutes? I cant wait long, said Jack. The train goes at ten 20 Would you mind taking off your hat? I said to the woman in front of me. But the theatres almost empty! she said. Why dont you move along a bit? 21 I often see lights in the empty house across the road, said Albert. Do you think I should report it? 22 If this house was yours what changes would you make? I said. Id pull it down and build a modern one

on the same site, said the window-cleaner. The sites all right. 23 Could I have your name and address, please? said the travel agent. 24 Shall I send it round to your hotel, sir? the shop assistant asked the tourist. Im not staying in the town, said the tourist. Ill take it with me 25 How long will you go on looking for them? I asked one of the search party. We dont search at night. Well stop when it gets dark and start again at first light tomorrow. 26 We cant discuss this over the phone. Shall we meet here in my flat tomorrow? I said Id rather you came to my office, he said. Could you get here in half an hour? 27 Could I have 40p, please? said the boy. I want to buy an ice-cream 28 Would you like to sleep on the floor of my flat? he asked us. Or would you rather go to a hotel? 29 Could you help me with my luggage, please? she said. If you take the two big ones, Ill take the small one. Its ridiculous to take three suitcases for a weekend, I said. Couldnt you manage with two? No,

she said. 30 I couldnt come on Monday, said Ann. Then what about Tuesday? said Peter. All right, said Ann. 162 Indirect speech: commands, requests, invitations, advice PEG 283-4, 286, 320 Put the following sentences into indirect speech, using tell/order/urge/ask/beg/invite/ advise/warn/remind + object +infinitive, or ask (+ object) + for, or, in some cases, ask + infinitive. 1 Dont put sticky things in your pockets, said his mother. 2 Please, please dont do anything dangerous, said his wife. 3 Go onapply for the job, said my friend. It would just suit you 4 I should say nothing about it if I were you, said my brother. 5 Would you please wait in the lounge till your flight number is called? she said. 6 Dont lend Harry any money, I said to Ann. He never pays his debts 7 Could you please ring back in half an hour? said the secretary. 8 Would you mind moving your case? said the other passenger. Its blocking the door 9 Remember to book a table, said Ann. 10 Get into the right lane, said

the driving instructor. 11 Avoid Marble Arch, said the policeman. Theres going to be a big demonstration there. 12 Hold the ladder, he said. Its rather unsteady Why dont you tie it at the top? I said. Its much safer than way 13 Read the questions twice, said the teacher, and dont write in the margin. 14 Youd better not leave your money lying about, said one of the students. 15 Why dont you open a bank account? said another. (Use advise) 16 Would you like to have lunch with me today? said Tom. Im afraid I couldnt; I cant leave the office, said the girl. 17 Dont take more than two of these at once, said the doctor, handing me a bottle of pills. 18 Could I speak to Albert, please? I said. Hes still asleep, said his mother. Then please wake him, I said. 1 have news for him 19 Id buy the big tin if I were you, said the grocer. 20 Youre being exploited, said the other au pair girls. You ought to leave your job 21 Fasten your seat belts; there may be a little turbulence, said the air

hostess. 22 Dont drive through fog with only a fog light on, he said, or oncoming drivers may take you for a motorcycle. 23 Could I see your driving licence? said the policeman. 24 Youd better sweep up that broken glass, I said. 25 The bathrooms empty now, she said. Will you put the light out when youve finished? 26 Remember to insure your luggage, my father said. 27 Please dont drink any more, said his wife. Dont forget that we have to drive home 28 Do go to a dentist, Tom, before your toothache gets any worse, I said. 29 Why dont you cut your hair? he said. Youd find it much easier to get a job if you looked tidy. 30 Could I have some more pudding, please? said the boy. 163 Indirect speech: commands, requests, advice, suggestions PEG 289,320-2 Read notes to previous exercises, Put the following into indirect speech, using either constructions, recommended in Exercise 162, or (for commands): say (that) + subject + be/should + infinitive or (for suggestions): suggest + gerund or

that + subject + should. 1 Would you please fill in this form and then join the queue by the door? said the clerk, 2 Could you read the last sentence again, please? said the examiner. 3 Could I have a new cheque book, please? said the girl. Could you show me your old cheque book? said the bank clerk. 4 Postcard: Be ready to move off at very short notice. Tom Ann (reading it to Mary): Tom says that we . 5 Please, please dont tell my mother, begged the boy. 6 Dont fire except in self-defence, said the police sergeant. 7 Why dont you take the rest of the day off? said my assistant. 8 Will you help me to move the piano, please? said my aunt. 9 Dont drive too close to the car in front, said the driving instructor. 10 Dont smoke near the petrol pump, said the mechanic. 11 When youve chosen a book, bring it to me and Ill stamp it, said the librarian. 12 Show the boarding card to the man at the foot of the gangway, said the clerk. 13 Reduce speed now, said a huge notice. (Omit now) 14 Could

I see your ticket, please? said the inspector. 15 Keep an eye on your luggage, he said. This place is full of thieves 16 When you have read this, pass it on to the next person on the list, he said. 17 Why not light a fire on the bank and cook the fish at once? suggested the fisherman. 18 Whenever you see the number "7" on the screen, press this button, he said. 19 Sit down and tell me what is worrying you, he said to her. 20 Walk along the line of men, said the police sergeant and if you recognize your attacker, just nod. Dont say anything 21 Even if you feel hungry dont eat anything between meals, said the dietician. 22 Could you ring up the taxi rank and order a taxi for me? said Tom. Why dont you go by tube? said Ann. Its much quicker 23 Lets buy some yeast and make our own bread, said Mary. The bread were getting now is absolutely tasteless. 24 If you have to use the river water, said the guide, boil it first. Dont drink it unboiled. 25 Lets not tell anyone, said Tom,

till we are quite certain that the report is true. 26 Tom (on phone to Ann): Ive got the tickets. Meet me at the air terminal at 630 (Imagine that you are Ann. Report this message to Mary, who is standing beside you. Begin: Tom says ) 27 Lets show that we are united, urged the shop steward, by voting unanimously to continue the strike. 28 Will customers please count their change, said a notice above the cashiers desk, as mistakes cannot be rectified afterwards. 29 Dont clap yet, warned my friend. She hasnt finished Singers loathe people who clap too soon, he added. 30 Dont forget to put your name at the top of the page, he said. 164 Indirect speech: mixed types PEG 307-24 Read the notes to previous indirect speech exercises. Note that want or would like is often useful when the speaker reports a request made to himself or made through him to someone else: Tom (on the phone to Ann): Could you book me a room in a hotel for tonight? Ann (telling Mary about this): Tom wants me to book

him a room for tonight. (Tom said that I am to book would also be possible but more authoritative.) Similarly: Mrs Jones (on the phone to Mary): Could you ask Mrs Smith to ring me back? Mary (telling Mrs Smith about it): Mrs Jones rang. She wants/would like you to ring her back. (She says that you are to ring would be possible but very authoritative.) 1 Letter (from Paul to Ann): Please get me a small tent and camping equipment for two people. Ann (telling Mary about this): Paul wants . 2 Mr White (on phone to Mr Blacks secretary): Ask Mr Black to meet me at six in the bar on the ground floor. Secretary (reporting this to Mr Black): Mr White would like . 3 Shall I go and get a candle? said Ann when the light went out suddenly. Id rather you got another bulb, said Mr Jones. But there arent any, said Ann, and the shops are shut. 4 Dont worry about a few mistakes, said Peter. I make mistakes all the time Do you learn from your mistakes? I asked. Or do you keep making the same ones? 5

Im looking for a man called Albert, who drinks in this bar, I said. I should keep away from Albert if I were you, said the barman. He doesnt like strangers and might turn nasty. 6 Could I have a look at your paper for a moment? said the man. I just want to see the football results. I havent quite finished with it, I said. Could you wait a moment? I cant wait long, he said. Im getting off at the next stop 7 You woke everyone up last night, said my mother. You must try to be quieter tonight We will, I promised. 8 The soups cold again, complained Mr Jones. Why do I never have hot soup? Because the kitchens so far from the dining room, explained his wife. If you insist on living in a castle you must put up with its disadvantages. What about getting an ex-Olympic runner as an au pair girl? said Mr Jones. She wouldnt stay, sighed his wife. 9 Your licence is out of date, said the policeman. It is, I admitted, but Ive applied for a new one. Next time, he said severely, apply for a new one

before your current one has expired. 10 Ill have the money for you next week. Shall I post it to you? I said Could you keep it in your safe till I can come and collect it? said Tom. A lot of my mail has been going astray lately and Id hate to lose one of your large cheques. 11 Could I borrow your map again? said Peter. Youre always borrowing it. Why dont you get one of your own? I said 12 When you hear the fire bell, he said, shut the windows and go downstairs. And what shall we do if the stairs are blazing? I asked. 13 Can you hear that noise? Ann said. What do you think it is? I think its only rats running up and down inside the wall, I said. I think its someone trying to get in, she said. Youd better go and see 14 Its your turn to baby-sit tonight, they told Ann. It cant be! said Ann indignantly. I baby-sat last night! And the night before! And Im only supposed to do two nights a week! Could you possibly do it just this once? they said. And we promise not to ask you to do any next

week. 15 This is the best restaurant in town, said the taxi driver. The only problem is that they expect guests to wear ties. Then why have you brought us here? said the tourists indignantly. Dont get excited, said the taxi-driver, opening a box. I keep ties specially for gentlemen in your predicament. What colour would you like? Theyre all the same price. 16 Shall I start tomorrow? I said. Id rather you started today, said Tom. 17 Why dont you go and see the film? It may help you to understand the book, I said. But the films quite different from the book, Ann pointed out. 18 I saw the two climbers, said the helicopter pilot. And one of them sat up and waved to me. Which one of them waved? I said. I dont know, he answered. I wasnt near enough to see them clearly 19 What caused the ship to sink? I said. She must have struck the submerged wreck, said the coxswain of the lifeboat. But I cant understand it, because the wreck is very clearly marked with buoys. 20 My car wont start!

exclaimed Mary. The batterys flat again! Could you possibly give me a push just to start me down the hill? Why dont you sell that car? said Bill. Nobody would buy it, said Peter. What about just putting a match to it? 21 Ive been given so many bottles of wine lately that Ill have to buy another wine rack, said Mr Jones. Why dont you throw a party and save yourself the expense of a wine rack? I suggested. 22 Press button A to start the engine, he said. But last time you told me to press button B! I said. That was on a slightly different type of machine, he explained. 23 Dont brake if you find yourself skidding, said Tom. That only makes it worse Try to steer into the skid. I know what I should do, I said. But when I start skidding I get so excited that I do the exact opposite. Then stop and let me take over, said Tom. Were just coming to an icy bit and I dont want to die just yet. 24 Ive run out of stamps, said my father. Have you got any? No, but Ill go out and get you some if you

like, I said. Dont bother, he said. Ive missed the post anyway 25 Repairs to cars rented from us must be arranged through our office, he said. So if anything goes wrong with the one youve hired, please ring the number printed on your card. The office is open from nine to six, Monday to Friday But what shall I do if something goes wrong with it outside office hours? I said. 26 Why didnt you signal to the tanker that she was coming too close? I said. We did signal, said the pilot, but she came on in and ran aground. Whats going to happen to her? I said. Were going to try to tow her off at the next high tide, he said. But if we dont get her off tonight shell be here till she breaks up, and therell be an oil slick all along the coast. 27 Why are you spending so long on those accounts? I asked. Because I cant make them balance, he said. I seem to be £13 short; and that means that Ill have to put in £13 of my own money to make it up. Would you like me to go through them and see if I can

find a mistake? I said. No, he said, but Id like you to lend me £13. 28 Why are you looking so depressed, Jack? I said. Because Ive just asked Ann to marry me and shes refused, he said sadly. I think she prefers clean-shaven men, I said. Why dont you cut your hair and shave off your beard and try again? 29 How did you get up that tree? Mary asked. I used a ladder, of course, he snapped. But someone went off with it when I was sawing. Go and get another one and dont just stand there asking silly questions 30 Are you ill? he said coldly. No. I said Did you sleep well last night? Yes, I said. Then why are you sitting about when all the others are working? Go out at once and give them a hand. 31 Will passengers with nothing to declare please go through the green door? said a customs official. Youd better go through the green door, Mary, said Peter, but Ill have to go through the other one. Ill take a bit longer than you will, I so wait for me at the other end 32 (Imagine that you have

received the following postcard from your brother Tom. Report it at once to the other members of the family. Begin: Tom says ) Dont worry about me. I wasnt badly injured and Im being very well looked after Im coming back next Wednesday on the nine oclock flight from Zurich. Could you please meet the plane? 33 What shall I do with my wet shoes? said the boy. Youd better stuff them with newspaper and put them near the fire, said his mother. But dont put them too near or theyll go hard. 34 Lets drive on to the next village and try the hotel there, he said. But whatll we do if thats full too? I asked. Well just have to sleep in the car, he said. It will be too late to try anywhere else 35 They have a rather fierce dog, said Ann; but hes a heavy sleeper, and with any luck he wont hear you breaking in. Whatll I do if he wakes up? I said. If he starts growling, give him some of these biscuits, said Ann. How do you know that he likes these particular biscuits? All dogs like them, Ann

assured me. It says so on the packet 36 If you even touch one of the pictures, warned the attendant, alarm bells will ring all over the gallery and you will be arrested instantly. Are you serious? I said. Try it and see, he answered with a glint in his eye. 165 Indirect speech: sentences with let PEG 322 1 He said, Lets go usually becomes: (a) He suggested going though possible in certain cases are: (b) He suggested that they should go (c) He urged/advised them to go. He said, Lets not go can be expressed by any of these constructions in the negative; but suggest + negative gerund is slightly less usual than the others and is often replaced by the (b) type of construction or by: He was against going/against the idea/against it. He was opposed to the idea/He opposed the idea etc. 2 He said, Let them go, can become: (a) He suggested that they should go/suggested their going but usually it expresses an obligation and becomes: (b) He said that they should go/ought to go. Very occasionally

it expresses a command and becomes: (c) He said that they were to go. Let him/them can also express the speakers indifference: Everyone will laugh at you, I said. Let them! he retorted He expressed indifference/said he didnt mind. 3 let is also an ordinary verb meaning allow: Let me go! the boy said to the policeman. The boy asked the policeman to let him go. Put the following into indirect speech. 1 Lets go to the cinema, said Ann. Yes, lets, I said 2 The Prime Minister said, Let us show the nation that we are worthy of their confidence. (Use urged) 3 Let me stay up a little longer tonight, mother, begged the child. 4 Lets eat out tonight, said Ann. Too expensive, objected Tom Why dont we go back to your flat and have scrambled eggs? 5 The police officer said, Lets leave the wrecked car here for a bit if may remind other drivers to be more careful. 6 The neighbours will object! said Ann. Let them, said Tom. 7 Lets go on a diet, said Ann. All right, said Mary reluctantly. 8 Tom

made this mess. Let him clear it up, said his father 9 Its Mothering Sunday tomorrow, said the boy. Lets buy Mum some flowers 10 Lets take a tent and camp out, said Bill. Lets go to a nice hotel and be comfortable, said Mary. 11 Lets give a party, said Ann. Lets not, said her husband, 12 I said, Lets not jump to conclusions. Lets wait till we hear confirmation of this rumour. 13 The newspapers will say its your fault, warned his colleagues. Let them say what they like, he said. 14 Let the nations forget their differences and work together for peace, said the preacher. 15 Let me explain, she said. Dont be in such a hurry 16 Let the children play in the garden if they want to, she told the gardener. Im sure they wont do any harm. 17 Lets stay here till the storm has passed, I said. 18 Its the governments fault. Let them do something about it, grumbled my father 166 Indirect speech: sentences with must, neednt and have to PEG 325 must (first person) I must can remain unchanged but

usually becomes had to though would have to is better for an obligation which has only just arisen or is likely to arise in the future. Reading the letter he said, Good heavens! I must go at once! He said, If she gets worse I must stay with her. These would become respectively: He said that he d have to go and He said that he d have to stay. must I? usually becomes had to. I must not usually remains unchanged. must (second and third persons) you/he must usually remains unchanged, must you/he? usually becomes had to. you/he must not remains unchanged or becomes werent to/wasnt to. must used for permanent commands or prohibitions or to express advice always remains unchanged. must used to express deduction never changes. neednt I neednt can change to didnt have to/wouldnt have to in the same way that I must changes to had to/would have to, but it very often remains unchanged. you/he neednt usually remains unchanged. need I/you/he? remains unchanged or becomes had to. have to Forms

with have to follow the usual rules. Remember that had to in direct speech will become had had to in indirect: He said, After the lecture I had to rush home. He said that after the lecture he had had to rush home. Put the following into indirect speech. 1 He said, If what you say is true I must go to the police. 2 He said, I must be at the docks at six a.m tomorrow 3 Must you make such a noise? he asked. 4 You mustnt come in without knocking, he told us. 5 Your ticket will cost £5, I said. In that case, said my nephew, I must go to the bank tomorrow. 6 Park notice: Dogs must be kept on a lead. 7 His father said, Tom must work harder next term. 8 You neednt come in tomorrow, said my employer. Take the day off 9 I must go to the dentist tomorrow, he said. 1 have an appointment 10 Notice: Passengers must not lean out of the window. 11 He said, There must be someone in the house; theres smoke coming from the chimney. 12 She said, When you are a big boy youll have to tie your own shoes. 13

Port wine must never be shaken, my wine-merchant said. 14 He hasnt had anything to eat since breakfast; he must be starving, she said. 15 The official said, This passport photo isnt like you at all. You must have another one taken. 16 You mustnt play with knives, children, said their mother. 17 I neednt get up till nine tomorrow, I said. 18 Railway regulations: Passengers must be in possession of a valid ticket before travelling. 19 How did you get your bulldog up the escalator? I said. I carried him, said Tom. You must be very strong, I said admiringly. 20 You mustnt tell anyone what Ive just told you, she said to me. 21 Need I eat it all, mummy? said the child. Yes, dear, you must, she said. 22 I had to drive your pigs out of my garden, she said. 23 Sticks and umbrellas must be left at the desk, said the notice in the museum. 24 Must you do it all tonight? Couldnt you leave some for tomorrow? I asked her. 25 When you go through Bayeux you must see the tapestry, he told 26 He

said, You must walk faster; you are far too slow. 27 You mustnt forget to put the stamp on or your friend will have to pay double postage, he told me. 28 I neednt tell you how grateful I am, he said. 167 Indirect speech to direct speech PEG 307-25 Put the following into direct speech with the appropriate punctuation. 1 She asked if hed like to go to the concert and I said that I was sure she would. 2 She told me to look where I was going as the road was full of holes and was very badly lit. 3 They said that while they were bathing they saw someone examining their clothes, 4 I asked if she had looked everywhere and she said that she had. 5 He suggested giving her a bottle of wine. 6 He said that the new carpet had arrived and asked where he was to put it. 7 He said that two days previously an enormous load of firewood had been dumped at his front gate and that since then he hadnt been able to get his car out. 8 They offered me some more wine and I accepted. 9 He said that if I found the

front door locked I was to go round to the back. 10 She asked the burglars who they were and who had let them in. They told her to sit down and keep quiet unless she wanted to get hurt. 11 He asked what the weather had been like during my holiday and I said that it had been awful. 12 He suggested going down to the harbour and seeing if they could hire a boat. 13 He said that if I didnt like escalators I could go up the emergency staircase. I thanked him and said that I would do that. 14 He suggested that Tom and I should go ahead and get the tickets. 15 He said that he thought my electric iron was unsafe and advised me to have it seen to. 16 He said that if war broke out he would have to leave the country at once. 17 I asked him if he had enjoyed house-hunting and he said that he hadnt. 18 She said that she was surprised to see that the grandfather clock had stopped and asked if anyone had been fiddling with it. 19 She said that she had tried to ring up her mother several times on the

previous day but had not succeeded in getting through. 20 I asked her if shed like to borrow the book but she thanked me and said that she had already read it and hadnt liked it very much. 21 He wanted to know if I was going to the dance and suggested that we should make up a party and go together. 22 I told her to stop making a fuss about nothing and said that she was lucky to have got a seat at all. 23 The clerk in the booking office inquired if I wanted a single or return ticket. I asked if a return was any cheaper. He said it made no difference 24 My employer hoped I would not be offended if he told me that, in his opinion, I would do better in some other kind of job. 25 The AA man told the woman that if her wheels had gone a couple of inches nearer the edge, the car would have plunged into the ravine. 26 He said I mustnt mind if the first one wasnt any good. 27 He asked the crowd if they thought that he was a liar and the crowd shouted that they did. 28 I stopped a man in the

street and asked him to help me with my car. The man asked if it would take long, explaining that he was on his way to catch a train. Time clauses 168 Time clauses PEG 342 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. 1 Heat the oil till it (begin) to smoke. 2 Ill stay here till Tom (get) back. 3 Well go out as soon as the shops (open). 4 You drive first, and when you (be) tired, Ill take over. 5 The sooner we (start), the sooner well get there. 6 We will send you the goods as soon as we (receive) your cheque. 7 Ill wait as long as you (like). 8 Whip the whites of the eggs till they (be) quite stiff. 9 Shall I jump out when the bus (slow) down at the next corner? ~ 10 No, youd better wait till it (stop) at the traffic lights. 11 You are too young to understand. I (explain) it to you when you (be) older 12 Tom: Brown is the best poet in the university. Ann: Now read Smiths poems. When you (read) them youll say that he is better 13 Tom: I cant get used to driving on the left. Jack:

When you (be) here for another week youll find it quite easy. 14 The room doesnt look particularly attractive now but when I (clean) and (paint) it, it will look quite different. 15 Pour boiling water on the coffee grounds, wait till the grounds (settle), then strain the coffee into a jug. 16 As soon as they (see) the river the children will want to bathe. 17 When we (see) the cathedral well go to the museum. 18 What will you do when you (finish) painting the bridge? ~ 19 Oh, this bridge is so long that by the time we (reach) the other end it will be time to start again at this end. 20 Serve the meal and wash up. When you (do) the washing up you can go home 21 The plane wont take off till the fog (lift), 22 Tom will start as soon as his visa (arrive). 23 Im glad youre learning French. When you (know) French I (give you a job 24 Shall I boil the babys milk? ~ Yes, but dont give it to him till it (cool). 25 Dont start smoking till the others (finish) their meal. 26 By the time you

(give) the children their meal you wont have any appetite left. 27 I dont want anyone to overhear us, but I (tell) you what happened when we (be) alone. 28 How do you like your new job? ~ Ive only just started so I really cant say. When I (be) in it for a fortnight I (let) you know. 29 My instructor says that when I (fly) another ten hours, hell let me fly solo. 30 They say that when the 100 k.ph speed limit (be) in operation for a year, they will be able to judge whether it is effective or not. 31 Sculptors friend: I suppose that when I (come) back next year you will still be working on this horse. 32 Sculptor: Oh no, I (finish) it long before I (see) you again, but as soon as I (finish) one thing I (start) on another, so therell be something else for you to look at. 33 All the flats are exactly alike so when you (see) one youve seen them all. 34 Advertisement: When you (drive) a Jaguar once, you wont want to drive another car. 35 Hes asleep now but I (give) him the letter as soon as

he (wake) up. 36 She bought beer and made sandwiches because she knew that when they (arrive) they would be hungry and thirsty. 169 Time clauses PEG 342 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. 1 When it (get) dark well have to stop. We cant work in the dark 2 Go on till you (come) to a square with a statue in the middle; then turn left and youll find the theatre on your right. 3 Immediately the train (stop) well jump out. 4 Ill help you with your homework as soon as I (do) my own. 5 He was determined to keep the two dogs apart because he knew that the moment they (see) one another theyd start barking. 6 I know the coats unfashionable but Im not going to throw it away. Ill keep it till that style (come) into fashion again. 7 Tourist: Can we get to the top of the tower? Guide: Yes, but be careful when you (go) up because the steps are very uneven. 8 Tourist (puffing up the steps): Ill be glad when I (get) to the top! Guide: When you (see) the view youll be glad you made the

effort. 9 Mother (to child setting out for school): When you (come) to the main road remember to stop and look both ways before you (cross). 10 Give this letter to your teacher as soon as you (arrive) at school, said his mother. All right, said the boy, running out. I bet it will still be in his pocket when he (get) home tonight, said his father. 11 Tom: Im going to New York by sea. Im leaving tomorrow Jack: Im going by air. When I (sit) in my comfortable plane Ill think of you tossing about on a stormy sea. Tom: When I (walk) about the deck enjoying the fresh air and blue sea Ill think of you shut up in a flying box and seeing nothing. 12 But theres someone in the phone box! You cant rush in and grab the receiver. Youll have to wait till he (finish). 13 The ladder looks a bit unsteady. ~ Yes, but before he (start) working he will tie the top end to the tree. 14 The house wont be entirely mine until I (pay) off the mortgage. 15 Youll find that the staff will clock in very

punctually but that they wont do any work till the boss (arrive). 16 When I (work) here for fifteen years Ill be entitled to a pension. 17 When you (do) the bedrooms, remember to sweep under the beds. 18 When you (do) all the upstairs rooms, come down and give me a hand with the lunch. 19 Mother to child: I wont let you watch TV until you (finish) your supper. 20 Well talk business when we (have) dinner, but not during dinner. I never talk business at meals. 21 Young man: Werent you astonished when she said that? Old man: When you (be) married as long as I have, you wont be so easily astonished. 22 When you (read) the book, leave it in the hospital for someone else to read. 23 He said he would give me a ring as soon as he (reach) Paris. 24 Some people say that a man shouldnt think of marrying till he (save) up enough money to buy a house. 25 Youre an idiot to go into teaching. Im going into business In ten years time when you (queue) at the bus stop Ill be driving by in my Bentley. 26

When you are picking fruit in the holidays to eke out your salary I (cruise) round the Greek islands in my private yacht. 27 I visit a new country every year. By the time I (be) sixty I shall have visited all the most interesting countries in the world. 28 When I (see) all there is to see Ill buy a small island and settle down there. 29 He saves £500 a year. By the time he (retire) hell have saved £20,000 30 By the time he (save) £20,000, the value of the money will have gone down so much that hell have to go on working. 31 Ann hoped that it would go on raining. She knew that the moment if (stop) Tom would want to go out. 32 I expected that Jack would be there when the train (arrive), but there was no sign of him. 33 The boys worked slowly for they knew that as soon as they (finish) one exercise the teacher would tell them to do the next. 34 Ill take the paper with me. Ill read it while I (wait) for the bus 35 The window-cleaner was in fact one of a gang of safe crackers. He hoped

that while he (clean), or (pretend) to clean, windows he would be able to have a look at the safe. 36 He said that he would lend me money whenever I (need) it. 170 when, whenever and as ( = while, because) PEG 332-3 Use when, whenever or as to fill the gaps in the following. 1 . (Because) there were no buses we had to take a taxi 2 . he grew older his temper improved (His temper got better every year ) 3 . he grew older (he reached the age of, say, 40) his temper improved 4 . the doors opened the crowd began pouring in (They didnt wait for the doors to open fully.) 5 . it became dark (after dark), he left his hiding place 6 . the sun went down, great bars of red covered the western sky 7 . he left the house (while he was still in the doorway) he suddenly remembered where hed seen her before. 8 . he left the house (after leaving it) he turned right 9 . we have a puncture (every time we have one) she just sits in the car while I change the wheel. 10 Dont exhaust

yourself. Sit down youre tired, (as soon as youre tired) 11 . (Because) we were tired we sat down beside the stream 12 . we approached the town (came gradually nearer to it) we wondered whether thered be room in the hotel. 13 . we reached the town (after arriving) we sent Tom to find out about hotels 14 Ill have to buy a map . (because) I dont know the area 15 . you dont know a district it is always a good thing to have a map 16 . the manager is out (every time he is out) his assistant signs the letters 17 . (Because) the manager is out today Ill sign the letters 18 The phone rang just . I got into my bath (/ was in the act of getting in) 19 Ive given your old jacket away . (because) it was too tight for you 20 A revolver appeared round the edge of the door . it swung open (The revolver appeared before the door was fully open.) 21 . the evening wore on there were fewer and fewer people in the streets, 22 . he is determined to get something he usually succeeds

(Every time he is determined etc.) 23 He happened to look in at the window . he walked past (in the act of walking past) 24 . she finished her training she got a job (after she had finished) 25 Ill write in Spanish . (because) he doesnt understand English 26 The atmosphere became stuffier . more and more people crowd into the carriage (The more people came in, the stuffier the atmosphere became.) 27 He sang . he worked, (while) 28 . the sun rose the fog dispersed, (the more sun, the less fog) 29 . a kettle boils steam comes out of the spout, (every time) 30 . youre ready Ill bring in the tea (as soon as) 31 . he walked along people began to stare and point, (while) 32 . I didnt see him I cant very well describe him (because) 33 . Ive learnt English Ill go to France and learn French (as soon as) 34 . the meat was cooked I took it out of the oven (as soon as) 35 . the meat was cooked I took it out of the oven (because) 36 . I reached the box office all the

tickets had been sold Phrasal verbs 171 Combinations with get and be PEG chapter 38 Put in the correct prepositions or adverbs. 1 Is Mary in? ~ No, shes . and wont be till nine oclock 2 What shall we do now? ~ Im . keeping quiet and saying nothing 3 If you got . your work instead of talking youd be finished in half the time 4 He promised to act as chairman, so Im afraid he cant get . it now Theres no one else to do it. 5 She wants to do all the work herself but I dont think she is . it 6 He leaves his car at a parking meter for over two hours and always gets . it (is never caught) When I do that, I am fined. 7 I dont think theyll be . yet Its only five oclock in the morning 8 They didnt want the news of their engagement to get . till it was officially announced. 9 The office closes early on Fridays and we get . at five oclock instead of six 10 If you dont give the children something to do, theyll be . some mischief 11 The car stopped in front of the bank

messenger and two men with guns got. 12 She is a friendly girl who gets . everyone she meets 13 As soon as the examinations are . we are going away on holiday 14 It took her a long time to get . the death of her husband 15 We usually get . a play among ourselves at the end of the term 16 Im going to Berlin on business and I shall be . for a week 17 Tom hasnt been working; he wont get . his examinations 18 The police knew he had committed the crime but he got . as there was not enough evidence against him. 19 Shall I marry him? ~ Well, it is. you I cant very well decide for you 20 I tried to ring him up but I couldnt get . ; I think some of the lines are down after last nights storm. 21 She talks so much that it is difficult to get . from her 22 Why not have your operation at once and get it . ? 23 He got . his bicycle to pick up his pump 24 Mary wants to study medicine but she is not very clever. I dont think she is it 25 The train was delayed and only got . at

midnight 26 When winter is . I am going to have the house painted 27 If you dont get . (leave) Ill send for the police 28 I am . , doing the washing up first and watching TV afterwards 29 Get . the bus at Victoria Station 30 How are you getting . with your work? 31 I dont think she is . the level of the rest of the class 32 I left my umbrella in the bus but I got it . from the Lost Property Office 33 I am not getting , . very fast because I can only type with two fingers 34 The dog got . a string of sausages from the butchers 35 We got . late because we missed the last bus 36 Dont worry about my snake. He cant get his box 172 Combinations with look and keep PEG chapter 38 Put in the correct prepositions or adverbs. 1 He wanted to talk to me but I kept . working and refused to listen 2 She is a good secretary but she is kept - . by her ignorance of languages 3 The country was in a state of rebellion and was only kept . by repressive measures 4 Look .

the baby while I am out 5 She kept the children . all day because it was so wet and cold 6 You must look . and make plans for the future 7 Keep . ! he said Dont come any nearer 8 If you look . it carefully you will see the mark 9 I told the children to keep . the room that was being painted 10 Looking . , I see now all the mistakes I made when I was younger 11 I have started getting up at five a.m to study but I dont know if I can keep this 12 He had an unhappy childhood and he never looks . on it with any pleasure 13 The man walked so fast that the child couldnt keep . him 14 She looked . to see who was following her 15 There were so many panes of glass broken that the windows couldnt keep . the rain 16 Ive been looking . a cup to match the one I broke 17 Look . me at the station Ill be at the bookstall 18 Look .! You nearly knocked my cup out of my hand 19 He was kept . in his research by lack of money 20 Tom is looking . his first trip abroad, (expecting with

pleasure) 21 Look . on your way home and tell me what happened 22 Before putting any money into the business, we must look very carefully . the accounts. 23 I look . her as one of the family 24 My windows look . the garden 25 He asked me to look . the document and then sign it 26 He looked . the book to see if he had read it before 27 If you can afford a new car your business must be looking ,. 28 You can always look . her address in the directory if you have forgotten it 29 He looked me . and before he condescended to answer my question 30 I am looking . seeing your new house 31 Children have a natural inclination to look . their parents 32 You will see I am right if you look . the matter from my point of view 33 He looks . me because I spend my holidays in Bournemouth instead of going abroad. 34 If he doesnt know the word he can look it . in a dictionary 35 The crowd looked . while the police surrounded the house 36 Since our quarrel she looks . me

whenever we meet 173 Combinations with go and come PEG chapter 38 Put in the correct prepositions or adverbs. 1 It was some time before he came . after being knocked out 2 I had to wait for permission from the Town Council before I could go . with my plans. 3 He came . to my way of thinking after a good deal of argument 4 The guard dog went . the intruder and knocked him down 5 He had a sandwich and a cup of coffee, then went . working 6 Its no use trying to keep it secret; its sure to come . in the end 7 I went . the proposal very carefully with my solicitor and finally decided not to accept their offer. 8 The gun went . by accident and wounded him in the leg 9 The question of salary increases will come . at the next general meeting 10 Wearing black for mourning went . many years ago 11 She went . a beauty contest and got a prize 12 Those rust marks will come . if you rub them with lemon 13 The price of tomatoes usually goes . in summer in England 14 If

there isnt enough soup to go . just put some hot water in it 15 Seeing me from across the room, she came . me, and said that she had a message for me. 16 The early colonists of Canada went . many hardships 17 You cant go . your promise now; we are depending on you 18 I have changed my mind about marrying him; I simply cant go . 19 The aeroplane crashed and went . in flames 20 He came . a fortune last year (He inherited it) 21 Wait till prices come . again before you buy 22 I refuse to go . now Im going on 23 They have gone . all the calculations again but they still cant find the mistake 24 The party went . very well; we all enjoyed ourselves 25 Come . Its far too cold to wait here any longer 26 Mary went . in such a hurry that she left her passport behind 27 The handle of the tea-pot came . in my hand as I was washing it 28 Why dont you go . stamp collecting if you want a quiet hobby? 29 I came . a vase exactly like yours in an antique shop 30 Her weight

went . to 70 kilos when she stopped playing tennis 31 Dont go . food if you want to economize Just drink less 32 The sea has gone . considerably since last nights gale 33 Im at home all day. Come whenever you have time 34 She went . her work after the interruptions 35 She goes . a lot She hardly every spends an evening at home 36 I suggested that we should all take a cut in salary. Naturally this didnt go very well. (wasnt well received) 174 Combinations with take and run PEG chapter 38 Put in the correct prepositions or adverbs. 1 I couldnt take . the lecture at all It was too difficult for me 2 He is inclined to let his enthusiasm run . him 3 When he offered me only £3, I was too taken . to say a word 4 He has already run . the money his father left him two years ago 5 Now he is running . bills all over the town 6 She took . riding because she wanted to lose weight 7 I cant start the car; the battery has run . 8 The policeman ran . the thief, 9 He takes .

his mother; he has blue eyes and fair hair too 10 I forgot to turn off the tap and the wash-basin ran . 11 That blouse is easy to make. You could run it in hour 12 I am sorry I called you a liar. I take it 13 Reformers usually run . opposition from all kinds of people 14 He took . going for a walk every night before he went to bed 15 Dont run . the idea that Scotsmen are mean They just dont like wasting money 16 I wish we could sell the grand piano; it takes . too much space here 17 She is always running . her friends behind their backs She soon wont have any friends left. 18 Youd better take . your coat if youre too hot 19 Just run . the music of this song for me 20 We took . each other the first time we met and have been friends ever since 21 When his father died, Tom took . the business 22 What I saw in the water was only an old tree. I took it the Lock Ness Monster 23 I ran . an old school friend in the tube today 24 I cant go more than 50 k.ph as this

is a new car and I am still running it 25 People often take me . my sister We are very like each other 26 My neighbour is always running . bread and borrowing some from me 27 He always takes . his false teeth before he goes to bed 28 I took . Tom at chess and beat him 29 If a bull chased me Id run . 30 Even a child wouldnt be taken . by such an obvious lie 31 Youre looking rather run . ; I think you need a holiday 32 The policeman took . the number of the stolen car 33 If she takes . the job of director shell have to work harder 34 My car skidded and ran . a wall 35 She makes a little extra money by taking . paying guests in summer 36 A hen ran in front of my car and Im afraid I ran . it 175 Combinations with turn, call and break PEG chapter 38 Put in the correct prepositions or adverbs. 1 He broke . completely on hearing of his daughters death 2 He wasnt rich by any means, but he never turned . anyone who needed help 3 On his way to work he called . the

florists and ordered a dozen red roses 4 Burglars broke . the house and stole some jewellery 5 I turned . (refused) the job because it was badly paid 6 We called . a specialist when he grew worse 7 When the police questioned him he broke . and confessed 8 Turn . the radio if youre not listening 9 War broke . in 1939 10 The secretary was then called . to read the minutes 11 He carried on the business alone for years before his health broke. 12 The lion turned . the lion-tamer and knocked him senseless 13 Can you be ready at six? He is calling . us then to take us out 14 Mary has broken . her engagement to Charles 15 I havent much time for housework but I try to turn . one room in the house every week. 16 She called . for a few minutes to return a book 17 The lift broke . and we had to use the stairs 18 The representative of the computer company called . all the factories in the district 19 The situation is difficult and calls . great tact 20 They broke .

their conversation when I came in 21 The school broke . for the holidays at the end of July 22 In this book the mysterious stranger turns . to be the long-lost son of the duke 23 The fireman had to break . the door to rescue the children 24 The garden party was called . because of the rain 25 A good horse can be ruined if it is not carefully broken . 26 He was called . at the age of eighteen and spent a year in the army 27 She was plain as a child but she turned . remarkably pretty 28 Negotiations between the two countries were broken . following the murder of the ambassador. 29 Mrs Jones rang. She wants you to call her 30 The family was broken . after the death of the parents 31 The new factory turns . surgical instruments as well as cutlery 32 He broke . the conversation to remind us it was getting late 33 The boat turned . and threw us all into the water 34 We arranged to meet at the theatre but she didnt turn . 35 The three men who broke . prison

yesterday were later recaptured 36 A huge crowd turned . to see the international football match 176 Combinations with give, put and make PEG chapter 38 Put in the correct prepositions or adverbs. 1 He won £100 and gave it all . 2 Put . the clock, it is twenty minutes fast 3 Riding is getting too expensive; Ill have to give it. 4 Ill put . my visit to the Royal Mint till you can come with me 5 The roads were crowded with people making . the coast 6 He gave . all the books he had borrowed 7 She had invited me to dinner but had to put me . as she was taken ill 8 I cant make . the postmark on the letter; it looks like Basingstoke 9 Put . the light its getting quite light again 10 After four days of freedom, the escaped prisoner gave himself . to the police 11 That vase is very valuable. Put it before you drop it 12 She makes . very skilfully She looks much younger than she is 13 Your secret is safe with me. I wont give you (betray you) 14 He was very much put

. when she rang off angrily in the middle of their conversation. 15 Its time they made . that silly quarrel 16 I wish you would put . the dishes instead of leaving them on the table 17 Hes not really angry. Hes only putting it 18 He didnt want to go to the cinema but they begged so hard that he gave . and went with them. 19 I dont believe that story. I am sure you made it 20 The house itself is quite attractive but the fact that its near a busy airport put me. 21 The boy is hyperactive. I put it wrong diet 22 They put . a statue of Florence Nightingale after her death 23 The divers supply of oxygen gave . and he had to be brought to the surface as quickly as possible. 24 I asked him to put . the lights if he was the last to leave 25 I dont know how you put . the noise; it would drive me mad 26 After his fourth attempt he gave . trying to pass the driving test 27 Heres a crash helmet. Put it 28 He should try to make . his loss of sleep by going to bed early 29

If you cant find a room in a hotel, I could always put you . 30 The names of the winners were given . on the radio 31 The shortage of eggs has put . their price considerably 32 The government put . the rebellion with great severity 33 If you want to save money, give . eating in expensive restaurants 34 This clock is always slow; I put it . ten minutes every morning 35 There was a man giving . leaflets outside the church 36 He put . his name for the excursion 177 Combinations with clear, cut, fall, hold, let and hand PEG chapter 38 Put in the correct prepositions or adverbs. 1 Clear . your books I want to set the table for lunch 2 The army fell . when the enemy attacked 3 You should cut . this tree It is too near the house 4 The examination was so easy that all the candidates handed . their answer papers after the first hour. 5 My plans for starting a restaurant fell . for lack of capital 6 Our water supply was cut . because the pipe burst 7 At the end

of term attendance at these classes usually falls . 8 The wall was covered with pictures of pop stars which Mary had cut . magazines 9 I hope the rain holds . until my washing is dry 10 They wont let you . if you arent a member of the club 11 The mounted police cleared. the crowds 12 A heavy snowfall held . the trains from the north 13 If you really want to slim you must cut . on sweets 14 The two brothers fell . over their fathers will (quarrelled) 15 You would recover your sense of taste if you cut . smoking altogether 16 If you will hold . Ill put you through to Enquiries 17 If he refuses to fall . my plans I can probably find someone more co-operative 18 These folk songs have been handed . from generation to generation 19 She has grown so much that her mother will have to let . all her dresses 20 Children, you must clear . this mess before going to bed 21 I was cut . in the middle of my call because I ran out of money 22 How did you get this expensive

tool-kit? ~ It fell . the back of a lorry23 The retiring minister handed to his successor 24 I should feel very cut . if I lived more than twenty kilometres from the town 25 The soldiers fell . and marched off 26 In the film the train was held . and robbed by four armed men 27 The mystery of his sudden disappearance was never cleared . 28 He didnt dismiss the man; he let him . with a warning 29 I hope the weather will clear . soon I want to go out 30 He let the rest of the team . by not turning up for the match 31 Deaf people often feel very cut . from others by their disability 32 When she got fatter her clothes were too tight and she had to let them all. 33 If the word-processor breaks down, well have to fall. our old typewriter 34 The survivors of the plane crash were able to hold . till help came 35 Could you hand . the photographs so that everyone can see them? 36 Youll need somewhere to keep your books. Ill clear this cupboard for you 178 Mixed

combinations PEG chapter 38 Put in the correct prepositions or adverbs. 1 I dont care . the expense; I want the party to be a real success 2 I cant account . the disappearance of the pictures; they were all there yesterday 3 If passports were done . (abolished), travel would be much simpler 4 You will have to allow . some extra expenses on the train 5 They set . on their camping trip with great enthusiasm 6 When you have thought . what I have said, you will understand 7 He doesnt care . continental cookery He thinks its too rich 8 The car pulled . beside me and the driver asked me the way to Piccadilly 9 You can throw . the packet; its empty 10 They set . at six and reached their destination before dark 11 The doctor thinks hell pull . now His temperature has gone down 12 I dont know how she manages to care . ten children without help 13 My children are picking . English very quickly but I find it more difficult 14 She fainted but they brought her . by

throwing cold water on her face 15 The teacher pointed . several mistakes that the student had not corrected 16 You need capital before you can set . on your own in any kind of business 17 He suddenly threw . his job and went to Australia 18 Dont make up your mind at once; talk it . with your lawyer first 19 The room needs doing . ; its very shabby 20 The factory will have to close down if production is not stepped 21 His final argument brought me . to his point of view 22 We must get the roof mended before the wet weather sets . 23 I dont like the look of these men hanging . outside my gate 24 He picked . all the biggest ones for himself 25 You must carry . the instructions on the packet exactly 26 After the music had died . there was a storm of applause 27 The mob burnt . several important buildings in the riots 28 The wearing of national costume has largely died . in Europe 29 These children are very polite; they have obviously been well brought. 30 She

carried . with her work in spite of all interruptions 31 You can stay . till your father comes home and then you must go to bed 32 When the rebellion had died . things quickly returned to normal 33 Ill pick you . at your office and take you straight to the station 34 Several new records were set . at the last Olympic Games 35 He advises me to hang . , (keep) those pictures as they will be valuable one day 36 At the committee meeting the question of repairs to the roof was brought. 179 Mixed combinations PEG chapter 38 Put in the correct prepositions or adverbs. 1 Blow . the candles on the cake before you cut it 2 He used to be very shy but he has grown . it now 3 A number of oil tankers have been laid . recently Too many of them had been built 4 Dont let him order you . like that; hes not your employer 5 I can pay . the money you lent me after Ive been to the bank 6 Applications for the job must be sent . before next Wednesday 7 The fireworks factory was

practically wiped . by the explosion 8 We must keep on working; its too soon to sit . (relax) 9 The terrorists blew . the railway line 10 He wanted to ask her to marry him but he was too shy to do it at once. He led it by saying he often felt lonely. 11 I had to send . an electrician to mend the switch 12 After nursing the whole family when they had flu she was completely worn. 13 My nephew wants to be an explorer when he grows . 14 The house stood . in the dull street because of its red door 15 After the owners death the business was wound . and the shop sold 16 The little girl couldnt blow . the balloon 17 Childrens clothes have to be strong to stand . hard wear 18 As soon as the decorators have finished work in my new house, Im move . 19 He was laid . for six weeks with two broken legs g 20 The idea has gradually grown . that the State should look after every citizen from the cradle to the grave. 21 They always lay . a large supply of tinned food in winter in

case they are snowed up 22 You cant move into this flat till I move . 23 He thinks I broke his window and threatens to pay me . for it 24 I asked the hotel to send . any letters which came after I had gone 25 BBC stands . British Broadcasting Corporation 26 The inscription on the tombstone had been worn . by the weather and could scarcely be read. 27 Hes going to turn this old building . a block of flats 28 My shoes wear . very quickly since I started walking to the office 29 Ill start laying . my new garden next spring 30 On a touring holiday you can move . to a new place every day if you want to 31 The lifeboat is standing . in case it is necessary to take off the crew of the damaged ship. 32 Dont sit . for me I shall probably be back very late 33 Contact lenses may feel uncomfortable at first but this feeling soon wears. 34 She was the only one to stand . me No one else said anything in my Defence 35 He was sent . from the university for drug-pushing 36 The

strike was called . when the management agreed to the strikers demands 180 Mixed combinations PEG chapter 38 Put in the correct prepositions or adverbs. 1 I left the milk heating for too long and it all boiled . 2 When we had worked . the cost of a holiday abroad, we decided to stay at home 3 Ring this number and ask . (to speak to) Bill 4 The shop is closing down and selling . all the stock at reduced prices 5 I always mix . the painters Monet and Manet (confuse) 6 His description of the accident was borne . by other witnesses 7 Ill do the shopping if you see . the lunch 8 He read the novel, missing . the dull descriptive passages 9 I have fixed . my holiday and I cant change the date now 10 I asked him . for a cup of coffee 11 She left the potatoes cooking for so long that the water boiled . and the potatoes were burnt. 12 I can see . her sudden friendliness; she wants me to look after her parrot while she is away. 13 You mustnt answer . like that when

your mother scolds you 14 Workmen dont always clean . very thoroughly after they have made a mess 15 The news of his marriage to another girl was a shock to her but she bore . bravely and went on as if nothing had happened. 16 Ring up the station and find . what time the train goes 17 He stopped to pick . a hitch-hiker 18 He would like to ask her . but he is too poor to pay for meals in restaurants 19 The committee left him . the team as he had refused to practise 20 I couldnt get any bread. All the bakers shops were sold 21 I thought he was mad and backed . nervously 22 James was asking . you today He says he hasnt seen you for weeks 23 He wasnt walking very fast. Youll catch him if you start at once 24 It would be safer to get your solicitor to draw . the contract 25 Shell be busy seeing . the childrens clothes before they go back to school 26 He has got mixed . a very odd set of people I hope they wont have a bad influence on him. 27 All passengers must

fill . this disembarkation form before they leave the ship 28 He supported the idea at first but backed . when he found hed have to contribute towards the cost. 29 Ive been invited . to Brighton this week-end 30 This stove must be cleaned . once a week or it gets choked with ashes 31 He got out as soon as the train drew . 32 Everyone drew . in alarm when smoke began to pour out of the parcel 33 He doesnt like being seen . He prefers to go to the station alone 34 The music faded . in the distance as the street players moved on 35 Nobody backed me . when I complained about the food in the canteen, so nothing was done about it. 36 Ill see you . when you leave Its easy to get lost in this enormous building 181 Mixed combinations PEG chapter 38 Put in the correct prepositions or adverbs. 1 If the business continues to lose money, Im afraid well have to close. 2 He joined . only because several of his friends had joined the army, too 3 If the weather doesnt clear up

well have to knock . early; we cant work in the rain 4 I think Tom is living in York now. I must look him next time Im there 5 Youd better ring her . and tell her youll be late 6 It isnt fair to shout the speaker . without giving him a chance to explain 7 Most au pair girls have to live . 8 The guide rounded . the party of tourists and led them to the cathedral 9 Ive made a mistake; I must rub it . said the child 10 The car-park attendant said, You are too far from the next car; could you close . a little? 11 Drop . any time youre passing, and have a cup of tea 12 She was offered a flat in a modern block and jumped . the chance 13 The last person to go to bed usually locks . at night 14 Ill pay for both of us and you can settle . afterwards 15 The hero in the book was tied . by his enemies and left in a gas-filled room, but he managed to escape. 16 They offered to pay half the expenses and he closed . the offer at once 17 He wont buy the car without trying it

. on the road first 18 Mothers having a days holiday; we are waiting . her for a change 19 She rang . angrily before I could explain why I hadnt turned up 20 Thats poison; you should lock it . where the children cant touch it 21 Since she got married she seems to have dropped . of all social activities 22 The boxer was knocked . in the second round and lost his title 23 Whales live mainly . plankton 24 An English husband usually helps his wife to wash . after a meal 25 It takes some time to settle . to work again after a holiday 26 My horse was entered . the Derby, but he came in last 27 The porter was told to watch . the people who tried to gate-crash 28 He had to rub . his French to help his son when he started to learn it at school 29 She took . her glove so that she could show her diamond ring 30 I tried . several coats but none of them suited me 31 If you cant afford it, youll have to do . it 32 Watch .! That man tried to take your purse out of

your shopping-bag 33 Several gambling clubs have been shut . recently for breaking the regulations 34 This is a clockwork toy. You have to wind it 35 I pointed . all her mistakes but she didnt seem very grateful 36 I dont think Id like to share a flat with her. Id find it difficult to live her standards of tidiness. 182 Mixed combinations with compound prepositions/ adverbs PEG chapter 38 Put in the correct prepositions or adverbs. Note that two words are required 1 Once he has signed the agreement, he wont be able to back . the scheme 2 Watch . the signpost I dont want to miss the turning 3 That chair is not very strong. Do you think it is your weight? 4 After drinking half a bottle of whisky he felt able to stand . his employer 5 The Italian course started in September and its now March. Im afraid you wont be able to catch . the class now 6 Whenever he runs . a difficulty he always comes to me for help 7 A mother will usually stand . her children, no

matter what they have done 8 Theres no point in doing . the old regulations if you are going to introduce equally stupid new ones. 9 Im afraid theres no milk left; well have to fall. dried milk for our tea 10 Its your turn to make some suggestions; Ive run . ideas 11 He may be sorry but that wont make . the damage he has done 12 Some people can break the law and get . it Others get punished 13 He pretended to fall . my plan but secretly he was working against it 14 Dont tell me any of your secrets. I dont want to be mixed your affairs 15 He would get. his work better if you left him alone 16 Why do you hang . those old magazines? Give them away if you dont need them 17 Dont run. the idea that I disapprove completely Im only trying to point out the disadvantages. 18 He wanted to borrow money and led. it by saying that times were very hard 19 He has gone . his promises so often that no one trusts him now 20 Look . me at the station; Ill be carrying the Financial

Times 21 He will come . your way of thinking in time 22 The Minister was very glad to hand . his successor before the crisis got any worse. 23 Children used to look . their parents; now they are inclined to regard them as equals. 24 The astronaut got. his rocket and found himself in the middle of a vast plain 25 He only puts . his secretarys bad spelling because he cant find a better one 26 My legs are too short; I cant keep . you if you walk so fast 27 Once a man gets a reputation for being amusing he has to try and live . it 28 I suppose youll look . me when I tell you I prefer kippers to caviare 29 Ive had a busy day and Im looking . going to bed early 30 Shall I make the cheque . you or to your firm? 31 The government wont go . this new legislation if public feeling is against it 32 It took him a long time to grow . the habit of biting his nails 33 My room is rather dark because it looks . a blank wall 34 Well settle . you when you produce all

the bills 35 He looked his son . and and said, Arent you a bit too old now to wear those odd clothes? 36 She goes . yoga and spends ten minutes every day standing on her head 183 Substituting phrasal verbs for other expressions PEG chapter 38 Replace the words or phrases in bold type by phrasal verbs. Some of the sentences may sound awkward as they stand. 1 Can he give a good explanation for his extraordinary behaviour? 2 He mended the tyre of his bicycle and then filled it with air. 3 They were having a violent quarrel but stopped suddenly when I came in. 4 The meeting was cancelled because of the flu epidemic. 5 If you refuse to perform my orders youll be dismissed. 6 I dont think you can overtake them; they left two hours ago. 7 Sherlock Holmes was often able to solve a mystery without leaving his rooms in Baker Street. 8 I found a twenty-pound note by chance in the street. What should I do with it? 9 If my scheme had succeeded, I should have made a profit of a thousand

pounds. 10 He recovered consciousness when the doctor had applied artificial respiration. 11 The road safety campaign had succeeded in reducing road deaths by 10 per cent. 12 Three thousand students are candidates for the examination every : year but very few pass. 13 He tried to alight from the bus while it was still moving and was badly hurt. 14 My sister promised to sing at the concert and though she doesnt want to now, she cant free herself from the obligation. 15 They announced the names of the winning horses on the radio. 16 If cigarettes get any dearer, I shall have to abandon the habit of smoking. 17 Prices always increase; they never become less. 18 The police investigated the case very thoroughly but finally said there was no suspicion of foul play. 19 He started his journey in a great hurry. 20 He needs more exercise; he should start playing tennis. 21 It is difficult to train children well. 22 The train was delayed by fog and arrived late. 23 I waited for her for ages but

she didnt come. 24 She is good at languages. She learnt Spanish without effort, in a fern months 25 It is your responsibility to make a success of your own life. (It is you etc) 26 Anyone who was offered a chance like that would accept it with enthusiasm. 27 Dont walk on the grass. 28 He dictated so quickly that his poor secretary couldnt go as fast as he did. (couldnt . him) 29 I hit him so hard that he fell unconscious. 30 If I dont punish you this time, will you promise never to do it again 31 She was very upset over her failure but now she is recovering from it. 32 You mustnt omit the difficult sentences; do them all. 33 She kept asking me all the difficult words instead of searching for them in a dictionary. 34 I took the children to the zoo today to compensate for the party they missed yesterday. 35 Students of English often confuse the words lie and lay. 36 He swore to revenge himself on me for the wrong I had done him. 184 Substituting phrasal verbs for other

expressions PEG chapter 38 Replace the words or phrases in bold type by phrasal verbs. Some of the sentences may sound awkward as they stand. 1 If you dont allow me to enter Ill break down the door. 2 He regarded her for a moment and then said, She is too tall. 3 The line was so bad when I telephoned him that I couldnt understand what he said. 4 Will you take care of the garden while I am in hospital? 5 I dont believe a word of his excuse; Im sure he invented it. 6 Hes had the best doctors available but he wont recover unless he has the will to live. 7 Be careful! The trees going to fall! 8 Never postpone till tomorrow what you can do today. 9 I regard him as the greatest living novelist. 10 He dressed himself in uniform for the occasion. 11 He keeps hearing strange footsteps in the house, so he has hired a private detective to investigate the matter. 12 She was sitting opposite me in the bus but she pretended not to see me. 13 Whenever you are in Paris, do go and visit my sister. 14

Why was she looking so annoyed? 15 The Albert Hall was erected in memory of Queen Victorias husband. 16 I cant offer hospitality to you all because my flat is too small. 17 Suppose you telephone the station and ask them. 18 He disparages his own garden but he likes other people to praise it. 19 She is in poor health after working for three years without a break. 20 The village is so small that we are always meeting our friends accidentally. 21 It is the first time that he has encountered any opposition. 22 Peters leaving. Why dont you apply for his job? 23 There is something wrong with the television set; wed better summon an electrician. 24 A man who has always led an open-air life would find it difficult to be contented in an office job. 25 I am feeling rather tired today because I stayed out of bed later than usual last night. 26 You are not allowed to offer yourself for election to Parliament if you are under eighteen, a lunatic, or a bankrupt. 27 He lost his reputation and all his

money but he had good friends and they continued to support and help him. 28 The father was thoroughly dishonest and the son resembles him. He has already been in the courts for stealing. 29 He started playing golf as he thought it would help him socially. 30 I used to believe his tall stories; now he rarely succeeds in deceiving me. 31 It is silly to abandon a good job like yours, just because you dont like the coffee in the canteen. 32 They rejected her application because they preferred a man for the job. 33 The factory normally makes clocks and watches but during the last war it produced precision instruments for aeroplanes. 34 The chairman brought his speech to an end by thanking the staff for their hard work. 35 Take a pencil and paper and calculate how long it will take us to reach London from here. 36 He undertook evening work to make some extra money but at the end of the year he was completely exhausted, and had to abandon it. 185 Combinations with off and on PEG chapter

38 Put in the appropriate verb. 1 The fireworks . off with such a noise that we were nearly deafened 2 The trade talks which had begun between the two countries were . off when the fishery dispute began. 3 He. off on his journey 4 I cant hear you. Do off that vacuum cleaner 5 The astronaut found the experience of weightlessness strange at first but the feeling . . off after a time. 6 The candidate . on everyone in his constituency and asked them to vote for him in the impending by-election. 7 Well-off people used to have servants to . on them 8 If we cant decide on a play we all want to see wed better . off the theatre party tomorrow. 9 Dont be . off by her odd appearance; she is really very nice 10 I said to the shop assistant, 1 like this coat; could I . it on? 11 You wont . on very fast with your work if you try to watch television at the same time. 12 Those chalk marks will easily . off your jacket if you brush it 13 Almost all workers like to . off (leave

work) at six Its hard to get anyone to stay on after that. 14 I was practising the bagpipes but I had to . off because my mother complained about the noise. 15 I think you have enough to do as it is. Dont on any more work 16 They wont be able to have their letters . on when they are away as they will be on safari. 17 Many of our men are off sick just now. We have been on with a skeleton staff 18 Its really your turn to wash up, Mary, but well . you off this time You look very tired. 19 When I played in his team he kept shouting advice at me, and this . me off 20 I heard two men planning to break into a house. What should I do? You should . on the information to the police 21 I dont see why we should do all the work while he just . on (watches) and does nothing. 22 Someone is following us! Never mind; . on walking and pay no attention 23 Now that we have lost all the money, its no use. on me and saying that its all my fault. 24 The policeman told the crowd

standing round the scene of the accident to . on because they were blocking the road. 25 I dont want to . on the light in case I waken her 26 My house was damaged by floods so I had to . off the guests I had invited for the following week-end. 27 She doesnt usually wear a hat; she only . one on when she goes to a wedding 28 . on It could do you good to come out for a change 29 The wedding was planned for the 16th but the bride fell ill so it had to be . off 30 My train leaves at eight tomorrow morning. Will you come and me off? 31 The Scout . on his bicycle and hurried away to get help 32 He doesnt . on with his family Thats why he doesnt live at home 33 That new factory is doing very well; the manager has just . on fifty new workers 34 The plane . off at seven and climbed rapidly into the stormy sky 35 He. off his jacket and hung it up 36 He flew his plane under the bridges of the Thames. Why did he do that? I suppose he was just . off {attracting attention

to/displaying his skill) 186 Combinations with up PEG chapter 38 Fill up the spaces in each of the following sentences by inserting a verb + up, or a verb + up + preposition combination. 1 It is. factory owners to provide fire-fighting equipment in their factories (No verb is required here.) 2 Unfortunately he was . by his parents to believe that money was the only thing that mattered. 3 The party didnt . till 3 am and the guests left very noisily 4 I ran after him and soon . him Then we went on together 5 Mother to child: Your clothes are covered with mud; what have you . ? 6 If you buy the paint Ill. this room for you 7 He. a list of conditions and we all agreed to them 8 If you want a new passport you must . this form 9 He. at 8 am and went to bed at 11 pm 10 I tried three times to start the car and then . it and went by bus 11 If 1. alcohol Id be much healthier, but life wouldnt be so much fun 12 I saw a policeman so I . him and asked him the way 13 Most girls

expect to get married when they . 14 Cashiers carrying money to the bank are sometimes . by gunmen 15 He couldnt . me as I ran much faster than he did and soon left him behind 16 I. a 20p piece that I saw lying on the ground 17 He wasted two weeks and tried to. it by working madly the last day 18 She said that she was going to educate her children herself, for if they went to school theyd only . bad habits 19 Before you go on holiday you should . the house and ask the police to keep an eye on it. 20 The car . suddenly with screaming brakes 21 English people have to. English weather 22 The thieves . (bound) the housekeeper and ransacked the house 23 Ive stupidly . your books and mine and now I dont know I which is which 24 He is a dangerous criminal. He ought to be 25 I want to . him Would you please his telephone number? 26 I. at the meeting-place but the others didnt come 27 He wanted something to do in his spare time so he. carpentry 28 The police . a

notice saying, No Parking 29 Tell me at the end of the week how many hours you have worked and Ill . with you then, his employer said. 30 Its probably true. No one would such a stupid story 31 She sat down in front of the mirror and began to . her face 32 If only we had a dish-washer, we wouldnt need to . after every meal 33 My father said it was all my fault but my mother . {defended) me and said that it wasnt. 34 He. his speech by calling for a vote of thanks for last years president 35 Children hate going to bed. They always want to a little longer 36 He was lying on his bed but when he saw me he. and said, Im not asleep 187 Combinations with out PEG chapter 38 Fill the spaces in the following sentences by inserting a verb + out combination. 1 There were three of us in the original partnership, but Charles . so there are only two of us now. 2 You are not paid to criticize. All you need do is to my orders 3 When war . prices usually go up 4 Theres an advertisement in

todays paper that might interest Robert. Ill it and send it to him 5 The fog is so thick that I dont know where we are. Ill have to try and by asking someone. 6 In a bus: Have my seat. Im at the next stop 7 The arrangement of marriages by parents is a custom that has . nearly everywhere 8 The article is too long. Could you the last two paragraphs? 9 I cant . who it is He is too far away 10 He volunteered to march in the demonstration but when the day came he . and said that he was not well enough to go. 11 Dont . (get rid of/discard) that old chair We could repair it 12 Which picture do you think is the best? ~ It is hard to. the best They are all so good 13 Why do you think they have such a high fence round this nuclear power station? ~ I think they want to . people 14 He was . of the windows and didnt see me coming into the room 15 . ! Heres the boss! 16 There was a threat of a gas and electricity strike and in no time the shops selling candles were . 17

We. of milk on Sunday and I had to get some from the milk machine 18 Write in pencil. Then if you make a mistake you can easily it 19 As we passed Marble Arch he . the place where the gallows used to stand 20 Ill . you , said my host, and he accompanied me to the front door 21 We thought that he was an expert on Proust but it. that he had never even heard of him. 22 They . at nine and arrived at twelve 23 He was quite . when he got no marks at all for his essay and he hasnt forgiven the lecturer yet. 24 Im leaving this flat. lam tomorrow and the new tenants are moving in the next day. 25 Nothing can ever . the memory of that terrible experience 26 Ill give you the general plan and you can . the details, the director said to his assistant. 27 We havent invited them to the party. If they about it they will be furious 28 . the light when you leave the room 29 Children usually grow out of their clothes before they . them 30 The wind . the first match

and he had to strike another 31 Can I speak to Mr Pitt? ~ Im afraid he has just . 32 My clothes are all getting too tight. Ill have to them 33 There are only two of us on this desert island. We mustnt (quarrel) 34 This bottle has been very tightly corked. The cork wont 35 . for pickpockets! 36 He. in any crowd because he is so much taller than the average man 188 Combinations with down, away and over PEG chapter 38 Fill the spaces in the following sentences by inserting a verb + down, away or over combinations. 1 I offered him part-time work but he. it, saying that hed rather wait for a full-time job. 2 He doesnt think much of contemporary authors; he is always . their work 3 He dictated it and 1. it in shorthand 4 The child picked up the knife and his mother shouted, .it ! 5 Some English boys go to boarding school at the age of seven. They usually quickly and are very happy. 6 I am in charge while Smith is away; I . from him on June 1 7 I cant decide now. Ill it

with my colleagues and let you know later 8 He insisted on riding a young excitable horse which . with him and threw him into a ditch. 9 He agreed to take my classes while I was away; but he . me He never turned up for any of them. 10 I. the accounts several times but couldnt find the mistake 11 Suddenly there was a rustling in the straw. Everyone and stood watching from a safe distance. 12 This shop is. It will be reopening shortly under new management 13 He had stage fright at first but he. it very quickly 14 The townsman has always been inclined to. on the countryman 15 The filing system worked splendidly till the secretary went on holiday; then it . and no one knew where anything was. 16 Here is my letter; would you just .it to see if there are any mistakes? 17 Two men started to fight with knives. The crowd so as to be out of danger, and stood watching. 18 After the blizzard, it took a long time to . the snow from the main streets 19 He hated boarding school and . from

it, turning up two days later at his own home 20 Jones tried to make a suggestion but the crowd was too excited to listen and he was . 21 When the first act. we had a drink in the theatre bar 22 They should . with licensing laws and let us drink when we like 23 There was tremendous excitement in the streets and the shouting didnt . till after midnight. 24 The embassy was . in the recent riots The ruins are still smoking 25 When she heard the news of the crash she . and cried 26 The theatre filled up very early and people who came later and who hadnt reserved seats were . 27 I wonder why theres such a smell of gas. ~ Perhaps something on the gas stove has . and put out the flame 28 That old chair would be useful to somebody. If you dont want it, sell it or it 29 This ring I wear isnt very valuable but its been . in my family for over 200 years. 30 He. a little money every week so as to have something for a rainy day 31 The police caught one thief but the other . 32

The new idea is that young delinquents should gather together in groups and . their problems with social workers. 33 We are spending too much; well have to. our expenses 34 Im waiting till prices . before buying my new carpet 35 When the floods . we were able to use the road again 36 The expression To . a new leaf means to make a fresh start with the intention of doing better. 189 Mixed combinations used in a connected passage PEG chapter 38 Fill the spaces in the following passage by inserting suitable combinations. During Bills last term at school, Mr White offered him a job in a hardware shop. It would be in the tool section, he said, helping old Mr Hammer, and if you (1) . (made good progress) you could (2) . (become responsible/or) the section when Mr Hammer retires. Mr White expected Bill to (3) . at the offer (accept it eagerly) and was rather (4) (surprised and disappointed) when the boy looked doubtful. You neednt (5) . your mind (decide) at once, he said Mr

Hammer can (6) (continue/manage) without an assistant for another fortnight. But (7) it (consider it) and let me know. Your school (8) (closes/or the holidays) this Friday, doesnt it? Bill nodded. Well, if you decide to accept the job, (9) (call at the shop) next weekend. Ill show you round and well (10) you (arrange this matter) with an insurance card. Bills father urged him to accept. If you (11) it (refuse it) youll just be on the dole, he said. Its no use (12) (loitering) at home waiting for something better to (13) . (appear) Very few employers are (14) (engaging) more men at present and a lot of places are (15). (shutting permanently) So Bill took the job and soon (16). in his new environment (became used to it) He (17) . (learnt) to work quickly and when Mr Hammer retired and (18) . transferred) the tool section to him, he felt very proud of himself Unfortunately, after two years Mr White was transferred to a bigger branch and a new manager, Mr Black, was

appointed. He and Bill didnt (19) one another at all (neither liked the other). He began, tactlessly enough, by (20) Bill and (examining) and , saying, I dont (21). (like) the way you dress If you want to (22) . (continue) working here you must smarten up (23) (get dressed in) a tie and (24) . (remove) those rings I dont approve of young men wearing rings Some of our customers wear them, Bill (25). (remarked) Dont (26) . me (reply impudently) snapped Mr Black Soon afterwards. Bill and the manager (27) (quarrelled) again You spend too much time talking to customers, Mr Black complained. But they like a chat, said another assistant, trying to. (defend) Bill People who want silent service go to supermarkets. You (29). of this (remain outside) snarled Mr Black If business doesnt (30) . (improve) you may both be (seeking) other jobs He (32). customers (repels them) by his bad manner, muttered Bill to his friends But if profits (33). (decrease) hell

(state falsely) that its all our fault Anyway Im sick of being (35) . (given too many orders) and Im not going to (36) it (endure it). Fortunately, before rebellion (37). (started) in the tool department, Mr Black, who had (38). for (applied for) a more important post, was told that he had got it He became overnight a much happier man and tried to (39). (compensate for) his previous harshness by being very polite to everyone, even Bill. The staff werent (40) . (deceived) by his sudden affability, but it made a nice change 190 Mixed combinations used in a connected passage PEG chapter 38 Complete the passage, using suitable combinations. We (1) . early and had breakfast at 730 After breakfast my sister Alice (2) (washed the dishes) while I got out the car. We (3) (began our journey) at 830 and drove first to Mr Pitts house to (4) . (collect) his son Tom who was coming with us Tom had never met my niece Ann and I wasnt sure how the two children would (5) . But I neednt

have worried, for it (6) . (was revealed) that they had a lot of interests in common and seemed quite pleased with each other. Even my sister, who doesnt usually (7) . (like) small boys, (8) (was attracted by/liked at first meeting) him from the first. She whispered to me that he had very good manners and had obviously been well (9) . Tom also pleased her very much by (10) (indicating) various interesting buildings as we drove through the town. Ann, however, was not much impressed by this and clearly thought that Tom was just (11) . (displaying his knowledge) Suddenly Alice said, Good heavens! I forgot to (12). the iron Well have to go back or it will start a fire and (13) . (destroy by fire) the house I said, Lets try to (14). (telephone) our neighbour, Mr Smith, first and see if he can get into the house and (15). the iron But he wont be able to ^. (enter), said Alice The house is (17) Then hell have to (18) . (enter by force), I said Better to have a window broken

than let the house (19) . in flames So I (20). (telephoned) Mr Smith, who said that hed (21) the matter I (22) (waited, holding the receiver) while he went to do this, and very soon I heard his voice saying, Its all right. I (23) (entered) through a window youd left open and (24) the iron. No damage was done I thanked him warmly and we (25) . (continued) with our journey, much relieved We stopped at 1.00, (26) of (left) the car and picnicked by the side of the road Alice was just (27) . (offering to each of us) the sandwiches when a police car (28) (stopped) beside us. You mustnt park here, said the policeman. Its a clearway I explained that I was a foreigner, so he said, Well, Ill (29) . you (overlook the offence) this time, but dont do it again. You mightnt (30) (escape unpunished) it another time My sister was rather (31) . (annoyed) by this incident but I explained that these regulations were necessary and we must (32) . (endure/bear patiently) them Tom

was very impressed by the police car. He (33) (respects) all policemen and hopes to be one when he (34) . (becomes an adult) He is already (35) (anticipating with pleasure) driving round in a fast car (36). (seeking) lawbreakers Poor Tom likes fast cars and was rather (37) . (bored/disgusted) because so many cars (38) . (drew level with) us and passed us As we listened to the sound of their engines (39) . (diminishing) in the distance he said, Next time I go out with you Ill come on my bicycle. Im sure Ill be able to (40) (remain abreast of) you, you go so slowly. However we did (41) . (arrive at) Stratford in the end and went to the house of a friend, who had promised to (42) . us (give us accommodation) for the night We tried to get seats for the Memorial Theatre but they were (43) . (all sold) so we spent the evening sitting by the fire and (44) . (discussing) our day Keys to Practical Exercises 1 Articles Exercise I (note that - indicates that no article is

required.) la,- 2-,-,-;a 3 a, a 4 a,-; a; a,- 5A,-,- 6-,a,an 7 A, -, a, a,-, a 8-,-;a,- 9A,- 10 a, a; a, an II a, a;-: a, -,a 12-, an, an;- 13 a, a; a; a, a 14-, an 15 A, a; a; a, a 16 an, a;-, an,-, a, a 17 a,-; a,- 18-,a 19 a; a,- 20 a, a; a; - 21 A; a, an; a 22-,a, an, a 23-,a, an 24 a,-; a 25 a: a, a 26 a, a:- 27 an, a,-,- 28-;- 29 a, a,-,- 30 an; a, a, a: a;-I 31 a, a; an, a 32 a, a, a, a 33-,a, a 34 a, a 35 a, a 36-,a Exercise 2 (As before - indicates that no article is required, (the) indicates that the article is optional.) 1 The,-, the,- 2 the; the, the 3-,-,-, the 4-,- 5 the; the, the;- 6-,-,-; the, the,-; the 7 the, the;-,- 8-,-,the 9-; -,- 10 the, the; the II-,-; the, the; the 12 the, the, the, the, - 13-,-,- 14-, -,-,- 15-,-, the 16-,-,-, the 17-, the, the, - 18-,- 19-,-, -,-,20 the, the, the 21 the, -; -,the 22 The, -; the;-,-,- 23-; the, the, the 24-;-; the 25-, the,-, the 26-, -,-,the, the; The,-,the; the, the, the, the, -, the, the 27 -, the, the; - 28 the, the; The,

the, the, the 29 -, -, the, the, -,- 30-,-,-;-,- 31-,-, the, - 32 The, -;-,-,the 33-, (the), the, the, the 34 (the), (the); -,-,-,-, the 35-. - 36 the, the, the, the, the, the Exercise 3 (Two words separated by an oblique, e.g the/his, indicate that either is a possible answer. The first word is normally the preferred answer) 1 a, the; a, a 2 an, the, the 3 a, the,-,- 4 the, a, the,-.-(the) 5 a,-,the, a 6 a, a/the, an, the 7 a,-, an, the, the, the, the 8 a, the, the 9 a, a 10 the, the, the, the, an 11-.-(the), a 12 a, the, 13 the, a, the, the, the 14-;-,-,- 15 The, the, the; the, the 16 the, the, a,-: (the), the, the,- 17 a 18 a; the; a: a 19 a, the: a, -; The, the 20-,the; the; a, an 21 The, a, a,-,- 22 the, a, - , the, a, the, the, the, the 23 a, a, a, the, -, the; The, -, -; The, the, -; -, the,-, an 24 the, the, a 25 a, the, the 26-,the; the;-,the;-,a, - 27 a, the, the,- 28 a,-, an 29-,-, -,- 30 a, an, an, a:-, -, -, -, the 31 a; the, the, the: a, - 32 the, an, the; -, the, -: the,

the, a 33-,-; the 34-; a, the, -,a 35-, the; a 36 a, a, a, the; the, the, Exercise 4 1 his 2 your, your 3 -, their 4 the 5 his, his 6 his, - 7 an, the 8 a 9 a, my 10 the II a,-, a, his,- 12 his 13-, her 14 his 15 the 16 our 17 the, her 18 his 19 your 20 his, the 21 the 22 your 23-, his 24-.our/the 25 his 26 the/his 27 your, the, the 28 a 29 a 30 a, a 31 your, (a) 32 her, the 33 a, his 34 your 35 your 36 my Exercise 5 1 One, a, a 2 A, a: one; a; one, a; a: a 3 A, a 4 a, a, an 5 a, a/the, a/your 6 one; a; an 7 a, a 8 One, a 9 (a), a, a; a; One 10 a; One 11 a/the; a, a/the;- 12 a, a, one 13 one; one; a 14 a; a, a 15 a, one, a, a, a 16 a, a; one 17 One, a, a 18-, a; a; one, a; A, a 19 a; a 20 One; an, an 21 a, a/the, a; a, a, an 22 One, a. -, an 23 One, a,-, a, a 24 one; a; a; a; One, an; a 2 Auxiliary verbs Exercise 6 Negative answers in each case: the auxiliary verb + not. not is usually contracted and added to the verb, e.g may not/maynt cost will + not is contracted to wont, can +

not is contracted to cant. Interrogative answers, except for 1, 13 and 19, are in the following form: auxiliary verb + subject + infinitive, e.g Should they eat less? 1 Is it likely to cost/Do you think it will cost? 13 Are they likely to come/Do you think they will come? 19 Is he likely to be at home/Do you think hell be at home? Exercise 7 Negative: I dont have 2 doesnt need 3 didnt use 4 dont have 5 doesnt do 6 doesnt need 7 didnt have 8 didnt have 9 didnt need 10 doesnt do II doesnt have 12 didnt have 13 doesnt do 14 doesnt have 15 dont have 16 didnt dare 17 didnt do 18 doesnt have 19 doesnt dare 20 didnt have 21 didnt do 22 doesnt need 23 didnt have 24 didnt have 25 didnt use 26 dont do 27 didnt have 28 didnt dare Interrogative: I do they have 2 does he need 3 did he use 4 do they have 5 does she do 6 does he need 7 did he have 8 did she have 9 did her hair need 10 does he do 11 does she have 12 did she have 13 does he do 14 does he have 15 do the children have 16 did she dare 17

did you do 18 does he have 19 does he dare 20 did they have 21 did the drink 22 does my watch need 23 did he have 24 did you have 25 did she use 26 do you do 27 did he have 28 did he dare Exercise8 I wasnt 2 didnt 3 couldnt 4 had to 5 wouldnt 6 could 7 wasnt 8 wasnt 9 didnt need to 10 hoped that Tom would 11 did 12 said that Ann might 13 was 14 did 15 did. could 16 could 17 had to 18 dared 19 didnt 20 had 21 were 22 Had you to/Did you have to 23 didnt need to 24 hoped, hed 25 might 26 Did you understand . he was saying? I didnt 27 were 28 might 29 didnt 30 werent, were 31 thought, might 32 wanted . if she could 33 couldnt 34 was, would 35 could, couldnt 36 didnt, would. Exercise 9 (Affirmative answers all begin with Yes + the first of the answers given. Negative answers all begin with No + the second of the answers given.) 1 Yes, it is. No, it isnt 2 I do/dont 3 I can/cant 4 he does/doesnt 5 it is/isnt 6 I am/Im not 7 I must/neednt 8 we are/arent 9 he did/didnt 10 it

would/wouldnt II you may/maynt 12 it is/isnt 13 she will/wont 14 I do/dont 15 you should/shouldnt 16 I can/cant 17 I am/Im not 18 they could/couldnt 19 it is/isnt 20 they were/werent 21 she will/wont 22 you ought/oughtnt 23 you should/shouldnt 24 he was/wasnt 25 I have/havent 26 we must/neednt 27 he did/didnt 28 I would/wouldnt 29 it is/isnt 30 I do/dont 31 you can/cant 32 I will/wont 33 I am/Im not 34 you are/arent 35 you must/neednt 36 it was/wasnt Exercise 10 Part I The answers in this section all begin with So. I So has John. 2 is she 3 can his wife 4 ought you 5 should you. 6 will Tom 7 was the second 8 did my brother 9 must your son. 10 does that 11 is my friend 12 did I Part 2 The answers in this section all begin with Neither/Nor. 13 Neither/Nor has Tom. 14 should Tom 15 must I 16 can his sister. 17 . does Ann 18 could Andrew 19 are you 20 does that 21 . will mine 22 had the taxi-driver 23 did anyone else 24 would my

mother. Part 3 The answers in this section all begin with But. 25 But Mary wasnt. 26 she was 27 your brother neednt 28 I cant. 29 James did 30 Stanley must 31 a dog would 32 his wife wont. 33 my neighbour has 34 that beach isnt 35 you neednt. 36 I do Exercise 11 Part 1 1 Yes, we must. 2 Yes, you were 3 Yes, she does 4 Yes, she may. 5 Yes, he could. 6 (Oh), so there is! 7 Yes, he does 8 (Oh), so it is! 9 Yes, it was. 10 Yes, it might 11 Yes, they did 12 Yes, it is Part 2 All answers begin with No. 13 No, they dont 14 he didnt 15 it isnt. 16 he cant 17 it wasnt 18 it wouldnt 19 it hasnt 20 . they dont 21 they didnt 22 it hasnt 23 you dont 24 he mightnt. Part 3 25 No, Im not. 26 Yes, you did 27 (Oh) yes, they were! 28 (Oh) yes, you were! 29 No. she wouldnt 30 No, I didnt 31 No, you cant 32 No, it doesnt. 33 (Oh) yes, he did! 34 (Oh) no, they dont 35 No, they shouldnt 36 No, she didnt. Exercise 12 1 are you 2 is she 3 do

you 4 did he 5 is it 6 was she 7 has he 8 will you 9 did 1 10 does he II do you 12 does it 13 should they 14 are you 15 could they 16 do you 17 was there 18 need 1 19 was it 20 did you 21 will it 22 does she 23 did it 24 should he 25 could she 26 are you 27 would you 28 had he 29 were they 30 would you 31 does he 32 has he 33 could he 34 need 1 35 were there 36 was it Exercise 13 1cant they 2 isnt he 3 didnt he 4 havent they 5 wasnt he 6 shouldnt he 7 couldnt it 8 isnt he 9 isnt it 10 cant he 11 wont it 12 doesnt she 13 hasnt she 14 didnt they 15 doesnt she 16 doesnt he 17 didnt he 18 dont they 19 havent 1 20 hasnt he 21 isnt she 22 didnt they 23 mightnt he 24 mustnt we 25 hadnt you 26 wouldnt you 27 dont they 28 oughtnt she 29 wasnt it 30 dont they 31 wont you 32 didnt he 33 wont there 34 hadnt you 35 wouldnt you 36 couldnt you Exercise 14 1 dont you 2 do you 3 is it 4 does it 5 wasnt it 6 was there 7 didnt they 8 wasnt there 9 did they 10 does she 11 doesnt she 12 wouldnt she 13

didnt he 14 did he 15 wasnt she 16 oughtnt he 17 did they 18 do they 19 cant they 20 does he 21 is it 22 did it 23 arent they 24 hadnt we 25 wouldnt it 26 would it 27 isnt it 28 wouldnt she 29 shouldnt they 30 werent they 31 didnt she 32 does he 33 didnt there 34 is there 35 will he 36 does it Exercise 15 1- 2 to 3 to 4 to 5- 6 to 7 to 8- 9- 10 to 11 to 12 to 13 (to) 1415- 16-, to 17 to 18 to 19- 20- 21 to 22 to 23- 24 to 25- 26 to 27-.(to) 28- 29- 30 to 31 32 to 33 to 34 - 35 to 36Exercise 16 1 can/could 2 be able 3 had 4 had 5 must, neednt 6 didnt dare 7 ought/will have 8 used 9 is to be 10 could 11 shall 12 would, might 13 would 14 had 15 dont have/need 16 was to have 17 should/ought to 18 might/should 19 will have 20 used, would 21 should 22 will 23 must have 24 may 25 were 26 have 27 oughtnt 28 might Exercise 17 (As mentioned in the note, the do/did form could be used throughout except in no. 27, and of course for the future) 1 hasnt even (got) 2 has (got), has/has always got

3 dont have, have (got) 4 has (got) 5 havent you (got) 6 did you have/had you. 7 has the alphabet (got) 8 do the houses have/have the houses (got) 9 have you (got), havent (got) 10 do you ever have II hell have 12 dont usually have 13 have you (got) 14 dont always have 15 hasnt your door (got) 16 have you (got), have 17 havent (got) 18 has (got) 19 have you 20 has this desk (got), dont ever have/never have 21 do you ever have 22 do babies have 23 has/has a pentagon got 24 has, does she have 25 have, wont/dont have 26 do you have 27 have you (got), have (got) 28 have you (got), I only have/have only (got), will have 29 have you (got) 30 have you (got), have, havent (got) 31 hasnt he (got) 32 have, didnt have/hadnt 33 didnt you have 34 do red-haired people always have/have red-haired people always got 35 hasnt (got) 36 have you (got) Exercise 18 1 are having 2 did you have/had you 3 is having 4 are having 5 does he have, he usually has 6 do you have 7 do you have, have 8 do you have,

have 9 dont you have 10 were having II did you have/had you 12 are having 13 will you have 14 are having 15 had 16 did you have 17 am having 18 are having 19 was having 20 do English people always have 21 dont have/havent 22 are having 23 dont have 24 did you have/had you, had 25 did you have/had you 26 am having 27 does he have 28 did you have/had you 29 had 30 are having 31 didnt have/hadnt 32 are having 33 am having 34 is having 35 does he ever have 36 had, did you have/had you Exercise 19 lam having 2 will have 3 had 4 am having 5 have just had 6 am having 7 did you have 8 does he have 9 do you have 10 dont you have 11 do you have 12 am having 13 have it x-rayed 14 have it repaired 15 have them shortened 16 am having them typed 17 have it tuned 18 have the document photocopied 19 had them dyed 20 have it mended 21 have it set 22 have just had it re-charged 23 to have it enlarged 24 have just had them sharpened 25 have my car serviced 26 have it seen to 27 had my watch cleaned

28 is having her portrait painted 29 they had the man arrested 30 he had the car towed 31 are having a garage built 32 have my windows cleaned 33 had my eyes tested 34 is having his fortune told 35 had the oysters opened 36 had my ears pierced Exercise 20 1 is being/will be ruined 2 is to make/is making 3 were 4 being, being 5 were to be/should be extinguished 6 have you been 7 is being pulled down 8 was to put 9 isnt it 10 are to stay 11 should be asked 12 were 13 I am to go 14 is being carried 15 to be 16 were 17 were to have taken 18 is being taught 19 was, will be, were 20 to be 21 was to have been 22 should be sent 23 will there be 24 had been 25 is to open/is opening 26 were being taken 27 was to have been 28 would you be 29 is to be/is being/will be 30 was to have run 31 was still being painted 32 should be printed 33 are being/have been translated 34 were 35 was to do 36 is to be Exercise 21 (Affirmatives are not given in their contracted form but would normally be contracted

in speech.) 1 It is, It is 2 is it, It is 3 It was, there were 4 It is, There will be 5 it was 6 It is, it is 7 There are, there is 8 There is; It will be, it is, it is, there will be 9 There is, it is 10 It was, it was 11 There was; There were 12 There was; There were 13 It is, it is 14 It is; There are 15 It is; It is 16 It will be; there will 17 There is; Is it 18 There are, it is 19 It is 20 it was 21 there are: there is; It is 22 It is, it is 23 There is, there are; It is or There was, there were; It was 24 Is there; it is; there is/there will be 25 there was; there was 26 There was; It was, there was 27 There are; There is, it is, isnt it 28 It is; there is; There is, there is/will be 29 There are: It is, there is 30 It is; It is; It is 31 there is; it was, wasnt it 32 it was/would be 33 It was; it was, there was 34 Is there; there is; is it 35 There is 36 It is; There is Exercise 22 1 can, could, cant/couldnt 2 will be able to 3 wont be able to 4 cant . cant or couldnt

couldnt 5 shall/will be able to 6 will never be able to 7 couldnt, cant 8 will you be able to 9 wont be able to 10 could, couldnt 11 can, can, cant 12 cant, cant/couldnt, cant/couldnt 13 could/was able to 14 was able to 15 could/was able to, couldnt/wasnt able to 16 were able to 17 were you able to/could you 18 couldnt/wasnt able to 19 was able to 20 were able to 21 could/was able to 22 was able to 23 was able to 24 was able to 25 could/can, could 26 could, couldnt 27 could, couldnt, cant 28 could 29 couldnt/wouldnt be able to 30 couldnt/wouldnt be able to 31 could/can, cant 32 could, could 33 could/can, couldnt/cant 34 couldnt/wouldnt be able to 35 couldnt/wasnt able to, couldnt/wasnt able to 36 could Exercise 23 1 may 2 might 3 may/might 4 may/might 5 might 6 may 7 may 8 might 9 may 10 was allowed to 11 might 12 may 13 may/might 14 may/might, may/might 15 might 16 may 17 may 18 may 19 may/might 20 might 21 might 22 may/might 23 may/might 24 may 25 might 26 may/might 27 might/may 28

may/might 29 may 30 might 31 might 32 may/might 33 may 34 might 35 may/might 36 hasnt been allowed to Exercise 24 1 has to 2 must 3 has to 4 have to 5 must 6 have to 7 had to 8 has to 9 had to 10 have to 11 must 12 will have to/have to 13 must 14 has to 15 must 16 have to 1.7 have to 18 must 19 must 20 have to 21 had to 22 must 23 have to 24 must 25 has to 26 must 27 will have to 28 must 29 had to 30 have to 31 will have to 32 had to 33 have to 34 must/will have to 35 must 36 have to Exercise 25 (Add not to each of the following verbs.) 1 need 2 must 3 must 4 need 5 must 6 must 7 need 8 must 9 need 10 need l1 need 12 must 13 need 14 must 15 must 16 need 17 must 18 must 19 need 20 need 21 must 22 must 23 need 24 must 25 must 26 must 27 need 28 need 29 need 30 need 31 need 32 must 33 need 34 must 35 must 36 need Exercise 26 (didnt have to is replaceable by didnt need to.) 1 he doesnt have/hasnt (got) to 2 did you have to 3 I dont have to 4 they will have to 5 we didnt have to 6 we

didnt have to 7 you neednt come 8 I never have to 9 shant/wont have to 10 you neednt II shall we have to 12 you dont have to 13 I didnt have to 14 we dont have to 15 have you got to/must you/need you 16 do people have to 17 shall I have to 18 dont have to 19 we didnt have to 20 you neednt 21 we didnt have to 22 do we have to/must we 23 did you have to 24 I didnt have to 25 you wont have to 26 they didnt have to 27 do you have to/have you got to 28 did you have to/had you to 29 didnt have to 30 shall I have to 31 do you have to/have you got to 32 I didnt have to 33 do French children have to 34 did you have to 35 I didnt have to 36 did you have to Exercise 27 1 must have been 2 cant/couldnt have been 3 neednt have helped 4 must have left 5 cant/couldnt have escaped 6 neednt have given 7 cant/couldnt have seen 8 must have started 9 cant have been 10 neednt have bought 11 must have been 12 must have borrowed 13 must have stolen 14 neednt have done 15 neednt have said 16 cant/couldnt have

understood 17 cant/couldnt have done 18 must have been 19 cant/couldnt have walked 20 cant have been 21 must have been 22 cant/couldnt have had 23 neednt have watered 24 must have taken 25 cant/couldnt have been 26 cant/couldnt have watered 27 must have been 28 neednt have sent 29 neednt have made 30 must have been 31 must have been 32 cant/couldnt have seen 33 cant/couldnt have come 34 neednt have lent 35 neednt have spoken 36 must have fallen 3 Present and past tenses Exercise 28 1 wishes 2 passes 3 helps 4 changes 5 watches 6 worries 7 cashes 8 carries 9 washes 10 goes 11 lays 12 bounces 13 astonishes 14 does he like 15 costs 16 fishes m 17 forgets 18 catches 19 misses 20 mixes 21 freezes 22 flies 23 matches 24 realizes 25 uses 26 does he do, does, lies 27 hurries 28 pushes 29 kisses 30 boxes 31 dresses 32 relies 33 snatches 34 fries 35 rises 36 does Exercise 29 Negative: 1 dont know 2 doesnt have 3 doesnt love 4 dont wear 5 doesnt trust 6 doesnt try 7 doesnt close 8 doesnt miss

9 dont like 10 doesnt finish 11 doesnt live 12 doesnt bully 13 doesnt heat 14 doesnt have 15 doesnt carry 16 doesnt believe 17 doesnt dance 18 dont remember 19 doesnt play 20 doesnt worry 21 dont work 22 doesnt leave 23 doesnt arrange 24 doesnt agree 25 dont bark 26 dont complain 27 doesnt enjoy 28 doesnt engage 29 doesnt look 30 dont sell 31 doesnt charge 32 doesnt cut 33 dont pick 34 doesnt leave 35 doesnt relax 36 doesnt refuse Interrogative: I do you know 2 does he have 3 does he love 4 do they wear 5 does he trust 6 does he try 7 does the park close 8 does he miss 9 do the children like 10 does he finish 11 does he live 12 does he bully 13 does it heat 14 does she have 15 does she carry 16 does he believe 17 does she dance 18 do you remember 19 does she play 20 does he worry 21 do these thieves usually work 22 does he leave 23 does Ann arrange 24 does she agree 25 do their dogs bark 26 do their neighbours often complain 27 does Tom enjoy 28 does he engage 29 does Tom look 30 do

they sell 31 does he charge 32 does she cut 33 do they pick 34 does the last train leave 35 does he relax 36 does she refuse Exercise 30 1 isnt working, is swimming 2 is teaching 3 isnt Ann wearing 4 is flying 5 is Tom doing, is cleaning 6 is going, is someone bringing 7 is it raining, is raining 8 are you mending 9 arent telling, am not telling 10 is moving, is painting 11 is sweeping 12 are you reading, am reading 13 is shining, are singing 14 is knocking, am just coming, am just washing 15 is always ringing up and asking 16 are you making, is someone coming 17 is lying 18 are you using 19 are you doing, am going 20 are having, is catching 21 am doing 22 are you typing, you are making 23 is resting 24 are digging, are they doing, are looking 25 is making, are repairing 26 are doing, are cutting 27 are you waiting, am waiting, is just getting 28 are saying, is making 29 is always losing . and asking 30 are you looking is something happening 31 am bathing 32 are rushing, are

jumping out and unrolling 33 is pouring, are stopping, is trying 34 is climbing, is helping, are sliding 35 is waving, is going 36 is coming, is carrying, is/are cheering Exercise 31 1 dont build, use 2 is having 3 drinks, is drinking 4 does she do, plays, watches 5 is raining, havent 6 leaves 7 speaks, dont understand 8 is making, makes 9 wears 10 dont like 11 am wearing 12 is reading 13 am redecorating 14 is boiling 15 are you enjoying, am enjoying, want 16 do you get, go, am going 17 are you putting, am going, are you coming, do you mind 18 do you owe, I owe, do you intend 19 do you belong, do you read, do you change, I change 20 learns, doesnt seem 21 always buy/am always buying, win 22 do you like, am giving 23 promise, promise 24 do you always write 25 do you love, like, dont love 26 do you dream, dream, eat, have 27 smells, do you keep 28 are always complaining/always complain 29 are using 30 is always saying/always says, does 31 do you know, falls 32 are you writing, write,

do you want 33 are having, wonder, are talking 34 do you believe, dont believe, do you read 35 is making, do you think, doesnt matter, makes 36 is smoking, expect, are building, does, doesnt seem, dont you put Exercise 32 1 does Tom think, thinks, agree 2 does this one cost, it costs 3 do you hear, is blowing 4 do you see, am looking, dont see 5 listens, is always thinking 6 deserts, goes 7 do you understand, dont understand 8 do you have, eat, drink 9 rises, see, are picketing 10 are you walking, walk, am hurrying, am meeting, doesnt like II wish, keeps, think, wants 12 do you recognize, think, dont remember 13 wonder, waiting for 14 is waiting, want 15 dont you see, see, am not wearing, does it say, says 16 is always borrowing/always borrows, remembers 17 do you need, do you feel 18 does it save, take, doesnt matter 19 am saving, am going 20 think, are getting 21 are looking, is just taking 22 does, is always working 23 is he doing, think, is polishing 24 is coming, do you want 25 is

Peter getting on, seems 26 is Mrs Pitt looking/does Mrs Pitt look, is smoking, and (is) dropping 27 leave, arrive, spend, set, sounds, get 28 makes, finds, goes, does not forget, returns, looks 29 finds, recognizes, coils, kills 30 does the snake feel, dont know, ends 31 do you end, begins, put, prefers 32 does the word catastrophe mean, means 33 are you waiting, am waiting, doesnt open, know, want, starts/is starting 34 are you smoking, dont smoke, am smoking, want, says, removes 35 owns, dont know, uses, knows, owns 36 do you mind, ask, depends, concerns, refuse Exercise 33 1 went 2 met 3 wore 4 made 5 got 6 understood 7 shut 8 spoke 9 left 10 read 11 ate 12 saw 13 sang 14 cried, was 15 knew 16 thought I knew 17 rose 18 took 19 bought 20 dreamt 21 laid 22 felt 23 knew, wanted 24 paid 25 bit 26 smelt 27 cost 28 hurt 29 lay 30 drank 31 grew 32 rode 33 fell 34 fought, met 35 put 36 slept Exercise 34 Negative: the answer in each case is did not/didnt + infinitive, e.g I did not/didnt

see Interrogative: the answer in each case is did + subject + infinitive, e.g 1 did she see The infinitives are as follows: I see 2 hear 3 sleep 4 look 5 drink 6 set 7 think 8 catch 9 hide 10 find 11 bleed 12 choose 13 lend 14 teach 15 hurt 16 break 17 come 18 lose 19 write 20 fly 21 draw 22 lay 23 fall 24 lose 25 forbid 26 send 27 keep 28 ride 29 spend 30 sell 31 ring 32 rise 33 run 34 shake 35 forgive 36 broadcast Exercise 35 I were doing, was playing, was listening 2 was getting 3 were rushing 4 was travelling 5 was wearing 6 was redecorating 7 were working 8 was running 9 were playing, were leaning 10 was working, was shopping 11 was sailing 12 were going 13 were talking 14 was studying 15 was cooking 16 was dieting, was trying 17 were you talking, was talking 18 was climbing 19 was working 20 were bathing, were looking, were playing 21 was he living 22 was standing, was waiting 23 was practising 24 were carrying 25 were fighting, was trying, were they fighting 26 was sitting, was

reading 27 were doing, was weeding, was cutting 28 were mending 29 was/were clapping 30 was making, was saying 31 was learning 32 was repairing 33 was always trying 34 were fishing 35 were writing 36 was wandering Exercise 36 I was burning 2 was writing 3 was making 4 left 5 was just leaving 6 was watching, turned, went 7 stood 8 was playing, insisted 9 was walking 10 was having, lunched 11 wore, carried 12 did you think, liked 13 shared, was always complaining/always complained 14 realized, was travelling 15 was playing, threw 16 was just opening, blew 17 was opening, heard, put, crawled 18 was looking, found 19 saw, were you doing 20 were playing, heard, hid, took 21 was cleaning, went, killed 22 didnt allow, was blowing 23 was crossing/crossed, stepped, fell 24 was still lying, saw 25 saw, stopped 26 did you damage, ran, were driving, were going 27 was getting/got, started, fell 28 called, was already getting up 29 was mending/mended, got 30 heard, went, opened, didnt recognize,

wasnt wearing 31 were sitting, was doing, was knitting, were reading, smiled, said 32 were dancing, broke, stole 33 knew, were looking, hid, went 34 was always buying 35 told, was spending/spent, listened 36 began, banged Exercise 37 1 woke, was always getting/always got, went, bought 2 had to, usually grazed/was usually grazing 3 didnt normally chase, made, was crossing, went 4 annoyed, began 5 was carrying, was raining, threw, ran 6 stopped, began, was doing 7 awoke, was sitting, was looking, called, turned, smiled 8 did you interrupt, was having 9 was carrying, heard 10 was looking, noticed 11 were walking/walked, heard, turned, held, stopped 12 arrived, was waiting, was wearing, (was) looking/looked, saw, waved, shouted, was saying/said, was making 13 escaped, was working, was wearing 14 was travelling, began 15 didnt like, was trying 16 was making, felt, brought, was able 17 saw, was painting, did you like, was only just starting, saw 18 took, was being, were still listening,

left/were leaving 19 was, had to, was enjoying 20 were coming, stopped, said, was looking, asked 21 saw, were you using, was using, were you riding 22 was knitting 23 was, said, hoped, was enjoying 24 was watering, began, put, went 25 was just writing, remembered, had 26 found, was digging, belonged 27 saw, was hurrying, asked, was going, said, was speaking, wasnt 28 called, was still working 29 came, was smoking, had, threw, hoped 30 noticed, was rising, were you smoking, came, asked 31 was swimming, stole, had to 32 said, were working, wanted 33 said, was building, thought 34 woke, said, thought, was trying 35 did you lend, was still reading, didnt know, were still reading 36 came, woke, started, woke, came, said, said, didnt hear, was barking, went, telephoned Exercise 38 1 Have you been, Ive been 2 have you had, have 3 has the post come, has 4 have you seen, havent 5 has someone wound, has 6 havent finished 7 has just gone 8 has taken 9 has stopped 10 have you heard, havent 11 have

just washed 12 has stolen 13 have you explained, have 14 have gone 15 have you had, have had 16 has Charles passed, has 17 has the milkman left, has left 18 have lived 19 have you known, have known 20 have just made 21 has Mary watered, has 22 havent you made, havent 23 havent you mended, havent had 24 have you dived, havent 25 have you ever left, havent 26 have asked 27 has always refused 28 have you ever ridden 29 have bought 30 has he posted 31 hasnt he finished, has had 32 have often seen, have never spoken 33 have you ever eaten, havent 34 have just heard 35 have recaptured 36 havent paid Exercise 39 1 have, wound 2 havent, ate 3 has, fed 4 havent, have only repaired 5 have done, did 6 havent, havent found 7 have, made 8 havent, have been 9 havent, havent seen 10 have, went 11 have driven, drove 12 hasnt, has, went 13 have, was 14 has, spoke 15 have only spent, have 16 havent saved, have saved 17 hasnt, went 18 havent seen, saw, didnt see 19 have, paid 20 havent, flew 21 bit,

has bitten 22 planted, havent 23 has, wrote 24 havent, drank, havent drunk Exercise 40 1 have you lived/have you been living, have lived/have been living 2 lived, went 3 did you wear, insisted 4 left, cut, have worn 5 wrote 6 has written, has just finished 7 flew, did you see 8 havent seen 9 hasnt smoked 10 composed II did he arrive, arrived 12 did you lock 13 read, enjoyed 14 havent finished 15 have never drunk 16 have written 17 has stopped 18 have just cleaned 19 left, got 20 did, was 21 has just gone 22 went 23 have you had, had 24 met 25 did you see 26 began, lasted, enjoyed 27 has just begun 28 has the newspaper come 29 arrived, started 30 has been 31 wrote 32 have missed 33 broke 34 has been 35 worked, retired, went 36 have you been, spent, did you have, stopped Exercise 41 1 havent seen, told 2 bought, did you pay, paid 3 did you find, found, didnt you leave 4 have lost, have you seen, havent, did you last wear, wore, left 5 has just left, has been, has never bought 6 left, did

he go, didnt see, went 7 served, did that war begin, began, lasted 8 did you vote, voted, wasnt, was, lost 9 did you like, liked, quarrelled, dismissed, were, was 10 didnt know, knew, have you known, have known 11 hasnt had, have been 12 did you hear, did, did you think 13 didnt know, were, have you been, have been, have you been, went 14 have you tried, tried, found, started 15 have you seen, has anything happened, have escaped 16 has Mary fed, fed, did she give, gave 17 have you known, have known, did he do, came, was 18 have you seen, hasnt been bought 19 has the plumber been, stayed, did he do, turned, emptied 20 have you been, have been, did you enjoy, took, did you win, came 21 has that been, has been, have written, has been 22 have just been, have you seen, havent, havent read, read, was, did Tolstoy write, wrote, did he write 23 brought, did he do, wanted 24 have you been, have been, did he take, did, did it hurt 25 said, hasnt phoned 26 have just received, havent paid,

didnt I give, did, spent/have spent 27 have you been, have just started, did you find, answered 28 have you finished, have done 29 have cut, did it happen, slipped 30 did you get, got 31 did you meet, did, had 32 lost, has been, did he lose, was 33 has been, did you see, happened, ran 34 phoned, got 35 did not wear, have worn 36 has been, have just taken, has bought Exercise 42 Affirmative: the answer in each case is have/has + been + present participle, e.g I have been making Negative: have/has + not + been + present participle, e.g 16 havent been eating Interrogative: have/has + subject + been + present participle, e.g 6 have you been doing Present participles are as follows: 1 making 2 ringing 3 overworking 4 cutting 5 looking 6 doing, working 7 studying 8 waiting 9 raining 10 arguing 11 bathing 12 driving 13 wearing 14 saying 15 trying 16 eating 17 speaking 18 flying 19 playing 20 shopping 21 living 22 eating 23 looking 24 leaking 25 digging, helping 26 asking 27 using 28 driving

29 going 30 snowing 31 crying, peeling 32 making 33 drinking 34 smoking 35 eating 36 trying Exercise 43 I have walked 2 have been walking/have walked 3 have been walking/have walked 4 have been making 5 have you made, have made 6 has eaten 7 hasnt stopped 8 has been drinking 9 have pulled 10 have been pulling 11 have you been doing, have been picking 12 have you picked, have picked 13 have slept 14 has been sleeping/has slept 15 has been riding 16 have ridden 17 has been making 18 have been working/have worked 19 have heard 20 have been hearing/have heard 21 have been greasing 22 have been polishing 23 have been working/have worked, has never said 24 has been teaching/has taught 25 have taught, have never met 26 have you been, have been pumping/have pumped 27 have pumped 28 have been looking/have looked, havent found 29 has been coughing/has coughed 30 have you heard, have known 31 have been trying, have said 32 has been sounding 33 has been raining/has rained, has been postponed

34 has been hoping, hasnt dared 35 have been whispering, have you been helping, has he been helping 36 have you been making, have lost, have been trying, have been throwing Exercise 44 1 for 2 for 3 since 4 for 5 for 6 since 7 since 8 since 9 for 10 since 11 for 12 for 13 for 14 for 15 since 16 since 17 for 18 since 19 for 20 since 21 since 22 since 23 for 24 since 25 since 26 since 27 for 28 since 29 since 30 for 31 for 32 since 33 for 34 for 35 for 36 since 4 Future forms Exercise 45 1 are starting 2 is making 3 am taking 4 is calling 5 is playing 6 am meeting 7 are not starting 8 are you getting, am going, is driving 9 is coming 10 are you giving, am giving Hare being 12 is coming 13 are having, are going 14 are you going, am going 15 is not giving 16 am having 17 am buying 18 are being 19 am having 20 is/are meeting 21 are celebrating 22 am lending 23 are returning 24 are opening 25 are moving 26 am not taking 27 are getting 28 are you doing, am going 29 is flying 30 is starting 31

is giving, are you going 32 is being, am meeting 33 am catching, are you leaving, am not taking 34 is sending 35 am going, is taking 36 am lending Exercise 46 Affirmative: the answer in each case is am/is/are + going to + infinitive, e.g I are going to miss Negative answers: am/is/are + not + going to + infinitive, e.g 22 am not going to do Interrogative answers: is/are + subject + going to + infinitive, e.g 3 are you going to pay Exercise 47 (be going to is possible in all these sentences, but where the present continuous tense is given in the key, that is the better one to use.) 1 am playing 2 is having 3 am going to light 4 are having 5 is being, are you putting, am putting 6 are you going, am going, am not buying/am not going to buy 7 am not going to do Sam having 9 is coming, are you putting, am putting 10 is starting II am spending 12 is going to build 13 are you going to tell, am going to tell 14 is starting 15 is opening 16 is speaking 17 is closing 18 are you having, am

having 19 am collecting 20 are taking 21 am giving 22 is singing 23 is going, is he flying, is going 24 is seeing 25 is he going to wash 26 is ringing 27 is going to ask 28 are giving, are inviting 29 is playing, is playing 30 are launching, are you coming 31 are you going to do 32 am picking 33 are you going, am going, is calling 34 am competing 35 isnt coming 36 am going to read Exercise 48 Affirmative answers: 1st person will/shall + infinitive, 2nd and 3rd person will + infinitive, e.g I will/shall know Negative answers: as above with not. eg 7 will not/wont catch Interrogative answers: as above with will/shall + subject + infinitive, e.g 2 will you be Exercise 49 (shall can be replaced by will in these answers. Contractions may be used.) 1 shall recognize 2 will see/am seeing (am seeing implies a definite arrangement) 3 is playing 4 is coming 5 am going 6 shall know 7 shall owe 8 shall believe 9 am having 10 will have His being/will be 12 is coming 13 is catching 14 are you

meeting, am meeting 15 are you riding/will you ride 16 will Mrs Pitt say, wont mind 17 will it matter 18 wont forget 19 is leaving 20 shall remember 21 will break 22 will never forgive 23 will like 24 are laying 25 will see 26 will grow 27 will understand 28 will scratch 29 shall be 30 wont pass 31 is going 32 am moving 33 will soon forget 34 will wait 35 wont write 36 will be Exercise 50 (shall can be replaced by will. Contractions may be used) 1 will go 2 will telephone 3 will send 4 am going to learn 5 are you going to do 6 will call, will translate 7 are you going to buy, am not going to eat, am going to eat 8 are you going to redecorate 9 am going to change, will help 10 are you going to put 11 am going to put 12 are you going to do, am going to be 13 am going to shorten 14 wont lend 15 will cut 16 am going to attend 17 will ask 18 am going to open 19 is going to take 20 will ask 21 am going to get 22 am going to develop 23 will make 24 are going to tow 25 am going to give

up/am giving up 26 will say 27 will lend 28 are going to raffle 29 are going to clear 30 will mend 31 will give 32 am going to make 33 am going to shorten 34 am going to buy 35 are you going to do 36 am going to give Exercise 51 1 will you open 2 are you going to do 3 are you going to paint 4 will you read 5 are you going to eat 6 arent you going to climb 7 will you listen 8 will you put 9 will you have 10 are you going to make 11 arent you going to answer 12 will you come 13 are you really going to read 14 are you going to buy, will you buy 15 will you lend, are you going to fish 16 are you going to finish 17 will you give, are you going to make 18 are you going to leave 19 are you going to bath, will you help 20 will you drive 21 are you going to ride 22 are you going to eat 23 will you have 24 are you really going to call 25 are you going to paint 26 will you be ready 27 will you sit 28 will you do 29 will you be angry 30 are you going to work 31 will you call 32 are you going to

walk 33 will you sign 34 are you going to give 35 are you going to explore 36 will you cook Exercise 52 Form of affirmative answer: shall or will (11) as appropriate + be + present participle, e.g I shall/will be sitting Negative answer: 19 wont be looking. Interrogative answers: 23 will the children be doing 26 will the tide be doing Exercise 53 (shall can be replaced by will in these answers. Contractions may be used.) 1 will be walking 2 will walk 3 shall be bathing 4 will wash 5 shall be doing 6 shall be working/am working 7 will have 8 will be looking 9 shall be thinking/shall think 10 will assemble 11 will meet, shall I recognize, will be wearing 12 will leave, shall be going/am going 13 will be debating/are debating 14 will go 15 will be working 16 will post, shall be going/am going 17 will be dancing/will dance 18 will be letting off . and making/will let off and make 19 will remain 20 shall be sitting, wont be reading 21 will be going/will go 22 will be changing/will

change 23 will come 24 will bring 25 shall all be living 26 will be going/will go 27 shall not be playing 28 will be opening/will open 29 will drive 30 shall be entering 31 will hand 32 will be arriving/will arrive 33 will be leaving 34 will be using . and leaving/will use and leave 35 will bring, will catch 36 will put Exercise 54 (In these answers I/we wont can be replaced by I am not going to/we are not going to without any change in meaning. It is also grammatically possible to replace you/he/they wont by the going to form, but this would make the negative much less emphatic, shant is replaceable by wont.) 1 wont help 2 wont be meeting 3 wont cut 4 wont be cutting 5 wont be coming/isnt coming 6 wont come 7 wont lend 8 wont be speaking/isnt speaking 9 wont work 10 shant be working 11 wont have 12 shant be teaching/am not teaching 13 wont speak 14 shant be writing 15 wont feed 16 wont go 17 wont paint 18 shant be taking 19 wont borrow 20 wont wash 21 shant be using 22 wont send

23 wont play 24 wont be singing/isnt singing 25 wont play 26 wont be taking part/isnt taking part 27 wont eat 28 shant be eating 29 wont ride 30 wont be riding/isnt riding 31 wont give 32 wont be drinking 33 wont open 34 wont tell 35 wont eat 36 wont be wearing Exercise 55 1 are you going to feed 2 are you letting/are you going to let/will you be letting 3 will you light 4 are you wearing/are you going to wear/will you be wearing 5 will you wear 6 will you come 7 will you have 8 are you having/are you going to have 9 are you going to study/will you be studying 10 will you be speaking 11 will you turn 12 Any one of the four forms is possible here: Will you take implies that the matter has not yet been decided and that the speaker is offering a choice of dates. The other forms would imply that the matter has already been arranged and that the speaker is merely asking for information. 13 will you be listening/are you going to listen 14 will you help 15 will you be staying 16 will you lend

17 are you meeting/are you going to meet/will you be meeting 18 will you come 19 will you have 20 will you translate 21 will you be using/are you using/are you going to use 22 will you be going/are you going, will you get 23 will you come 24 will you be passing/are you going to pass/are you passing, shall be spending/am going to spend/am spending, will you get 25 are you going to keep 26 are you travelling/are you going to travel 27 are you going to repair 28 will you hold 29 are you going/will you be going 30 will you kindly explain 31 will you recognize 32 are you sending/are you going to send 33 will you tell 34 are you going/will you be going 35 are you going to type/will you be typing 36 will you stop Exercise 56 (will and will not may be contracted.) 1 shall/will 2 will 3 shall 4 shall 5 shall 6 shall 7 shall 8 will 9 shall 10 shall 11 shall 12 will 13 shall 14 shall 15 will 16 will 17 will 18 shall/will 19 will, will 20 shall 21 will 22 shall 23 will 24 shall 25 will,

shall/will 26 will 27 shall, will 28 will 29 shall/will 30 shall/will 31 shall 32 wont, wont 33 will 34 shall 35 will, will 36 shall/will Exercise 57 (will and shall may be contracted.) 1 returns 2 are 3 strikes 4 hears 5 shall/will have 6 comes 7 turn 8 gets 9 wont start 10 goes 11 will see 12 will be 13 shall/will lend 14 will wake 15 will he ring 16 goes 17 is 18 shall/will give, comes 19 see 20 get 21 shall/will go 22 have 23 will fall 24 goes 25 arrives 26 lifts 27 will go on 28 will become 29 wont move 30 will goon 31 learns 32 leap 33 shall/will have 34 get 35 begins 36 arrives Exercise 58 Answers will all be: have + past participle of the verb in brackets, shall can be used instead of will for the 1st person, e.g I will/shall have taken, will can be contracted to ll. Exercise 59 (Contractions may be used.) 1 have taken 2 have finished/finish 3 have had 4 have been 5 goes/has gone 6 gets/has got 7 has done 8 have done 9 will see 10 have had 11 shall/will take 12 go 13 have seen

14 goes/has gone 15 wont let 16 shall/will let 17 sees 18 wont hear 19 has passed/passes 20 has sold 21 have swept/sweep 22 will get 23 will give 24 says 25 have returned/return 26 has been 27 have signed 28 wont know 29 have subsided/subside 30 has left 31 shall/will have 32 have had 33 shall/will stay 34 have made 35 has eaten 36 will come/come Exercise 60 (should is replaceable by would in nos. 6, 14, 26, 27, 30) 1 would 2 would 3 should 4 would 5 would 6 should 7 should 8 would, would 9 should 10 would 11 should 12 would 13 would 14 should 15 should 16 would 17 should 18 would, would 19 should 20 would 21 should 22 should 23 should 24 should 25 should 26 should 27 should 28 would 29 should 30 should/would, would 31 should 32 should, should 33 would 34 should 35 should 36 should Exercise 61 1 should, should 2 would 3 should 4 should 5 would, would, would, would 6 should 7 should 8 would, would 9 should, should/would 10 should 11 would 12 would, should 13 should 14 should 15

should, would 16 should 17 should 18 would, should 19 should 20 would 21 should 22 would 23 should 24 should 25 would, would 26 would 27 should 28 would 29 should 30 should, should, would 31 should 32 should 33 should/would, would 34 would, would 35 should 36 would, would 5 Conditionals Exercise 62 1 will give 2 stand 3 eats 4 will telephone 5 will arrest 6 reads 7 will steal 8 doesnt open 9 washes 10 needs II dont go 12 makes 13 is 14 hears 15 will make 16 will bury 17 wont be 18 doesnt start 19 wont let or dont let (habit) 20 goes 21 sells 22 will you repay 23 rises 24 works 25 turns/will turn 26 burns 27 dont like 28 will have 29 see 30 will you promise 31 dont believe 32 likes 33 will make 34 shant/wont be able 35 knows 36 ring Exercise 63 1 would type 2 knew 3 would look 4 played 5 wouldnt make 6 were 7 had 8 would you visit 9 gave 10 would buy 11 cleaned 12 would you be able 13 didnt belong 14 won 15 would you do 16 knew 17 gave 18 stopped 19 wouldnt come 20 saw 21 would/should

be 22 would not be bitten 23 had 24 did 25 would grow 26 removed 27 would keep 28 lived 29 banned/were to ban 30 would offer 31 got 32 painted 33 changed 34 would you spend 35 had 36 wasnt Exercise 64 (should in the following answers may be replaced by would; contractions may be used in the affirmative and negative.) 1 should have visited 2 would have won 3 had arrived 4 had been 5 should have been 6 had not seen 7 would have fallen 8 would you have accepted 9 had had 10 had known 11 should have offered 12 would not have stung 13 had realized 14 should have stopped 15 should have reached 16 should not have lent 17 had not sneezed 18 had put 19 would not have got 20 would not have tried 21 had spoken 22 would not have been 23 had known 24 had tried 25 would not have got 26 would not have put 27 had been 28 would have come 29 would not have turned 30 had looked 31 would have been captured 32 had tried 33 should have taken 34 would have saved 35 had not called 36 would not have burnt

Exercise 65 (In the affirmative and negative shall and should can be; replaced by will and would respectively; and contractions may be used. should in sentences 1, 7, 11 however does not change.) 1 find/should find 2 shall have 3 will happen 4 had had 5 will you stay 6 would you choose 7 gets/should get 8 comes 9 will sit 10 didnt talk II shall/should I do 12 had read 13 had 14 shall go 15 would you do 16 run 17 will not be 18 comes 19 would not have 20 had worn 21 leaves 22 will fall 23 dont change 24 should not have bought 25 hung 26 would be able to/could 27 should have brought 28 would have been 29 would not have printed 30 should not buy 31 want 32 wont be 33 would jump 34 would answer 35 had made 36 had known Exercise 66 Open-ended sentences. No answers given Exercise 67 1 could I speak 2 speaking 3 could you come and do 4 couldnt 5 could come 6 could you come 7 could get, would 8 wouldnt, would, leave 9 thought you said 10 could get, couldnt make 11 having, doesnt like 12 is

always trying, cleaning, thinks/says 13 does she want/would she like you to do 14 would like/wants me to work 15 says/thinks it would be 16 worked, would know 17 are you really thinking 18 like, like 19 would get 20 would Wednesday suit 21 would, to come 22 will, let 23 will, wont 24 will, do 6 Infinitive Exercise 68 1 do 2 sing 3 to swim 4 to live 5 to go, rain 6 say, understand 7 to see 8 repeat 9 use 10 ask, use 11 to get, start 12 remember 13 to do 14 to go, wait 15 leave 16 open 17 (to) argue 18 to smoke 19 (to) move 20 play 21 to accept 22 to arrive 23 know 24 wait 25 tell 26 send 27 go, to meet 28 to have 29 leave, want, to take 30 to go, make, go 31 go, to visit 32 to know, to live 33 not to inform, (to) disobey 34 come, stay 35 take, make, drink 36 to disappoint, let, have Exercise 69 1 to be 2 wish to make 3 want, to know 4 remember, look 5 to learn, to know 6 to be 7 not to feed 8 see, to speak 9 to travel, to arrive 10 know, to use, show 11 to sign 12 open/opening,

move/moving 13 to make, believe 14 to have missed, go 15 shake/shaking 16 to try, to come 17 go, promise, not to tell 18 like to come, walk 19 to ask, to tell, to get 20 to put, (to) keep 21 to read, answer 22 show, to open 23 say, to say 24 to be 25 want, to tell, to call, to discuss 26 to give, see/be seeing, not to forget 27 open/opening, throw/throwing 28 to carry, help 29 to pick, to handle 30 rash/crashing, burst/bursting 31 to do, wait, to let 32 crow/crowing 33 tell, be, to check 34 come, go, be/have been 35 to learn 36 be, look Exercise 70 No answers given. Exercise 71 1 too young to have 2 too cold to bathe 3 so kind as to answer/kind enough to answer 4 too old to wear 5 long enough to reach 6 enough money to live on 7 too furious to speak 8 hot enough to boil 9 foolish enough to tell/so foolish as to tell 10 thin enough to slip 11 too ill to eat 12 too wide to get through 13 strong enough to dance on 14 too terrified to move 15 big enough to harm 16 strong enough to keep

17 too deep to wade 18 too lazy to get up 19 early enough to catch 20 so good as to forward/good enough to forward 21 thick enough to walk on 22 too drunk to answer 23 too cold to have 24 rash enough to set off/so rash as to set off 25 high enough to see 26 old enough to understand 27 too snobbish to talk 28 too thick to push through 29 too mean to give 30 too impatient to listen 31 too tired to walk 32 not dark enough to see 33 hot enough to fry 34 too bitter to eat 35 so kind as to turn down/kind enough to turn down 36 too selfish to put Exercise 72 1 to leave 2 only to find 3 You are to go 4 so kind as to lend/kind enough to lend 5 to mend/to be mended 6 to hear 7 for him to hear 8 It was stupid of me to be rude 9 to play with 10 for everyone to know 11 to sit 12 only to find 13 It was very brave of him to rush 14 to wear 15 He is expected to broadcast 16 to cook in 17 only to learn 18 to open it with 19 seems to have been committed 20 Is he likely to arrive 21 just about to leave

22 You are to be met 23 for them to have 24 He is said to have been 25 to continue the strike 26 kind enough to translate/so kind as to translate 27 for us to leave 28 It was stupid of you to sign 29 She is said to have 30 to swim 31 He is believed to be 32 He appears to have been killed 33 to realize 34 The earth is said to have been 35 only to discover 36 The murderer is said to be hiding Exercise 73 (should is replaceable by ought to.) 1 must have been 2 cant/couldnt have seen, must have dreamt 3 may/might have broken 4 neednt have carried 5 should have gone 6 were to have been 7 cant/couldnt have been, must have been 8 shouldnt have eaten 9 may/might not have understood 10 neednt have given 11 must have escaped 12 shouldnt have lied 13 may/might have been, cant/couldnt have been 14 must have cooked 15 neednt have brought 16 must have told 17 was to have unveiled 18 may/might have been 19 must have met 20 should have done 21 cant/couldnt have caught 22 neednt have opened 23 must

have betrayed 24 shouldnt have driven 25 could have climbed 26 would have asked 27 should have been abolished 28 shouldnt/neednt have boiled 29 was to have played 30 may/might have been 31 should have taken 32 must have had 33 may/might/could have fallen 34 must have been 35 neednt have translated 36 shouldnt have looked Exercise 74 (Id is replaceable by I should, should (obligation) is replaceable by ought to in nos. 5, 9, 13, 17 may/might in the affirmative is normally replaceable by could.) 1 was to have married 2 neednt have repeated 3 seems to have been 4 were to have set out 5 shouldnt have eaten, may/might have been (may indicates that the danger is still present; might that it is over). 6 must have worked 7 neednt have brought 8 Id like to have bathed/Id have liked to bathe/Id have liked to have bathed 9 should have written 10 wouldnt have come 11 might/should have told, would have gone, wouldnt have liked 12 may/might have been, cant/couldnt have been 13 neednt/shouldnt

have bought 14 cant/couldnt have been 15 seems to have enjoyed 16 must have been 17 should have stood 18 was to have gone 19 Id like to have photographed/Id have liked to photograph/Id have liked to have photographed 20 must have been 21 may/might have been 22 cant/couldnt have been driving 23 must have taken 24 may/might not have 25 Id like to have gone/Id have liked to go/Id have liked to have gone 26 cant/couldnt have seen 27 may have been 28 may/might have been started 29 must have had 30 may/might have read, cant/couldnt have read, must have told 31 may/might have been waiting 32 must have misheard 33 might have borrowed 34 Id like to have asked/Id have liked to ask/Id have liked to have asked 35 must have been 36 is said to have been 7 Gerund, infinitive and participles Exercise 76 1 seeing 2 having 3 to meet 4 to work 5 to see 6 waiting 7 not to touch 8 to lock, going 9 not to speak 10 behaving II to explain, to listen 12 smoking 13 to know 14 to disguise, dressing 15 to wait 16

showing, to work 17 walking, catch up 18 to understand 19 exceeding 20 playing, doing 21 to inform 22 overhearing 23 smoking, to smoke 24 going, saying 25 writing, waiting 26 to avoid being 27 giving, to speak 28 to persuade, to agree 29 cleaning, to be cleaned, to do 30 shutting, sitting 31 sneezing, sitting 32 talking, to finish 33 to give up jogging 34 stopping, forgetting to wind 35 realizing, helping 36 to make, rubbing Exercise 77 1 answering, ring 2 letting, chase, being 3 driving, being driven 4 to start looking 5 lending, to cash 6 Lying, sitting 7 to go 8 neglecting to take 9 to show, to use 10 going, to see/seeing 11 telephoning, asking, to look 12 hearing, not to enter 13 to have, writing 14 to answer, replying 15 to explain, to listen, grumbling 16 offering, to leave, (to) work 17 making, to do 18 having to get up 19 to forget, worrying 20 remaining, to help, to stay 21 to run, to have recovered 22 listening, hearing 23 to learn, reading, listening 24 to start, to wait

25 discussing, having reached 26 having, to ride 27 (to) leave, meeting, recognize 28 paying 29 to give 30 interrupting, repeating 31 cutting, to go 32 buying, selling 33 giving, to explain 34 asking, telling, to buy 35 to tell, looking 36 to be, to erupt/erupting Exercise 78 1 to ride, to do, coming, to come 2 spending, earning 3 being, to apologize 4 to eat 5 working, spending 6 looking, being 7 posting 8 to lock, go, do 9 to learn, saying 10 trying to interrupt, to wait, talking 11 doing, to move/moving 12 leaving, to go 13 to drink 14 being, to wait 15 trying to make, adding 16 going, stay 17 to look, (to) take, looking, to do 18 getting up, walking 19 listening, listening 20 to make/making, to see 21 doing 22 to put, to prevent, climbing 23 taking, to eat 24 ringing, asking, to do 25 waiting, to clear, to set 26 repeat, to make, to do 27 leaving, sending, to tow 28 borrowing, asking, to do 29 to offend, annoying 30 to be able to tell, gazing 31 getting, to walk 32 to ask, to leave

33 setting, having been 34 to go 35 to go, (to) try to save, cutting 36 earn, scrubbing, make, blackmailing Exercise 79 1 beginning to slip/begin to slip/begin slipping, to save, falling 2 falling, trying to keep 3 to lend, taking 4 to open 5 reading, to read 6 to book, to keep, to lose 7 to avoid being, being/to be, waiting 8 to get, to ask 9 making, speak/speaking 10 to win, cheating 11 firing/to fire, graze 12 strike/striking, to get 13 ringing/ring, to be coming to open 14 to go, to give 15 to put, (to) watch, change/changing 16 to see, to avoid hitting 17 to be, crackling 18 climbing, to explain, to say, to let, go 19 convincing, to get, leap 20 driving, doing, to do 21 to sit, (to) hear, howling 22 getting, climbing, to do 23 roar/roaring, to move/moving, waving 24 writing, to do, to go, see 25 walking, to cross, thinking, to chase 26 to be having, thudding 27 getting, to pay 28 to come, standing 29 to like making and flying . doing 30 to arrive, rising 31 sawing,

fall/falling 32 to see/seeing, crying/cry 33 jump/jumping, fall/falling 34 to wake, (to) hear, beating 35 beginning to roll/begin to roll/begin rolling, to do, to stop 36 laughing, slipping/slip Exercise 80 1 Knowing that he was poor, I offered 2 Having barricaded the windows, we assembled 3 Becoming tired of my complaints, she turned it off 4 Finding/having found no one at home, he left 5 Hoping to find the will, she searched 6 Having removed all traces of his crime, he left 7 Realizing that he had missed the train, he began 8 Exhausted by his work, he threw 9 Having spent all his money, he decided 10 Having escaped from prison, he looked 11 Having heard the story before, she didnt want 12 Having found the money, they began 13 Entering the room suddenly, she found 14 Turning on the light, I was 15 Having visited the museum, we decided 16 Thinking we were lost, he offered 17 Having found his revolver and loaded it, he sat 18 Realizing that she couldnt move it alone, she asked 19 Having

fed the dog, he sat 20 Addressing the congregation, he said 21 Thinking he had made a mistake somewhere, he went 22 Looking/having looked through the fashion magazines, I realize 23 The tree, uprooted by the gale, had fallen 24 People sleeping in the next room were 25 Knowing that the murderer was still at large, I was 26 Having stolen the silver, he looked 27 Soaked to the skin, we reached 28 Sitting/Seated in the front row, and using . I saw 29 sitting by the fire, you will take 30 Knowing that . , I didnt like 31 Believing that she could trust him, she gave 32 Slates, ripped off by the gale, fell 33 The lion, finding his cage door open and seeing no sign of his keeper, left 34 The government, trying to tax people according to the size of their houses, once put a tax 35 Having heard that the caves were dangerous, I didnt like 36 Wearing extremely fashionable clothes and surrounded by photographers and press men, she swept Exercise 81 I When leaving a car . you must leave the

brakes 2 As/When I was wading etc. or Wading across I was swept off my feet by 3 When a tank is being filled/When you are filling a tank 4 Running into the room, she caught her foot on a rug and fell 5 When I read the letter 6 When carrying . you should never point it 7 When planting . you must take care 8 In his first race, the horse he was riding fell 9 When paying by cheque, you must show 10 Knowing me to be . . , he was astonished to hear that II As he believed that 12 As I passed/ or As/When I was passing 13 When I am reading/When I read 14 As he left 15 I led the dog, barking furiously, out 16 After I had paid my taxes, the amount 17 As I was writing 18 The boat, tied to a post, was being tossed up and down by the sea 19 As the question had been misunderstood, the wrong answer 20 We saw the first star, shining in the sky 21 It is easy to have an accident when one is/you are driving 22 The man saw a notice pinned to the door 23 They read the words No Entry written in 24

While he was cleaning his gun it went off 25 When/As I was wondering where to go, an advertisement 26 As I rushed out of the house, a lorry 27 As I sat by the fire, it all comes back 28 We thought he would never survive after falling from 29 When a fuse is being changed, the electricity . or When you are changing a fuse you should switch 30 I saw a trailer with a boat on it being towed behind 31 As he was sitting at the foot . a stone fell 32 The road was blocked by a huge tree (which had been) uprooted 33 When he drove to work the traffic jams infuriated him 34 As I sat in the dentists chair an idea 35 I felt sure that . would kill him, weakened as he was by his last illness 36 A scorpion bit him as he got out of bed 8 Passive Exercise 82 I wine should be opened . before it is used 2 steps had been cut 3 my shoes had been cleaned and my suit brushed 4 room is used 5 nails must not be hammered 6 pigs are used 7 a light was switched on and the door opened 8 picture had been

slashed 9 theatre is being pulled down 10 wasnt the roof mended 11 All the shop windows were broken 12 system was being started because books were not being returned 13 each of us was asked 14 refreshments will be served 15 bicycles must not be left 16 books may be kept . they must be returned 17 hole had been cut 18 it is being delivered 19 he has already been told 20 bells were rung 21 nothing can be done unless we are given more 22 far more is being spent on food now than was spent 23 paintings will be exhibited 24 nothing more will be said . if the - gun is returned 25 he was told 26 My dog was stolen and brought back only when a Ј20 reward was offered. 27 he was given two weeks 28 flowers are made Exercise 83 I seals are fed 2 who was it written by? 3 compare clothes washed by us with clothes washed by any other 4 he expected to be offered 5 she was shown 6 oak was struck by lightning 7 it couldnt have been painted by T. because that kind of dress wasnt worn 8 she was

stung by a jellyfish 9 special edition for . has been written 10 herbs used to be carried by judges 11 what was it written with? It was written with 12 shot was succeeded by an uneasy silence 13 were you interested by the idea? 14 he was given details 15 dams are made by beavers 16 engines used to be started by hand, now they are started by electricity 17 this was opposed by most people 18 a lot of the work is being done by students 19 dock was to have been opened by the PM 20 They recommend that new factories should be opened 21 a lot of men will be made redundant by the closure 22 instructions could be understood by anyone 23 children . will not be admitted 24 ship is to be manned by boys 25 camp was flooded by a rainstorm 26 He was kept awake all night by the howling 27 They suggested that the tests should be made 28 All this damage couldnt have been done by children Exercise 84 I why dont you get an oculist to test your eyes? 2 the authorities are to introduce this . limit 3

they are lengthening the runways 4 nurses are wakening patients 5 people say that B. lived 6 British fishermen must offer any sturgeon that they catch to the Queen 7 someone has altered this notice 8 squatters have been using their houseboat 9 they were towing the . ship 10 get a builder to put in a lift 11 The firm made a profit . but a loss of which they made cancelled this 12 guests will wear evening dress 13 the authorities put the ship . and forbade passengers and crew 14 we shall have to find someone 15 They made him surrender his passport 16 our opponents must have started 17 the New Arts Gallery is to exhibit my paintings 18 experts have proved that this scientific theory is false 19 they are to salvage the car which the wind blew 20 police are guarding the house where they found the dead man to prevent anyone from entering it and interfering with the evidence 21 why didnt you either lock the car or put it 22 people are saying that the government is spending too

little money 23 you could put your money to good use instead of leaving it idle 24 people believed that the earth was flat 25 no one has read this copy: no one has cut the pages 26 the police led away the student who threw the stones 27 people say that early Egyptian and Greek sailors used carrier pigeons 28 a strong police guard was escorting the referee 9 Indirect speech Exercise 85 (In many of these examples other pronouns would be equally correct.) 1 told her I had . to show her 2 said nothing grew in her garden it never got 3 told his mother he was going away the next day 4 said he had been . he hadnt had 5 remarked that it wasnt so foggy that day as it had been the day before 6 said that the underpass was being opened two days later 7 said they had moved into their flat but they didnt like it . their last one 8 said they had it didnt work 9 said that . windows of his flat he could see 10 said shed no idea what the time was but shed dial 11 his wife had just been

made 12 said shed come with me . she was 13 said he had that afternoon he hadnt done his homework 14 warned her if she let . she would scorch her clothes 15 pointed out I hadnt given him . bill was Id paid him 16 Englishmen made . they were 17 she liked men she didnt like them . She preferred men looked silly 18 The report stated that the new Rolls Royce ran . all you could hear was The Managing Director replied that theyd have 19 said she didnt know . her plums. She supposed (said she supposed) shed have to trouble was no one in her family ate 20 explained they liked working . they got 21 that he was . and he did all his own 22 told Joan she could keep that one if she liked as he had 23 said he was going fishing with his mother that afternoon and they were just going 24 told her she had got my umbrella and that hers was in her bedroom 25 explained to his client that he knew what they had said because he had bugged 26 said hed sit up till she came

in but he hoped she wouldnt 27 told me that if I gave him . hed for me 28 said she had it didnt seem . to her weight 29 said it was and that he used one of them himself 30 said her new house was supposed to be . but that so far she hadnt seen 31 said that if we answered all the questions . we might win 32 said that if he pressed his ear . he could hear were saying Exercise 86 (See note above key to Exercise 80. Where there is no introductory verb, use . said (that) )) 1 he hadnt been able to get . he had lost his key, so he had had to break 2 the mirror was there . he could see himself when he was dancing 3 told him she had written to him two days before and wondered why he hadnt 4 if the ground was dry . his horse might win 5 advised me to slow down as there was 6 said that if Tom wanted . hed better apply 7 they had walked the previous night protest about their rent. The Minister had been had promised what he could for them 8 said they

should put traffic lights there, otherwise thered be 9 told them it was time they began training for their . 10 said to me that if I left I should be there 11 if it rained that afternoon it would be . the following day 12 told her guest she had meant . she had plugged . She was always doing 13 he had been intending the next day didnt think hed be 14 told Mrs Smith that Bill should do . he had done very well at the school 15 told her husband she didnt think his father liked her 16 told her the steak was . and said/added that he was not complaining but was just pointing . she said she wished hed stop 17 reported that the burglars hadnt been able . had carried it 18 told me that if I saw her father Id recognize him . He was 19 he had found . the day before was going . that afternoon 20 he had got out while he was standing . the gears (had) engaged and the boat had gone/went 21 says he has done 22 asked if he would like me to go with him. He said

hed rather go or, I offered to go with him, but he said 23 told me I might take his car if I liked and said he wouldnt be needing it the next day or the day after that 24 that the previous day Tom and she had gone/been to look . he was thinking It was rather and had a lovely garden but Tom had decided . was opposite 25 his wife wanted to take . hed rather she concentrated on their home 26 she didnt know what my father would say when he saw . my puppies had made of the Ј5 note 27 it was high time I passed my test; she was tired 28 said I wished she had seen it Exercise 87 1 asked what had happened 2 asked which . (had) inherited 3 asked who was going 4 asked what would happen 5 asked which team had won 6 asked which team (had) won 7 asked who was playing the following week 8 asked who would be umpiring 9 asked who wanted 10 asked who had just dropped 11 asked where the . office was 12 asked what she should do with her . 13 asked what platform the train left

14 asked when it arrived 15 asked when the timetable had been changed 16 asked why the 2.30 had been 17 asked how much a day return cost 18 asked why the price went up 19 asked how he could get 20 asked when they were coming 21 asked if a return . was 22 asked if puppies travelled 23 asked if she could bring her dog . with her 24 asked if the train stopped 25 asked if you could telephone 26 asked if the 2.40 had 27 asked if you could get 28 asked if they brought 29 asked if there were 30 asked if he had Exercise 88 I asked what country I came from 2 asked how long Id been here 3 asked if I was working 4 asked if I had 5 asked what I was going to study 6 asked if I had enrolled 7 asked if I wanted to buy 8 asked if I had seen 9 asked if I played 10 asked if I would have 11 asked if I had played for my . 12 asked if I was interested 13 asked if I would like 14 asked what I thought Each of the following will begin: she asked/wanted to now/enquired 15 how long it had been 16 if I

liked 17 if he was 18 how many . there were 19 how big the classes were 20 if the classes were 21 what the academic standard was like 22 if parents could visit 23 if there was 24 if they taught 25 what . could the children learn 26 if there was 27 if they acted 28 what . plays they had done 29 what games they played 30 if the fields were 31 if they were taught 32 if the children could get 33 if the food was good 34 if there was 35 how often it met 36 if our boys had been/were happy Exercise 89 (if is interchangeable with whether except in conditional sentences.) 1 asked why he was looking 2 asked who had put . in his coffee 3 asked which of them knew 4 asked why he had travelled 5 inquired how she could run in high-heeled shoes 6 asked them what their new house was like 7 asked where he was supposed to go 8 asked him whose car he had borrowed the previous night 9 asked me what she was/had been wearing when I saw her last 10 asked who owned the revolver 11 asked Mr J. where

he had been the previous night 12 asked the boy what else he had seen 13 asked whether he had done that sort 14 asked her if she could read 15 inquired whether they had understood what I had said to them 16 asked the customer if he was being attended to 17 asked him if he would go . the others did 18 asked Mary if she saw what he saw 19 inquired who had left 20 asked him if he had gone . and if he wanted 21 asked why his house was and whether his father had been 22 asked if he was leaving that day or the following morning 23 asked how far it was and how long it would take 24 asked if he could speak to Mrs Pitt. The au pair girl answered that she was afraid she was out and asked if she could take 25 asked the little boy if he was sorry for what he had done 26 asked her if she was going to 27 asked the woman if she would mind if he looked inside her bag 28 asked the student if he would know what to do if someone fell at his feet 29 asked her why she thought it might be 30 asked

him if he knew. shoes he was wearing werent Exercise 90 (The following are possible answers. Other introductory verbs are often possible.) 1 He told her to switch off the TV 2 She told Tom to shut 3 I asked Mary to lend me her pen 4 I warned them not to watch 5 He warned me not to believe everything I heard 6 asked me to fill up the 7 I told them not to hurry 8 warned Mary not to touch the switch 9 ordered the bank clerk to open 10 begged me to do as he said II told Peter to help his mother 12 told the children not to make 13 told us to do whatever we liked 14 warned them not to miss their train 15 advised his client to read it before he signed it 16 begged her to sing it again 17 warned us not to put our hands 18 advised him to buy 19 begged him not to drive 20 told the boys not to lean their bicycles against his windows 21 asked her to come with him 22 advised her to cook it 23 warned the lady not to touch 24 told the boys not to argue with him 25 told him to pull as hard as he

could 26 ordered the porter to send 27 advised us not to lend 28 told us to make a list of what we wanted 29 told her to look 30 warned the people on the platform to stand clear 31 asked the children to see if they could 32 warned her not to go 33 asked the customer to pay 34 the notice told us to leave the space clear 35 I reminded them to write to their 36 warned her to think well before she answered Exercise 91 (See note above key to Exercise 90.) 1 told me to get out of his 2 ordered me to climb 3 asked the customer to pay 4 asked her to open her 5 told Mrs P. not to worry but (to) leave it all to him 6 warned him not to use 7 told the taxi-driver to follow the car 8 recommended me to wash 9 urged me to have confidence in him 10 told the lift-man to take him 11 advised the passengers to read 12 told her always to cook. and never to use 13 told him not to argue with his 14 reminded me to prune 15 told her to wait for him 16 advised her not to eat . and to avoid 17 advised me

not to say 18 the notice told/asked people not to ask 19 told her not to forget 20 advised/told me to cross 21 asked him to write to her as often as he could 22 told him to put his 23 asked the porter to find him 24 told me not to forget my 25 told the children not to go 26 told his men to search 27 told her not to make 28 told/warned him to put the gun down as it was loaded Exercise 92 (See note above key to Exercise 90.) 1 advised us to make . our time as we wouldnt get 2 urged the public not to wait till the following day but to post . that day 3 warned them to be . and reminded me to drive 4 said he couldnt open it and told/asked Peter to have 5 told me to go and get him . and to come 6 said someone was coming and told/urged me to get 7 warned us to give way to . the/our right 8 begged us to send whatever we could spare 9 advised him to wear a wig if he didnt want to be recognized 10 warned/told them not to bathe when the red flag was flying 11 told him not to

forget/reminded him to thank . when he was saying 12 told me to watch . and not to let it 13 told/advised/warned me not to shelter . as the tree might 14 told me to put the message and throw 15 told me to read it for myself if I didnt believe what he said 16 reminded me to use my 17 told her husband not to drive . or the baby would 18 begged her to make . stronger and said that it had been the previous night 19 warned us to beware 20 told me to smell it and asked if I thought it had gone bad 21 told him not to take his coat off as they were going 22 told her to stand by the window and tell him if anyone went 23 told his pupil not to move till . waved him on 24 told me not to touch it as I would only make 25 warned him to be careful as the steps were 26 told/asked the girl to ask her boss . and said that my number was She asked me to repeat it 27 . told him to tell them not to work as if they finished they wouldnt get 28 The placard warned us to prepare to

meet our doom as the end of the world was at hand 29 The instructor reminded me to put 30 Keiko asked him to take off his Exercise 93 1 he invited me to have lunch with him 2 offered me/her/him a 3 asked if theyd mind not smoking/asked them not to smoke 4 told her to take the . and to shut the door as she went 5 asked me to help her as she couldnt 6 said it was a . and advised me to ask 7 advised me to try to/and get 8 offered to wait for me/said shed wait if I liked 9 reminded me to switch off when Id finished 10 asked/told me to check the figures for him 11 advised me to apologize 12 asked him to check 13 told me to sit/said he wished Id sit . asked how I expected him to paint me when I kept jerking my head 14 advised him to go by train as it was 15 The notice asked guests not to play 16 asked me to wait 17 strongly advised me to see 18 advised them to plant 19 asked me to sign 20 asked me to forward . while he was 21 The police asked anyone who has seen the . to get in

touch with their nearest 22 warned me not to leave my . as our hosts dogs might mistake me 23 told me to answer the letter and reminded me to keep 24 asked me to move my car as it was blocking his 25 Mrs Jones asked them to let her know when their . came in 26 The coach told the first team to report 27 Tom asked Ann to sew on the button for him. Mary advised him to sew it on himself as buttons usually came off 28 The girl asked me to sit down and said . /said that if I sat down the fortune teller would be with me Exercise 94 1 asked if he could get 2 said she couldnt open . Tom offered to do it for her 3 asked the official to translate it 4 wondered if they would ever meet 5 asked if I would be there the next day. I said that I would 6 asked if she could lose . the doctor said (that) she couldnt 7 offered me a drink 8 urged us to install 9 asked me to read it 10 asked (me) if she should tell him what had happened 11 asked if I wouldnt like to look 12 said she was going .

Tom said he was too and offered her a lift/asked if shed like a lift 13 asked for a sweet/asked if he could have a sweet 14 asked if they could stay 15 asked for the weekend/asked if he could have 16 asked if he could leave 17 asked (him) why he didnt like 18 advised him to take up 19 asked where he should hang his . and if it would look 20 asked what I should/was to do if the car wouldnt start 21 asked if I had enough . and offered to lend me some 22 asked if he would be able to guide me or if I should bring 23 reminded him to shut 24 asked (her) if she would like to see 25 asked me to peel 26 said that hed got two tickets and invited me to come/go with him 27 asked if I could use . I said (that) I couldnt 28 asked if Id mind living by myself 29 asked me to pay/asked if Id mind paying 30 asked why she didnt trust him. She said (that) she never trusted Exercise 95 (See note above key to Exercise 90.) 1 told me to remember to get . when I was or reminded me to get, etc or

said that when I was at . I was to get 2 told/advised me to sit down and put my head between my knees if I felt or said that if I felt faint I was to put/should put 3 asked what he was to do/should do with my purse if he found it. I told/asked him to keep it till he saw me 4 told me/asked me to give him a drink if he arrived before she got back or said that if he arrived before she got back I was to give 5 told me if anyone rang up to say or said that if anyone rang up I was to say shed be 6 told me when I was driving always to look in my mirror or said that when I was driving I should always look 7 told me to leave the key under the mat if I went out or said that if I went out I was to leave 8 told me to shut the window if I thought the room was cold or said that if I thought the room was cold I was to hut/should shut 9 told me to ring him up if I felt lonely any time or said that if I felt lonely I was to ring 10 said that if she didnt eat meat I was to offer her an omelette {the

tell construction would be very clumsy here) 11 told me to get the car off the road if I had a puncture and not to leave or said that if I had a puncture I was to get/should get . and not leave 12 told me to take the letter to the police if he wasnt back by that time the next day or said that if he wasnt back by . I was to take 13 told her husband not to forget/reminded him to thank Mrs Pitt when he saw her 14 told me to take the meat out of the oven when the bell rang or said that when the bell rang I was to take/should take 15 told them to give their . if they were taken . but to refuse to answer or said that if they were taken . they were to give but (to) refuse 16 told them to shut and go when they heard or said that when they heard . they were to shut and go 17 told me to press . if the lift should stop/stopped or said that if the lift should stop/stopped .I was to press/should press 18 told me to ask a client if he had a weak heart before I allowed him

or said that before I allowed anyone .I was to ask/should ask 19 asked what she should/was to say if the police stopped her 20 asked what she should do if he refused to let her in. I told her to write 21 asked/wondered what would happen if the strike continued 22 . how they would get food if it went on 23 asked if they could go . the rain stopped 24 said that when theyd they were to 25 advised her to switch . if she didnt like 26 asked whether/if the bank would repay if I lost 27 told me I had/d better complain . if the noise got 28 said I was to ring him and give him . as soon as I found Exercise 96 Part 1 (Alternative constructions are often possible.) 1-14 Ann suggested having a party on the following Saturday. Mary agreed and asked who they should invite. Ann was against making a list and suggested they should just invite everybody. Mary said they didnt want to do much cooking and proposed making it a wine and cheese party. Ann then suggested that they should

ask everyone to bring a bottle. Mary reminded her that they hadnt many glasses left and suggested hiring glasses from their local wineshop. Ann suggested having the party in the garden if it was warm and then Mary put forward the idea of a barbecue. Ann thought this was a good idea and said they could ask Paul to do the cooking. Mary remembered that last time they had had a barbecue the neighbours had complained about the noise, and she wondered if they should ask everyone to speak in whispers. Ann suggested going round to the neighbours instead and apologizing in advance. Mary, however, proposed inviting the neighbours, adding that then the noise wouldnt matter. Ann thought that was a clever idea and suggested ringing everyone up that night, but Mary prudently suggested working out how much it would cost first. Part 2 15 Mrs Smith suggested . but her husband suggested renting , adding that it was all they could afford. 16 I suggested that Ann should complain, saying that the boss

was more likely to listen to her 17 She reminded him that he used to be . and suggested that he should 18 He proposed walking . as it was not far and I agreed 19 Ann suggested (our) joining a weaving class, adding that there was one 20 The children suggested organizing . the teacher proposed 21 I asked Bill where we should meet and he suggested the hotel 22 I suggested to Ann that she should ring him and ask him what he thought 23 I pointed out I was doing . and suggested that he should give me/him giving me 24 He proposed leaving/that they should leave adding that he hated 25 Their father suggested that the children should go 26 I suggested his/him asking them what they would like to do 27 He suggested that we should begin training . I said I had and suggested that he should ask Paul 28 They suggested me/my putting an advertisement in the local paper. Exercise 97 (The following are possible answers only.) 1 warned us not to walk on the ice as it wasnt 2 introduced

Miss White to Miss Brown 3 gave/handed her the keys, advising/and advised her to wait 4 begged me not to tell . I promised not to/promised (that) I wouldnt 5 offered him my torch but he refused as/explaining that he had one of his own 6 Tom offered to pay. Ann protested but he insisted. 7 invited us to come in and look round, assuring us that there was no 8 threatened to kill the boy if they didnt pay 9 refused to answer any questions 10 complained that he expected . agreed (with her) II wished it would 12 pointed out that I had pressed . He warned me not to do I might have 13 exclaimed that her weight had gone up . she admitted/agreed that it had 14 hoped Id have a good journey/wished me a good journey and reminded me to send a card when I arrived 15 exclaimed with delight that he had passed . I congratulated him and wished him luck 16 She agreed to wait 17 wished him many happy returns of his . and he thanked us 18 pointed out/remarked that my door was .I agreed (with

her)/l admitted it 19 He offered me a cigarette and I accepted 20 Their mother threatened to sell . if they kept . The children begged her not to do that, promising not to quarrel/assuring her that they wouldnt quarrel 21 offered me Ј500 to keep my 22 He promised to wait for me 23 I apologized for being late and explained that the bus had broken 24 accused him of leaking . He denied it. Tom called him a liar 25 threatened to drop us from the team if we did not train 26 complained that if the boys did . he called them his sons, but that if they did . he called them hers 27 Tom suggested having a rest and Ann agreed. 30 He exclaimed with disgust that there was a slug in his and called Exercise 98 (Other alternatives are possible here.) 1 Tom: Would you like to come for a drive, tomorrow, Ann? 2 Ann: Id love to. Where are you thinking of going, Tom? 3 Tom: Well, Ill leave it to you. 4 Ann: What about Stratford? 5 I havent been there for ages. 6 Tom: Good idea!/AII right.

We might go on the river if its a fine day 7 Ann: I wonder whats on at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre. 8 Tom: Well find out when we get there. 9 Its usually possible to get seats on the day of the play. 10 Can you be ready by ten? 11 Ann: Im afraid not, Tom/Im very sorry, Tom, but I cant. I have to type a report first. 12 Tom: Working on Saturday! What a horrible idea! 13 Id change my job if I were you. 14 Ann: Dont be ridiculous, Tom! 15 I volunteered to type the report in return for a free afternoon next week. 16 I didnt know you were going to ask me out, after all. 17 Tom: Oh well, I suppose its all right. 18 But dont make a habit of volunteering for weekend work, will you? 19 Ann: No, I promise I wont. 20 Tom: (gloomily) I suppose youll be busy all morning. 21 Ann: No, no! Ill be finished by 11.00 22 Shall I meet you at the bus stop at Hyde Park Corner? 23 Tom: That isnt a very good meeting place. Ill call for you 24 Ann: Thats very good of you, Tom. Ill be waiting in the hall 25

Tom: Lets climb to the top. The view from there is marvellous 26 Ann: But weve been climbing for three hours already. Im too tired to go any further. 27 Why dont you go on up? Ill go down and wait there. 28 Tom: All right. Here are the car keys Youd better wait in the car/You could wait in the car, couldnt you? 29 Ill be as quick as I can. 30 Ann: There11 be no lunch left if youre too long. Ill have eaten it all! 10 Purpose Exercise 99 (so as is interchangeable with in order.) 1 to paint 2 to remind 3 to feed 4 so as not to frighten 5 to put his savings in 6 to drink out of 7 to save 8 so as not to strain 9 in order to get 10 to tell 11 so as not to get 12 to frighten 13 so as not to make 14 to protect 15 to put on the fire 16 so as not to disturb 1.7 to study 18 in order to discuss 19 so as to be able 20 to elude 21 to prevent 22 to reduce 23 (in order) to read 24 to watch 25 in order to have 26 in order to keep 27 (in order) to learn 28 to buy 29 to warn 30 to avoid 31 to protect

32 so as to be able 33 to warn 34 to avoid 35 (in order) to look 36 so as not to alarm Exercise 100 (I/we would is replaceable by I/we should. would/wouldnt in negative purpose clauses is usually replaceable by should/shouldnt. Where an infinitive phrase is possible the infinitive given in the key is not necessarily the only one that could be used. To save space not more than two possible answers are given for any one example. Sometimes the in case construction would also be possible, in case can be followed by should + infinitive, though an ordinary present or past tense is more usual.) 1 so that nobody should/would know or to prevent anyone knowing 2 in case somebody knocks 3 so that repair work may/can continue or to allow repair work to continue 4 so that it wouldnt get broken or to prevent it getting broken 5 so that he wouldnt be recognized or to avoid being recognized 6 so that her fruit wouldnt be stolen or to prevent her fruit being stolen 7 so that I wouldnt overhear or to

prevent my overhearing 8 in case you get bitten 9 so that the crew may/can escape or to enable the crew to escape 10 so that my children may/will have 11 so that the cows wont get or to prevent the cows getting 12 so that the call wouldnt be or to prevent the call being 13 so that the birds wont eat or to prevent the birds eating 14 in case there is 15 so that nobody will/can climb or to prevent anyone climbing 16 in case you have 17 so that the snow would/could slide 18 so that everyone may/will understand or to enable everyone to understand 19 so that anyone who finds him will/may know 20 so that the birds would know or to let the birds know 21 in case we are 22 so that the birds wont build or to prevent the birds building 23 in case he forgets 24 so that she wouldnt frighten or to prevent her frightening 25 in case the chimney catches 26 so that I couldnt/wouldnt be able to call or to prevent me calling 27 in case it is 28 so that young children wont be able to turn or to prevent

young children turning 29 in case he breaks 30 so that the government may/can discuss or to let the government discuss 31 in case it is 32 so that pedestrians might/could cross or to let pedestrians cross 33 so that his secretary could/would be able to 34 in case they set 35 so that the rest of the party would know or to let the rest of the party know 36 so that the meat wont burn or to prevent the meat burning or in case the meat burns 11 some, any etc. and relatives Exercise 101 I some 2 some, any 3 any, some 4 any 5 some, any 6 some, any 7 any, some 8 Some, some 9 any 10 any, any 11 Any 12 some/any 13 any, any 14 Some, some 15 any 16 some 17 any/some 18 any 19 any 20 Any 21 some 22 some, some 23 some 24 any 25 any, some/any 26 Any 27 any 28 some 29 some 30 some 31 any 32 some 33 any 34 some, some 35 any 36 some/any, some Exercise 102 (In some of the answers the relative pronoun is enclosed in brackets; this means that it can be omitted. The answers given are not necessarily the

only possible answers to the questions. Notice carefully the presence or absence of commas.) I (a) The 8.10 is the train (which/that) Mr Black usually catches, (b) The 8.40 is the train (which/that) he caught today, (c) Mr White is a man who usually travels up with Mr Black, (d) Mr Brown is the man whose paper Mr White borrowed, (e) Mr Black usually catches the 8.10, which is a fast train, (f) Today he missed the 8.10, which annoyed him very much (g) He caught the 8.40, which doesnt get in till 940 2 (a) The brown umbrella was the one (which/that) Mr Penn left at home today or the one (which/that) he didnt take today, (b) The black umbrella was the one (which/that) he took or the one (which/that) he left on the bus. (c) The blue umbrella was the one (which/that) Mr Penn took by mistake, (d) Mr Count was the man whose umbrella Mr Penn took. 3 (a) Malta is the place Tom and Jack wanted to go to/went to or Malta is the place to which Tom and Jack wanted to go. (b) The Blue Skies Agency is

the agency Tom went to or the agency to which Tom went. (c) The Blue Seas Agency is the agency Jack went to or the agency to which Jack went. (d) the MS Banana is the ship Jack travelled on/in or the ship on/in which Jack travelled, (e) Julia is the girl (who(m)/that) Jack met on board. (0 Tom liked flying, so he went to the Blue Skies Agency, who booked or Tom, who liked flying, went etc. (g) Jack, who hated flying, went to the Blue Seas Agency, who booked 4 (a) George and Paul were (the) two men who were working on Mr Joness roof. (b) Bill was a/the burglar who saw them going away or who stole the jewellery etc. (c) Tom was a student who lodged with Mr Jones, (d) Mrs Jones was the lady whose jewellery was stolen, (e) Mr and Mrs Smith were the people the Joneses were playing cards with or the people with whom the Joneses were playing cards. (f) the ladder Bill climbed up or up which he climbed, (g) the window he climbed through or through which he climbed, (h) the screwdriver he

used or the screwdriver he opened the drawer with or with which he opened etc. (i) George and Paul, who were working on the roof, left the ladder (j) Mr and Mrs Jones, who were out playing cards, knew nothing (k) Bill, whose fingerprints were on the screwdriver, was later caught 5 (a) The Greens are the people Ann works for or for whom Ann works. (b) The 12.10 was the train (which/that) Ann caught or the train (that/which) Ann came up on. (c) The 1230 was the train (which/that) Tom met (d) Peter was a boy (who(m)/that) Ann met on the train. (e) Paul was the boy (who(m)/that) Mary had come to meet or the boy (who(m)/that) Mary was waiting for. (f) The Intrepid Fox is the bar where Tom usually goes for lunch or the bar Tom usually goes to for lunch or the bar where Tom usually has his lunch, (g) Mrs Green, who thought Ann looked tired, gave her (h) Peter, who hated eating by himself, hoped (i) Tom, who had only an hour for lunch, couldnt wait (j) Mary, whose boyfriend didnt turn up,

ended by (k) Tom and Ann wasted half an hour at the station, which meant (1) Tom and Ann very nearly missed one another, which shows Exercise 103 (Relatives in brackets may be omitted.) 1 for the present (which/that) you sent. 2 She was dancing with a student who had or The student with whom she was dancing 3 Im looking after some children who are or The children Im looking after are 4 The bed I sleep on has 5 Romeo and Juliet were two lovers whose parents 6 There wasnt any directory in the box (which/that) I was phoning from. 7 This is Mrs Jones, whose son 8 The chair (which/that) I was sitting on collapsed or The chair on which I was sitting collapsed. 9 Mr Smith, whom I had come especially to see, was too busy 10 The man (who(m)/that) I had come to see was II I missed the train (which/that) I usually catch and had to travel on the next, which was 12 His girlfriend, whom he trusted absolutely, turned out 13 The car (which/that) we were in had bad brakes and the man who was driving

didnt know 14 This is the story of a man whose wife suddenly loses 15 the frontier, which will be 16 a small girl whose hand had been cut 17 into a queue of people, four of whom 18 refugees, many of whom 19 The man who(m)/that) I was waiting for didnt or the man for whom I was 20 in patched jeans, which surprised the guests, most of whom were 21 The firm (which/that) I work for is sending 22 The Smiths, whose house had been destroyed, were given 23 I saw several houses, most of which were 24 at 2 a.m, which didnt suit me 25 a group of boys whose plane 26 The string (that/which) they tie the parcels up with 27 his students, most of whom were 28 for 12 eggs, four of which were 29 The people (who(m)/that) he was speaking to didnt know or The people to whom he was speaking 30 The boy (who(m)/that) Peter shared a flat with was or Peter shared a flat with a boy who 31 four very bad tyres, one of which burst 32 the wonderful view (which/that) she had been told about 33 by a man

(who(m)/that) I met on a train. 34 The bar (which/that) I was telephoning from was or the bar from which I was telephoning was 35 The man who answered the phone said 36 The horse (which/that) I was on kept stopping to eat grass, which annoyed Exercise 104 1 Tom, who had been driving all day, was tired 2 Ann, who had been sleeping, felt 3 Paul, whose tyres were new, wanted 4 Jack, whose tyres were old, wanted 5 Mary, who didnt know about mountains, thought 6 to his manager, who passed 7 were thieves, which turned out 8 the Chief of Police, who ordered 9 dry bread, most of which was 10 a prisoner, whose handcuffs rattled II a fire, which soon dried 12 across the Atlantic, which had never 13 a bus-load of children, six of whom were 14 refuses to use machines, which makes 15 I met Mary, who asked 16 prayed aloud all night, which kept 17 and in deep water the next, which makes it unsafe 18 Mary, whose children couldnt swim, said 19 Ann, whose children could swim well, said 20 cleaning ten

windows, most of which 21 Jack, whose injuries were very slight, is being allowed to play, which is a good thing 22 Tom, whose leg is still in bandages, will have to 23 didnt get a seat, which put him in a temper and caused him to be rude to his junior partner, who in turn 24 Tom, who had a hangover, felt 25 His boss, who didnt drink, saw 26 The report, which should have been on his desk by 2.00, still hadnt arrived 27 Tom, whose headache was now much worse, put down the receiver without answering, which 28 Ann, who liked Tom, came 29 the report, which should have taken an hour and a half, took 30 to Munich, which 31 The headwaiter, whose name was Tom, said . recognition, which disappointed Mr Jones, who liked 32 with Lucy, whom he was particularly anxious to Exercise 105 I what, which 2 which 3 what, what 4 which 5 which 6 what, which 7 which 8 what 9 which 10 which 11 which 12 which 13 what 14 what 15 which 16 which, what 17 which 18 what 19 what 20 which 21 which 22 what 23

which 24 which 25 which 26 which 27 what 28 which 29 what, which 30 which, which 31 which 32 which 33 what, which 34 which 35 what 36 what Exercise 106 I whatever 2 wherever 3 whatever 4 wherever 5 whichever 6 whoever 7 whenever 8 however 9 whoever 10 whichever 11 whoever 12 however 13 whatever 14 however 15 whenever 16 whoever 17 whoever 18 however 19 whatever 20 whenever 21 whoever 22 whichever, whoever 23 whatever, whichever 24 whoever Exercise 107 Part I 1 a river to swim in 2 someone to play with 3 a family to cook for 4 accounts for you to check 5 anything to open it with 6 letters to write 7 anyone to go with 8 a garden for him to play in 9 anything to sit on 10 a brush to sweep it with I la box to keep them in 12 anyone to send cards to Part 2 13 the first man to leave 14 the last person to see 15 the only one to realize 16 the only man to survive 17 the first to come and the last to go 18 the largest ship to be built 19 the last person to leave 20 the only person to see 21 the

second man to be killed 22 the first man to walk on 23 the first woman to take 24 the fifth man to be interviewed 12 Prepositions Exercise 108 I to; at; in; to 2 to; at, in 3 to, at; at; at 4 to; at, in 5 in; to 6 at, in 7 in; at 8 in, at; at 9 to; at 10 to, at; to II at, to, to 12 to, to, in 13 At, in, to 14 at, at; to, in 15 In, at 16 At, to, in 17 At, at 18 to, at, at; at, in 19 at, to, in, at, at 20 in 21 at, to; in; to, to 22 in; at 23 in, at, in 24 in, at 25 at; to, in 26 in, at 27 to, in 28 to, at, to; to 29 in, at 30 in, at 31 in, at 32 at, to, in 33 in, to 34 To, in; to 35 at, to, to 36 in; in; at Exercise 109 I on, with; with; by; in 2 in, on/into 3 to; on; On, by, in, on 4 at, out, to, of 5 at; on, off 6 to, in; on 7 to, in, on 8 on; with, of 9 of, into, in/with 10 at, on II out of, on 12 in, at, on; in 13 with, to, of 14 to; to, of, at, to/on; to, on 15 at/from, off/out 16 with, in; out of 17 into/out of, of, off; in, on 18 on; on, into 19 with, of, in 20 in; in; into,

on 21 at, with, in; on 22 By, of; with, on 23 on, to, in/on; to, of 24 with, under, of 25 on, to, of 26 of, to 27 in, of; in; in, at/by, of, at, in 28 into, in, by, of 29 in/at; of, at, on; with, in 30 by, on 31 off; on, in 32 into, into, with 33 by, by, on, of 34 of, at, of 35 of, in, to 36 off; on; to Exercise 110 I in, for 2 at, since 3 At, of, for 4 in, for; During, in 5 for, on, in; from; for/on 6 under, with: in, during/in 7 by, of, in, in 8 by, for, in, of 9 from, since; on; of, to 10 for, during II with; for; for; in 12 for; of, for 13 under, with, for 14 in, for, in, till/until, of 15 for, on/for 16 In, of, off 17 in, by, from 18 on, to, by 19 for/to, from; in 20 at, during, for 21 by; on, for 22 by, in, on, in, in, over 23 of; in, for 24 in, for, of 25 of, from, to or to, from; for, to, by, for 26 at/by; for 27 from, at, with, for 28 for, till; with, for 29 on/into, off/out of, at, at 30 from, with/at; in, in, in, of 31 of; in, with 32 for, in 33 with, into/to, with 34 from,

with, for; under/of, till 35 of, on; from 36 on; for Exercise 111 Ion 2 in, from 3 in, in 4 of; In, of, in 5 on; on, in/at; at, at, at/on 6 to, with; on with; on 7 in; on with; of 8 in, by 9 of, at 10 to, for, of II At, to 12 about, to 13 in/by, in, up 14 for; for, for, over 15 for/about, on; about 16 of, for, from 17 for; in 18 in, with, for 19 on; for 20 with, into, with 21 for, in, on 22 In, to, to 23 by/with, out, in, of 24 of, after, in; with 25 at, away/off 26 to, of, to, away/off 27 to; on 28 In, with, of, from 29 to; under 30 on, to 31 of, to 32 about, off, at/by 33 to, of 34 for, with 35 of, of, of 36 under, for, for Exercise 112 I-, for 2-.for 3-,to 4-, for 5-, of 6 for; In, for, for 7 to,- 8 in/at, ; of, for 9 for/to, in 10-; for II to, for 12-, of/in 13 for, for; of,-, for 14 for;15 on;- 16 to/past,-, of 17-, at/in;-, on 18-;-,-; to, for 19 for, for, in/at; for,- 20 to, in 21 to,-,- 22-, in;-.with 23-, for, at/by/on 24 to, to, in 25-; to 26-,-; with, of 27-, in, in 28 to;-,

of 29-, of 30 on,-, for, for/- 31 -, in, for 32 -, till, in/- 33 -, -, to: -, -, with 34 -; to, in/with 35 -, -, in 36 to, -, in Exercise 113 Part 1 (till is always replaceable by until.) I to 2 till 3 to/till 4 till 5 till 6 till 7 to/till 8 to 9 to/till; till 10 to, till 11 to; till 12 to; till Part 2 I since; for 2 since 3 since 4 since 5 for 6 Since 7 for 8 since; for 9 since; for 10 for 11 for 12 Since Part 3 I then/afterwards; after 2 after 3 After; Afterwards 4 then/afterwards 5 then, then 6 then 7 after 8 then 9 after/afterwards 10 then II then 12 then; Then 13 afterwards 14 afterwards 15 then 16 then 13 Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives Exercise 114 (should used for obligation is replaceable by ought to. may/might in the affirmative is replaceable by could.) 1 must have worked/been working 2 neednt have translated 3 may/might have forgotten, should have telephoned 4 may/might have got lost, should have given, may/might have had, wouldnt/couldnt have delayed 5 may/might

have stopped and got, may/might have run 6 shouldnt have fed 7 must have been 8 should have gone 9 couldnt have been attacked, must have seen . and thought 10 must have waited/been waiting (could/may/might could replace must.) 11 may/might have fallen . and been eaten or been kidnapped or caught . and died 12 were to have started 13 neednt have walked, could have come 14 must have been stolen, may/might have driven 15 couldnt have got, must have drunk 16 shouldnt have been riding 17 may/might have taken, may/might have been 18 might/should have told, could have got 19 would have won 20 neednt have written 21 were to have built 22 wouldnt/shouldnt have noticed, would/might have spread 23 should/might/could have waited 24 may/might have come, couldnt/cant have come, may/might have come 25 neednt have done 26 should have been 27 neednt have cooked 28 would/should have brought, wouldnt/shouldnt have come 29 shouldnt have thrown, might/could have killed 30 could have painted,

could have painted 31 may/might have dropped, may/might have been 32 could have been started, could have been 33 must have carried, couldnt have done, would have been, must have waited 34 neednt have done 35 couldnt/cant have been, must have been walking 36 Couldnt it have been, must have been Exercise 115 (See notes to Exercise 114 above.) 1 wouldnt/shouldnt have had 2 should have asked 3 should have been 4 may/might have gone; would have told 5 may/might have kept; wouldnt have kept 6 may/might have gone; may/might have been; would have rung; couldnt have rung 7 must have had; would have been 8 couldnt have bought 9 should have waited 10 couldnt have carried; must have helped II couldnt have been; must have been 12 must have crashed; would have reported 13 may/might have blown up; may/might have planted, may/might have had 14 may/might have tried; may/might have been 15 may/might have gone, may/might have been; couldnt have been 16 may/might have collapsed; would have taken over

17 shouldnt have done, should have said 18 must have been 19 neednt have done; should have told; shouldnt/wouldnt have wasted 20 could have passed; should/could have worked 21 couldnt possibly have opened; couldnt have got 22 must have let; must have followed . slipped 23 neednt have bought 24 must have drugged . dumped; might/would have been run; may/might have been 25 must have bribed; may/might have followed; couldnt have done; would/should have seen 26 neednt have stamped 27 couldnt have done; must have given 28 must have been 29 could have taken; may/might have been; may/might have hopped in . snatched 30 should have told; would/could have lent 31 neednt have taken; could have walked 32 must have been watching/must have watched 33 neednt have rung/shouldnt have rung; could have dialled/should have dialled 34 must have had 35 could have had/might have had; couldnt have had 36 could have married; must have loved; must have been Exercise 116 (may/might in the affirmative is

replaceable by could. In 1, 7, 10, 20, 23 should is replaceable by ought to.) 1 should have been 2 may/might have written, couldnt have written 3 must have fallen 4 may/might have liked 5 must have been 6 neednt have sent 7 might/should have left 8 may/might have been 9 cant/couldnt have been, may/might have been 10 shouldnt have gone 11 may/might have been 12 were to have been 13 should/would have been 14 neednt have carried 15 may/might have been 16 cant/couldnt have been, must have been 17 must have been 18 was to have been 19 would have reached 20 could/should have crossed 21 should have brought 22 may/might have been 23 must have been 24 cant/couldnt have been, must have been 25 may/might not have heard 26 could have put you up 27 would have fallen 28 should have checked 29 neednt have apologized 30 may/might not have realized 31 might/should have thanked 32 was to have gone 33 should have warned 34 would have known 35 neednt have bought 36 must have been 14 Present, past and

perfect tenses Exercise 117 (Negatives are given in their contracted form, affirmatives are not given in their contracted form, but in speech present continuous tenses are normally contracted in the affirmative.) 1 are you going; am going, do you want 2 do you smoke; I dont smoke, smokes, I do; spends 3 sees; are you waiting; am waiting 4 you usually go; belongs, wants; is using 5 go; takes, passes; is working, am queueing 6 Are you coming, are you waiting; think, wait, are, looks 7 are waiting; is dialling; Do you know; phones 8 does he come; comes; speaks 9 wonder, is speaking; comes, suppose, is speaking 10 are having; are opening; writes; get; have you (got) II says, is coming, wants 12 Do you have/Have you got; dont think; dont see; does a traffic warden do 13 walks, stays, parks, sticks 14 is putting; sees; hates 15 want; are just closing; we always close, doesnt want 16 is listening, is reading, is doing, is writing 17 reads; knits, isnt knitting 18 goes, doesnt go; likes;

prefers 19 are watching; are enjoying, dont understand 20 happens; Does the teacher give; gives, shows, discusses 21 gets; sits, stands, walks, runs 22 is that man standing; is trying, is waiting; doesnt he use/isnt he using; dont bother; prefer 23 are wearing; Do you like; suits, doesnt fit 24 speak, come 25 is taking, is coming 26 talk; prefer; are talking; arent talking 27 are having; am meeting; Do you go 28 go, am going; takes, costs 29 Are you doing; am packing, am catching; are you staying 30 Are you going; I am staying; are coming; Do you invite; invite 31 am just going; is pouring; dont you wait; stops 32 gets, washes, shaves, gets, dont hear; hear, makes 33 gets; makes, wakes; sings, bangs, drops, plays 34 dont you ask; mention, doesnt do; says, doesnt make, think, believes 35 Do you see; keeps; Do you think, is asking; expect, is making; do you make; stop, ask, write 36 starts, stays; moves; takes, does, wishes Exercise 118 1 writes, know, is doing: Does your son write;

hear; seems 2 cost; Do you think; depends 3 am seeing; am changing; are always changing; dont you leave 4 look/are looking, are you thinking, am thinking; are only just starting; know, am reading, says, starts 5 is always knocking on my door and asking; does she do; puts; dont mind, annoys, knows, needs, takes 6 does she do, runs out; borrows, takes, wants, finds 7 does she owe; dont know, dont keep; is leaving, is getting; am trying 8 dont you offer; sounds; doesnt realize, owes 9 says, owe, seem, owes, remember 10 dont think, is enjoying; keeps, is enjoying; enjoys; know, wants, is expecting/expects II are you staying; am leaving; am going 12 are you coming, are you going; depends; agrees; expect 13 is seeing; dont you come 14 Do you see; is watching; do you know, is watching; comes, goes, makes 15 are all these people doing, are they wearing; they are making; are working 16 sounds; Do you think; dont know, see, finish, are still taking on 17 Is Ann acting; doesnt act; imagine,

knows 18 lives, come, see; doesnt bother, climbs, knocks 19 are moving; are you leaving; suits; know, does, is/are pulling down; are widening; say 20 ask, likes, says, dont know, thinks, suits, is merely being 21 want; tells, says, thinks 22 Does your sisters frankness annoy; does; doesnt want; wants 23 hear; am not living; are still working, is taking 24 think, take, expects; are they doing; are putting; seem, smoke, slows 25 are always hammering; keeps, begins, hear: shakes 26 is stirring, is standing: says, are boiling; dont think, matters, cook, dont know, isnt getting; thickens 27 is being painted, isnt looking; Do they stop; are having 28 does the word Establishment mean; doesnt give; means, have 29 say, belongs, imply, accepts; isnt trying/doesnt try 30 Do all rich men belong; do, are always jeering/always jeer; is used 31 is being pulled; are using; go, get 32 smell; do; think, is coming; is probably ironing; irons, watches, gets, forgets, is pressing; is thinking 33 are you

looking; am looking; am always looking, puts; put; dont you try 34 are travelling; is reading, is doing, is looking out; stops, falls 35 spends; amuses; is watching, sees 36 does; checks; doesnt need; happens, makes; makes Exercise 119 1 decided 2 chose 3 looked, were getting, was mixing, was washing 4 were, asked, was doing 5 replied, was going, went, knew, were looking 6 began, found, were 7 were waiting/waited, remembered, had 8 started, was telephoning, did, came 9 grumbled, was always telephoning 10 retorted, was always complaining 11 worked 12 started/were starting, rang 13 was, wanted, was playing 14 stayed, went 15 left 16 returned, came, wasted 17 said 18 thought 19 was just climbing, rang 20 said, was getting, went, opened 21 was, was coming, arriving Exercise 120 1 was walking, realized, was following 2 walked, turned, stopped 3 appeared, stopped 4 went 5 stopped, stopped, looked, was 6 looked, was wearing/wore, wondered 7 decided 8 was standing 9 came, rang, moved

off/was moving off, jumped 10 missed, got, was following/followed 11 crawled 12 pulled, looked, was getting/got 13 changed, got 14 left, bought 15 was standing, came 16 was carrying, got, sat, read 17 looked, was getting/got 18 was becoming/became, went, sat, asked, was following 19 said, wasnt following, threatened, admitted 20 told, was, was trying 21 told, advised, didnt want, was being followed Exercise 121 1 was sitting, saw; seemed 2 was snowing, woke; remembered, was coming, decided, lost 3 reached, realized, did not know; was wondering, tapped 4 was running/ran, struck 5 looked; was going; was drawing 6 were listening, were whispering, was reading; hated, read 7 was reading, burst, rushed 8 went, didnt find; said, didnt know, was doing, thought, was probably playing 9 stopped/used to stop; closed, gave 10 promised, saw, was telling 11 picked, dialled; found; were planning 12 met; were; was studying, wasnt, spent 13 was just starting, opened, leapt 14 were you doing, said; was

cleaning 15 looked, said, was leaving the district and (was) going; said, was, was going, told, was getting/got on 16 were building, was 17 were reading, were just turning over: was knitting, was playing; opened, said 18 was; were they doing; heard, were looking; Did they find; discovered 19 told, made; was just pulling 20 was just sticking, came; tried, refused 21 took; Was she actually working 22 said, was coming, wondered 23 was wondering, came, bought 24 was always borrowing, asked, said, hadnt, knew, wanted 25 went, had, was being; turned, saw 26 bumped, asked, said, was having 27 attacked, was putting; thrust, tore; contained; patched 28 did you break; fell, was putting, was, was, was going 29 didnt go; cancelled, spent 30 was just rising, shouted; looked 31 was raining, played/were playing; was trying, didnt get/wasnt getting on, kept 32 were you doing, rang; was making; did you do, heard, went; opened, was 33 rang, found, said, was making 34 Was, rang; answered, was

talking, saw; went 35 didnt get, were having/had; rang up, said, were making; pointed out, was, had; said, were always having 36 were you doing/did you do, got; was working/worked; did you stay, stayed; left, were always going; became/was becoming Exercise 122 Part 1 1 I havent played for ten years. 2 I havent sung since I came 3 I havent milked one since 4 I havent put one up since 5 I havent made one for 6 I havent read any since 7 I havent bathed a baby for 8 I havent repaired one since 9 I havent skiied since 10 I havent read one for II I havent made one since 12 I havent sewn any on since 13 I havent driven (one) for 14 I havent taken a temperature for 15 I havent ridden one since 16 I havent rowed since 171 havent painted/done any painting for 18 I havent typed for Part 2 19 I havent had a puncture for 20 He hasnt earned any money for 21 He hasnt shaved since 22 I havent drunk champagne since 23 I havent been in Rome for 24 I havent seen Tom since 25 I havent eaten raw fish since

26 Mary hasnt spoken French for years 27 I havent had a good nights sleep for 28 He hasnt paid taxes since 29 I havent eaten meat for 30 The windows havent been cleaned for 31 I havent taken any photographs for years. 32 I havent watched TV since 33 He hasnt written to me for 34 I havent been paid for 35 I havent been abroad since 36 That house hasnt been lived in for Exercise 123 1 have played/have been playing; Have you played, came; have played; joined, arrived 2 Have you played; have played; have had, have won, didnt really deserve 3 played, was, left, dropped, took 4 havent seen; have you been; Ive been; meant, hadnt/didnt have; Did you have/Had you, were; was; have only just got; enjoyed; skiied, danced 5 skiied, was, broke, havent done 6 came, was; has been built, has become 7 hasnt started; has he been, has been, spent 8 have just heard; didnt you know; flew; Have you heard; got; told; didnt say, liked; has only been 9 didnt know, were; exploded, burnt 10 has been; used, rode,

have had 11 made; has he been; we have only had; resigned, was 12 has left; left; Has anybody been appointed; have applied/applied, has been decided 13 Did you have/Have you had; was, have ever had, took; thought, was, searched, announced, was; took off 14 did you spend; took, fed, walked, bought, didnt need; passed 15 Have you booked; wrote, havent answered 16 didnt know you were; have been; arrived 17 met, said; made, found, needed, seemed 18 Did you know, arrived; didnt know 19 have you learnt/been learning; have been learning 20 began, did; dropped, forgot; spent, studied, have been studying/have studied 21 rang, said; spent, couldnt/wasnt able to, rang; havent seen, said; went, havent come; went 22 have just had; did it go; did you enjoy; didnt actually hit, made 23 sold, bought, left; arrived; wasnt, said; hasnt been taken 24 saw; thought, worked, said; worked, explained, went, told; gave: have worked 25 Have you been; went; were; Did you go; went; hired 26 have you been,

came; have been 27 have seen; did you go; went; took 28 Did you see, were; saw; walked, asked, had, said, has just returned 29 Have you been; have been: havent been 30 Have ; you seen; went, saw; Did you like; loved, didnt understand 31 has just died; knew; worked; didnt see, left, kept 32 thought, was, turned; shouted; said, didnt know, were 33 Hasnt Tom come; came; went; didnt hear 34 has just given; have just touched, didnt feel 35 came; went; looked; coughed, spun: exclaimed, didnt see 36 you have just agreed; didnt realize, wanted Exercise 124 1 bought, havent sold 2 was, began; ran, made 3 caught, didnt get in, arrived 4 looked up, came: have been, growled 5 rang, said; said, havent had; didnt you tell 6 met, said, didnt see; Did you miss: didnt miss, replied; havent missed; gave 7 went; worked, went 8 has been; did she go; went 9 bought, asked; told, have waited/been waiting, hasnt come 10 met, offered; said; have just had 11 arrived, landed, climbed out; recognized; exclaimed;

didnt know, knew; have only just learnt, said; went 12 tried, heard, called out; have you been; has been 13 Have you been; went; Did you like; didnt see; was 14 have just bought; Have you read: havent read; havent even seen 15 Have you been; was; did you get; took 16 Have you seen; rang, got; has been; flew, decided; Have you heard; got, arrived 17 have you been; have been; did you do/were you doing; worked/was working 18 did you work; worked; Did you like; didnt like; did you stay 19 was, stayed, played; did you play; played; lost 20 did you begin; began, was; went; stayed, went 21 was, started; did you get; havent got; have only been 22 left; rang; answered; said; has just gone, said 23 Have you been; was; Did you go; hitch-hiked 24 havent seen; has been ill; collapsed, was taken; sent, hasnt come 25 was; Did you see; took, was, said, needed; havent been able, havent watched 26 Have you ever been; spent; went, met, wanted, didnt get 27 said; said; hasnt come; rang, were; said;

got; didnt come 28 dictated, told; rang; Have you finished, asked; said, have done, havent started 29 Have you found out; rang, answered, didnt seem; said; has been 30 said, Has Jack moved; said, didnt see; wasnt 31 have you been; have been; bought/have bought; found, got 32 have played, came; has been, inherited; Did you ever play; played, died, arrived 33 Have you seen; left; put 34 Have you met; met; did you talk; talked 35 did, bought, has made; have always done, have always found 36 had; have had, got; told, were; has been, have changed Exercise 125 I have been telephoning; Havent you nearly finished; havent got; have been trying, has been 2 has failed; has been practising, has got 3 have often wondered; have just found out 4 has been playing; has only just stopped 5 havent you brought; Havent you typed 6 Have you been sunbathing; has been raining/ has rained 7 have been building; have been watching/have watched 8 havent found, has been; has been helping 9 have pulled down, havent

touched 10 have searched/have been searching, havent seen 11 have been waiting, have waited 12 has been; has been looking, hasnt found 13 have been doing, havent finished; have done 14 have just picked; have grown/have been growing, have never had 15 have you been doing; have been using 16 has just sold; have been painting, havent sold 17 has this happened; have had, have thrown 18 have you done: has just gone; has finished 19 has worked/has been working, has never once been; have/has just presented 20 have been mending/have mended, have only done, has broken down 21 has collected/has been collecting; has collected 22 have been looking, have completely forgotten; has happened 23 has been getting/has got, has been rising/has risen; has come 24 has eaten, has lost count, has attended; Has he put on 25 have been ringing up; has gone; has been working; has found out 26 has been using; havent been 27 have been standing; hasnt moved; has just shut . and gone off 28 has/have been

considering; have just given, have decided 29 have been playing, havent played 30 have been, havent got 31 has been standing; has already gone 32 has happened; have been waiting/have waited; has often kept, has never been 33 has been living/has lived, has never said 34 have just remembered, havent paid; hasnt rung; have been; have paid; has lost 35 have been shopping/have shopped; has been losing/has lost, have made, have been told, have known 36 have you been doing; have been looking; have been building Exercise 126 1 gave, thanked, said, had enjoyed, knew, hadnt read, were 2 had seen, returned, didnt have/hadnt 3 didnt have, had already done, was 4 didnt have, did, left 5 had, was; decided 6 picked, went, slammed 7 felt, had reminded 8 had searched and found, remembered, was 9 had left 10 remembered, were 11 arrived; had been told, was, was 12 asked, said, hadnt been 13 wanted, had come 14 told 15 admitted, never bought/had never bought, assured, sold, wasnt 16 returned, saw, had

broken in, was, was 17 were, had only just left 18 Probably they (had) heard/They (had) probably heard, had run/ran 19 had helped, was, poured 20 wondered, had found, hoped 21 had been given, had died 22 hadnt had, hadnt liked 23 seemed, had taken 24 put, took, had forgotten/forgot, had put 25 came, said, had just swallowed 26 thought, left, was, arrived, learnt, had just left 27 found, had been using/had used 28 parked, rushed; came, was 29 wondered, had stolen, had driven 30 was, was, had been working/had worked 31 was, had had 32 brought, hadnt come 33 kept, had seen 34 looked, went, saw 35 got up, was, wondered, had stayed, had gone away and come back 36 opened, saw 37 had clearly been listening, wondered, had heard 38 asked, had been doing/was doing, said, had dropped, had been looking for/was looking for 39 didnt see, found, had probably dropped, opened 40 had been taking 41 were, turned, asked 42 pulled, ran off 43 (had) recovered, had disappeared 44 moved, found, had been

standing 45 had been telling/was telling Exercise 127 1 Where did they go? 2 How long does it take to get there? 3 What did you think of it? 4 How much does he earn? 5 How I much was Tom fined? 6 How big is your room? or What size is your room? 7 When did they leave?/How long ago did they leave? 8 How did they come? 9 How long have you been here? 10 Where did the students go? 11 How many miles to the gallon does the car do/What does it do to the gallon? 12 Where did he meet her? 13 What did the neighbours complain about? 14 What did the clerk make him do? 15 Who ate the apples? 16 How did he get in? 17 Who bought the tickets? 18 What were the roads like? 19 How many cigarettes do you smoke a day? 20 What was the hotel like? 21 How far away is the market? 22 How long have you had that cough? 23 What did Guy Fawkes try to do? 24 Who would you like to speak to? 25 Whose is this? 26 How did he stop the train? 27 How long have you been waiting? 28 Where did Mary put it? 29 Why did you

throw it away? 30 How many hotels are there in the town? 31 Where did they leave the lawnmower? 32 How did you find her address? 33 What did Ann give you for lunch? 34 How deep is the lake? 35 Whose car did you borrow? 36 What did he do with it? Exercise 128 1 What did he tell you? 2 What is the bridge built of? 3 Where are you all going to? or What are you all going to do? 4 How did he break his leg? 5 How or Why did Tom lose his job? 6 Which did you buy? 7 What is the new theatre like? or What does it look like? 8 How many would you like? 9 When did the concert begin? 10 Who did she go to the dance with? 11 Why did he buy a car? 12 When is he coming? 13 Which (one) is longer? 14 Who taught you to play poker? 15 What has she broken? 16 What are you looking for? 17 Whose typewriter has he borrowed? 18 What was she asking him for? 19 Who is he ringing up? 20 What does the word boss mean? 21 How did he escape? 22 Who were you talking about? 23 Whose idea did they like best? 24 Who did he

complain to? 25 How big was it? 26 What do the students intend to do? 27 Where do you come from? 28 How much does the best kind cost? 29 Why did he give it away? 30 What is his sister like? 31 Whats this knife for? 32 What do you have to do in the mornings? 33 Which one do you like best? 34 How often does he come to London? 35 Who told you about it? 36 What is he like? Exercise 129 Part 1 1 have just heard, would/should like 2 Do you think, could or would be able to 3 had, remember, said, was or had been, (had) got 4 can/could, can/could, suits/would suit 5 has, will/would bring 6 isnt, do not hesitate 7 are, will take him if I ask/would take him if I asked 8 has been/was, seemed Part 2 9 am/was, am, are going 10 will be II will look 12 enjoyed, missed, left/had left, looked 13 will be 14 Will you/Would you/Could you bring, doesnt suit 15 Dont bother, have 16 youll have, bring, youll have/youll have had Part 3 17 Do you by any chance know 18 should/would like, have just heard,

would exactly suit, doesnt apply, wont get 19 saw, was just leaving/had just left 20 said, was going, promised, (had) found 21 have heard, dont even know, went 22 know, should/would be, would phone 23 have tried, doesnt seem Part 4 24 am, advertised, are coming/shall be coming, (shall) require 25 Would you please/Could you please tell me 26 should/would like 27 Would I be able/Could 1 28 hopes/is hoping, dont drive, wont be/wouldnt be, need/shall need/should need 29 Do the local shops still deliver; know, did 30 should/would be, would tell, calls 31 ask/are asking, sounds; would you like/do you like 32 have been, lived, want 33 is also writing, would like, painted 34 has known, lived, am, would/will recommend 35 should/would of course be or am of course willing 36 should/would be, enclose Exercise 130 Part 1 1 wrote, asking or to ask or and asked 2 replied, enclosing, filled up, returned 3 have heard, am beginning/begin, has gone 4 Would/Could you please check, have received 5 have

received/did receive/received, havent decided, should/would be, would tell 6 has already been, should/would like, dont get, shall/will have to, do, shall/will have or have Part 2 7 have suffered/have been suffering, leave/are leaving 8 stand, laughing, calling 9 get, bang/banging, reverse 10 sounds, finds, has had, is still learning, dont know, (do) know, takes, roaring, shouting 11 have gone, have all been, find 12 should/would be, would ask, could Part 3 13 Are you/Would you be 14 is coming, is bringing or is coming and bringing, or will be coming and bringing 15 havent met, think, would/will like 16 will be able 17 receives, doesnt get, has asked 18 will probably ring, would be 19 know, dont usually eat, hope, wont be; can 20 passes, remember/will probably remember, will give Exercise 131 Part 1 (Affirmative auxiliary verbs would usually be contracted in speech.) 1 Could 2 does 3 does, came, was, did, is, will/would do 4 do you want 5 should/would like 6 Would Thursday at 4.00

suit 7 wouldnt; is coming 8 would be able to/could do 9 would/will be 10 will/shall expect Part 2 II Could 12 Speaking 13 have you been; have been trying; Dont you leave 14 do, went, have only just got in; is; didnt know, were 15 arrived; would have rung, have been; has only just ended; Are you doing 16 am going 17 is; am 18 am; had told, would have kept 19 didnt know, dashed, told 20 did 21 does, was driving, had, was taken; am doing; are you really going; cant/couldnt you 22 cant/couldnt; suppose, will/would be 23 will stay; will get over; would you like 24 Id love; are you, will be, should/would hate 25 will be: will ring, am staying: stayed, didnt seem 26 did you stay; will tell 15 Future forms Exercise 132 1 are you going; well probably go 2 are having; is leaving/leaves 3 shall/will see; will probably look 4 am seeing; will refuse 5 shall/will know; will tell 6 will be; shall/will miss; will walk, will probably catch 7 shall/will probably come; will give, am coming 8 will get;

are staying, will have to; will move 9 will he say; wont mind; will just buy 10 wont know; will leave 11 will never get; will meet, will I fall 12 am going; Are you coming; shall/will probably have 13 Are you walking; will get; will bring 14 am having, are starting; will make 15 Are you taking; am taking; will pass; will/shall take 16 are you meeting; are meeting; is taking 17 are you doing; will go; will probably stay 18 is Jack arriving; is he getting; will come 19 are they doing; are going; is happening; are taking; will enjoy 20 will wake, wont get 21 are spending; shall/will manage; will turn: will be able 22 is catching, will be 23 is George coming; are moving, shall/will have to 24 am ringing; Shall I ask; shall/will be; will write 25 are having, are lunching, is standing; are giving 26 will let, shall/will find 27 are getting; Are you going; Are they having 28 Shall I wait, will take 29 will you have; will have; will have; are having, am having; will have 30 will give; am

collecting 31 is getting; will happen; will ring, will sleep, will come 32 am being; is leaving, am taking; will soon be, will spend, will lose or will spend . and lose 33 am flying; are you taking; will spend 34 are going; are having . and going; will come; is coming; will ask 35 is coming; Shall we go: will get, shall/will be able; wont pay 36 are opening, are having; will look; will come; are you having; are missing; are going Exercise 133 1 are you going; am going; are you going to do; am going to fish 2 are you going; am not going; am staying/going to stay; am going to write 3 is going to rain 4 are you staying; am going; are you going to do; am going to try Sam going to dye; Are you going to do, are you going to have it done; am going to have 6 am going to read 7 are you doing; are coming, am going to show/am showing; are you taking; am going to take/am taking 8 are starting; are going; Are you going to climb; is going to climb; am going to sit . and do 9 are going; Are

you going to sail; are taking/are going to take; are going to try 10 Arent you going to ask; am leaving; are you going to do; Are you going to have; am starting II Are you going to use; am going to live; am going to start; are you going to do/are you doing, am selling/am going to sell; is getting 12 is going, is having; is going to look; is coming 13 am going to send; am seeing 14 is arriving; Is he spending; is he catching; is spending; is giving . and attending 15 Is he bringing; is going to do, is giving 16 am starting; are you going to do; am going to study 17 Are you going; am going to get; am going; am going to ask; is joining/is going to join, they are all going to pick 18 am going to buy; is going to be 19 are you going to do; Are you going to sell; am going to learn; am having 20 am moving in; Are you going to have; am going to paint 21 Are you having; am going to do/am doing; am going to use; are going to help; am hiring/am going to hire 22 am going to do; am going to plant

. and make; Are you going to give/are you giving 23 am getting; are starting, is coming 24 are meeting; Are they just going to repeat; are they going to climb; are going to offer Exercise 134 1 am going to have 2 are going to assemble; will come 3 am going to shampoo 4 am going to make; will burn 5 am going to paint 6 am going to make 7 will look 8 will see 9 will wait 10 are going to camp . and cook II am going to put 12 Are you going to wear; am going to sit . and watch: am not going to get 13 will take 14 will have 15 will start; will get, will bake 16 is going to bake; will soon get 17 Are you going to try; am going to try; will confiscate 18 shall/will have; will come 19 am not going to take; am going to mend: is going to help 20 Are you going to paint; am going to take 21 will add; wont be able to read; am going to type; shall/will have 22 will type 23 will ring 24 am going to ring 25 Arent you going to climb; are going to climb; are going to try; will cook, will buy 26

am going to wash; will come 27 are going to pick; will probably come, will start 28 will have to go, will be; will get; Will you let 29 will stay; will try 30 am going to start; Are you going to do; is going to help 31 is going to write; will buy; will buy 32 is going to dig 33 is the new owner going to make; is going to concentrate 34 are going to bottle 35 will go 36 are going to buy; will stay Exercise 135 1 will/shall both be coming 2 will meet, will forget 3 will be watching; will ring 4 will/shall be doing; will still be working 5 will get, will do 6 will be coming 7 will/shall be working 8 will/shall be taking off 9 will come 10 will be playing 11 will get; will still be; will be going, will ask 12 will be, will be wondering/will wonder 13 will/shall never be able; will be helping; wont be helping; will/shall be helping 14 will write, will try; will type 15 will/shall be typing; will type 16 will tell 17 will just be coming 18 will be melting 19 will be talking . and showing,

will/shall feel 20 will tell, wont believe 21 will just be getting up 22 will be wearing; will wrap . and go 23 will be; will be speaking, will be addressing 24 will be reading, will be ringing 25 will still be standing 26 Will you please forward; will/shall be staying 27 will be coming 28 will be leaving 29 wont start; will give 30 will be coming 31 will be looking 32 will you be arriving; will/shall be travelling; Will there be; will send 33 Will you be using; will put 34 will/shall be having; will be hobbling 35 will enjoy; wont/shant have; will/shall be map-reading, will/shall be 36 will write Exercise 136 1 wont do 2 wont come; wont be driving 3 wont/shant be coming 4 wont have; wont come 5 wont/shant be teaching 6 will/shall be doing; wont/shant be eating 7 wont eat 8 wont bite 9 wont be coming 10 will be fishing II wont clean 12 wont/shant be showing 13 wont/shant be washing; will/shall be having 14 wont/shant be wearing; wont recognize 15 wont be, wont believe 16 wont/shant

be delivering 17 wont be wearing 18 wont tell 19 wont be using; wont do 20 will/shall have; wont/shant be paying 21 wont pay; will have 22 wont work 23 will get on; wont be working 24 wont even show; wont come Exercise 137 1 will have repaired 2 will have done 3 will/shall have made 4 will have finished 5 will have planted 6 will/shall have passed 7 will/shall have done 8 will have walked 9 will have lost 10 will have spent 11 will/shall have worked 12 will have been driven 13 will/shall have sent 14 will/shall have given 15 will have died 16 will have driven 17 will/shall have picked 18 will have sunk Exercise 138 Part I 1 is looking; sees, rings; answers 2 am ringing 3 says; use 4 uses; eats; dont think, likes 5 would suit/suits; like; would we arrange/do we arrange, use 6 includes; doesnt include 7 see; does the room face 8 faces; looks, gets 9 sounds 10 Would 7 p.m suit or Will 7 pm suit; cant/couldnt/wouldnt be able to, dont get 11 will/would be; dont think, will have; passes,

stops 12 Ill find; Ill see 13 comes, asks 14 is coming 15 Shell probably come, are sitting; get; dont think, give 16 do; listens; will be 17 rings; looks, smiles 18 says, goes Part 2 19 am speaking; am spending; would you like 20 Id love; do I get 21 Ill meet 22 Ill do 23 comes 24 sounds 25 see 26 are you doing 27 am spending 28 youll freeze, doesnt kill; are you getting 29 am catching, is meeting 30 Ill lend; Ill tell 31 likes 32 Ill give, fall, goes; are having, is going, is catching 33 is always going; go 34 comes, hear, will be 16 Conditionals Exercise 139 1 find, will give 2 smoke, will/may object 3 put, will crack 4 see 5 wins, will get, comes, will get 6 feel 7 wants, will have 8 have finished 9 stands, will capsize 10 isnt working, will have 11 doesnt go 12 hear 13 will get 14 leaves, will be 15 freezes, will be 16 dont take, will have 17 takes, will have 18 dont feel/arent feeling 19 brakes, will/may skid 20 like, will get 21 would like 22 growls 23 isnt working 24 dont know

25 refuses 26 wont/doesnt help 27 are going 28 do you employ 29 will be 30 hate, dont you change 31 dont want 32 hear 33 will see 34 rings/should ring 35 reach/should reach 36 would care, will send Exercise 140 Part I Drill (Whatll happen if . is normally replaceable by Whatll you do if and vice versa. These are possible answers only) 1 Whatll you do if he doesnt pay you tonight? 2 Whatll you do if you dont get a permit? 3 Whatll you do if you dont pass? 4 Whatll you do if he refuses? 5 Whatll happen if he chooses Smith? 6 Whatll you do if you cant find a cheap room? 7 Whatll happen if it doesnt open? 8 Whatll happen if I forget it? 9 Whatll happen if they dont believe me? 10 Whatll you call it if its a boy? 11 Whatll happen if we dont get a lift? 12 Whatll happen if it isnt clear of fog? 13 Whatll happen/How long will it take if he doesnt help us? 14 Whatll happen if he isnt at home?/Whatll we do if.? 15 Whatll we do if the ice isnt thick enough? 16 Whatll happen/What happens if

you walk on them when the tide is coming in? 17 Whatll we do if its wet? 18 Whatll we do if we (do) have another puncture? Part 2 1 If you like I can get 2 If you like Ill ask 3 If you like Ill bring the photographs 4 If you like Ill give 5 If you like you can watch 6 If you like Ill arrange a helicopter trip 7 If you like Ill knit you one 8 If you like you can borrow 9 If you like Ill come 10 If you like Ill ask Ann 11 If you like Ill get you an application form 12 If you like Ill go with you 13 If you like Ill paint 14 If you like you can leave 15 If you like well postpone 16 If you like Ill ask him 17 If you like Ill arrange for you to meet the President 18 If you like well go sailing Exercise 141 (First person would is normally replaceable by should except in sentences 8, 9, 22.) 1 gave, would sell 2 woke, would have 3 went, would pine 4 went, would lose 5 said, would you do 6 worked, would finish 7 would happen, blew 8 saw, would climb; would not be, would climb 9 came, would call

10 threw, would have 11 asked, would he say 12 would be; would probably start 13 rang, would be 14 saw, would assume 15 would have, were/was 16 rushed, would get 17 bought, would lose 18 had, would bring 19 did, would not be 20 were/was, would still be 21 were/was, wouldnt be staying/wouldnt stay 22 had, would drink 23 drank, would soon get 24 were/was, would not be playing 25 would you go, did 26 kept, would not be running/would not run 27 was/were, would not be sitting 28 heard, didnt you answer 29 typed, would be 30 had 31 had, would now be sitting 32 would be, would kindly sign 33 stopped, would all fly 34 would still be 35 was, didnt you change 36 won, would be writing/would write Exercise 142 (The following are possible answers but not the only possible answers.) 1 If she wasnt/werent so shy she would enjoy 2 If he took more exercise he would be healthier 3 If I had the right change we could 4 If they spoke English to her, her English would/might improve 5 If he worked

overtime he would 6 If my number was/were in the directory people would ring 7 If the police were armed we would/might have gun battles 8 If the shops delivered, life would be easier/less difficult 9 If he wasnt/werent so thin he mightnt feel/ If he was/were fatter, etc. 10 If we had matches we could light 11 If we had a steak we could cook it 12 If I wasnt/werent so fat I could/would be able to 13 If I asked him he might help 14 If I could drive we could/would be able to take the car 15 If we had a ladder we could 16 If I were you I should/would sell it 17 If I had more time Id read more 18 If they cleaned the windows the rooms would look brighter 19 If he polished his shoes hed look smarter 20 If he paid his staff properly they might work better 21 If we had central heating the house would be warmer 22 If I had a dog I wouldnt mind being alone 23 If he didnt spend hours watching television he would have time 24 If I had a vacuum cleaner Id be quicker 25 If I knew his address I could

write 26 If he shaved hed look more attractive 27 If you worked more slowly you wouldnt make 28 If I could park near my office Id come by car 29 If I lived nearer the centre I wouldnt always be late 30 If I had a map I could direct 31 If people drove more slowly there wouldnt be 32 If English people spoke more slowly I might/might be able to understand 33 If my house wasnt/werent guarded by two Alsatian dogs it would be broken into 34 If the flats were clearly numbered it would be easier to find people 35 If you wiped your feet you wouldnt make muddy marks 36 If I didnt live near my office Id spend a lot of time Exercise 143 (Sometimes would below is replaceable by might or could.) 1 had not taken, wouldnt have got 2 had paid, wouldnt have been 3 had told, would have cooked 4 had had, would have been 5 had known, would have lent 6 hadnt had, would have fallen 7 had realized, wouldnt have accepted 8 hadnt taken 9 had been lit 10 hadnt rung 11 had waited, would have seen 12 wouldnt

have been, hadnt knocked 13 had patented, would have made 14 had had, would have been 15 had told, would have agreed 16 had been, would have been able 17 had been, would have been launched 18 had known, wouldnt have thrown 19 had known, would have brought; would have enjoyed 20 would have attended 21 would have refused, had offered 22 wouldnt have known, hadnt told 23 had read, would have refused 24 had been playing, would certainly have heard 25 would you have done 26 hadnt rained, would have been 27 had been waiting 28 had used, would have lit 29 hadnt been wearing, should/would have recognized 30 had known, would have backed 31 had been, would have phoned 32 had turned 33 had played, would have had 34 had booked, would have had 35 had been, would not have been 36 had held, would not have been Exercise 144 (These are possible answers but not the only possible answers.) 1 If I had seen the signal I would have stopped 2 If Id known your number I would have rung 3 If she had known you

were in hospital she would have visited 4 If there had been taxis we would have taken one 5 If she hadnt been so shy she might have spoken 6 If she hadnt threatened to set fire to her flat I wouldnt have asked 7 If wed had time wed have visited 8 If the lift had been working I wouldnt have come up the stairs 9 If we had listened carefully we mightnt have made 10 If we hadnt got a lift we shouldnt/wouldnt have reached 11 If you hadnt washed it in boiling water it wouldnt have shrunk 12 If we hadnt been using an out-of-date timetable we shouldnt/wouldnt have missed 13 If his own men hadnt deserted him he wouldnt have failed 14 If they hadnt been driving so quickly the accident wouldnt have been 15 If it hadnt been raining I would have taken 16 If Id known that in summer etc. I wouldnt have bought 17 If Toms father hadnt been on the Board he wouldnt have got 18 If hed been looking where he was going he wouldnt have been run over 19 If Id been brought up in the country I might like country

life 20 If Id known he was so quarrelsome I wouldnt/shouldnt have invited him 21 If it hadnt rained all the time he might have enjoyed his visit 22 If Id worked hard at school I would/should/might have got a good job 23 If they hadnt used closed- circuit television they wouldnt/mightnt have spotted 24 If hed been wearing a shirt they wouldnt have asked him to leave 25 If the streets had been clearly marked it wouldnt have taken us so long 26 If wed had enough money we would/should have gone by air 27 If youd put your hand up the bus would have stopped 28 If he hadnt turned up looking so disreputable they would have given him 29 If Id known how thin the ice was I wouldnt/shouldnt have been walking 30 If he had taken the fight seriously from the beginning he might have won 31 If they hadnt paid the ransom at once they wouldnt have got 32 If he had read the passage more slowly the candidates would have understood 33 If theyd been wearing life-jackets they mightnt have been drowned 34

If his wife had encouraged him he might have got 35 If the exit doors hadnt been blocked people would have been able to escape/could have escaped 36 They would have walked further if they hadnt been hampered by or But for the thick dust they would have walked further Exercise 145 (First person would is normally replaceable by should.) 1 stays, will be/should be 2 didnt know, wouldnt/couldnt understand 3 hadnt got, would/might have come; wouldnt have been 4 knew, did you take 5 were not 6 had not been, would not have cheered 7 had not cheered, would not have run 8 had not run, would not have crashed, would not have been 9 returns/should return 10 why dont you sell/why not sell; had, would sell 11 didnt know, did you offer; would refuse 12 leaves, will/may steal 13 wore, would see 14 hadnt loved, would not have waited 15 had looked, would have been 16 start, will the village people resist 17 would you like 18 wont be able; cant, cant 19 would have been, had become 20 had gone, would be

21 had, would make 22 had known, would have brought 23 bathed, would be 24 stood, would all see, would be 25 were, would get 26 do, please remind/would you please remind 27 would have realized 28 had admitted, would not have been 29 had, would grow; would be 30 had known, would have stayed 31 had, would make 32 had told, would/could have gone 33 spend, wont have 34 hadnt been, mightnt have been 35 had, would get 36 would happen, had; would play, (would) miss, would fail, (would) have; would not feed, would get; would catch, (would) die, would have, would keep. Exercise 146 Answers are not provided for these open-ended sentences, as the responses by individual students are likely to be varied. Exercise 147 1 shall/will; will 2 will 3 Shall; will 4 will 5 Will 6 shant/wont; shant/wont; will; shall/will 7 will 8 shall 9 shall; wont 10 will 11 Shall; shall/will, wont 12 will 13 shant 14 wont 15 shall, shall not 16 will; shall/will 17 Shall; will: will, wont 18 shall/will; will 19

shant; will 20 shall; will 21 shant/wont; will 22 Will; wont 23 shant; will 24 shall Exercise 148 1 should 2 should 3 would 4 Would 5 should 6 would 7 would 8 should/would 9 would 10 should 11 would 12 Would 13 should 14 should; would 15 Would; should 16 should 17 should 18 would 19 should 20 would 21 should 22 should 23 should 24 would 25 Would 26 should 27 should 28 should, should 29 should 30 would 31 would 32 would 33 should 34 would 35 should 36 should 17 Gerund, infinitive and present participle Exercise 149 1living, to like 2 to travel; to take, to go 3 to buy; selling 4 to catch; getting, getting 5 to complain; losing 6 going, being, putting; telling, to take 7 to lock; go, do 8 to touch, being 9 house-hunting, to ask; looking 10 go; swimming; going 11 to be paid; taking, measuring; to expect, to do, to be, to die 12 spending, arguing, not to go 13 giving, going to live 14 to leave; to call 15 keep you waiting; apologizing 16 telling, to talk 17 earning, to show 18 to start;

filling 19 to carry; to move, carry 20 to take; take; cutting; to get, taking; to saw, escape 21 to ask, to leave; asking Tom to do; asking, to travel 22 to cut; sharpening 23 to buy, to ask 24 cheating, buying, dealing/to deal 25 dining, have; to go; having 26 cutting/to be cut; have, to have 27 to convince, managing, helping 28 travelling, standing; queuing, waiting; to go 29 following, criticizing, to hit 30 to stay; wait; to go 31 to rebel, not to adopt 32 arriving; to wait, waiting: to be 33 to come, going; to climb, making 34 to work, getting 35 start; to risk getting 36 calling, letting, decide Exercise 150 1 sleeping, to camp 2 to come; listening, listening, talking 3 to leave, to put 4 to park 5 smoking, to risk setting, smoke 6 writing, to receive, go 7 buying; shopping 8 to see, to find, buy; trying to travel 9 to turn; working 10 taking, dropping, pretending 11 to grow, buying; to prevent, playing 12 keeping; to fill; asking, to keep; making 13 going; to come; to go,

go; travelling 14 go fishing: coming; to cut, wasting, sitting, watching, fishing 15 being, to wait; to see 16 to prevent, rushing, dashing 17 tossing, crashing 18 to eat, trying 19 walking, take; go; to get 20 to start; raining, walking 21 counting, thinking; moving, being robbed; to get, to make 22 letting, keeping, to sell 23 to lean, watching, going, coming; shouting, talking 24 to know, to learn; to greet/greeting, to talk 25 untying, climbing, crawling 26 finding; getting; to know 27 to see/seeing, sitting; relaxing, reading, produce, to be; performing, keeping 28 spending, living, to think, selling, returning 29 arguing; argue; seeing 30 to hear; seeing; to bring 31 receiving, selling; receiving, selling, to sell 32 hovering, being, climbing; run/running; coming/come, leading 33 to be passing, to give, to pick, to drop 34 having; to have; sitting, swirling, taking 35 writing, showing 36 swim; swimming; going 18 Unreal pasts and subjunctives Exercise 151 1 left 2 had 3 had 4 had

5 had done 6 began 7 knew Shad 9 had asked 10 did 11 had nibbled/had been nibbling 12 mended 13 were addressing 14 were 15 stayed, looked 16 had tied 17 hadnt given 18 had known 19 didnt know 20 were 21 drove 22 had been 23 had not taken 24 had never been 25 had kept 26 paid 27 stopped, started 28 had not said 29 had taken 30 had been standing 31 had never set 32 took 33 had/had had 34 had not tried 35 had not had 36 got Exercise 152 (The following are possible answers, but not the only possible answers. All the answers will begin: Id rather you We are therefore only giving the other half of each sentence.) 1 went by train 2 went with someone/took someone with you 3 started today 4 rang on your own phone/used your own phone 5 slept in the house 6 cooked it under the grill 7 cut it with a knife/with your own scissors 8 stayed on a bit longer 9 came in time 10 waited till morning 11 cleaned it in the garage 12 said nothing 13 wore shoes 14 didnt 15 painted it blue, and without any

decorations 16 rang at 7 a.m 17 didnt threaten him at all 18 bathed during the day/in daylight 19 parked it in the playing field 20 put them in the goldfish bowl 21 went by train 22 borrowed the other one 23 typed it 24 did it today Exercise 153 (All the answers begin I wish; the words I wish will therefore not be given.) 1 I had a washing machine 2 I lived nearer my work 3 our garden got some sun 4 I hadnt called him a liar 5 I knew Finnish 6 I had booked a seat 7 I had a car 81 could drive 9 Tom would drive more slowly/Tom drove 10 you would keep quiet 11 we hadnt accepted 12 theatre tickets didnt cost 13 shops here didnt shut 14 he had worked 15 you had seen it 16 you werent going 17 I had a permit 18 it would stop 19 you would wait 20 I had brought a map 21 I had never come 22 I hadnt left 23 I had stayed 24 he would cut 25 he would stop 26 he went to bed earlier/didnt go so late 27 we knew where we were 28 we had 29 I had known 30 you hadnt told 31 I had asked 32 I could swim 33

you were coming 34 you were going to a job 35 you had asked him 36 every country would stop 19 The passive Exercise 154 1 The milk is brought, the letters are left 2 letters wont be brought, theyll have to be collected from 3 Things are stolen from, twenty bottles were stolen 4 this street is swept, it wasnt swept 5 This box is cleared, It was last cleared 6 A light was turned on and the door (was) opened 7 This office is cleaned, the upstairs offices are cleaned 8 He was never seen, all his meals were taken up 9 This purse was left . it was found by the cleaner 10 1,000 new houses are built, last year 1,500 were built 11 Hot meals are served, coffee and sandwiches can be ordered 12 All sorts of things are left in buses. They are collected by the conductors and (are) sent 13 He was taken to hospital by ambulance 14 Many people are killed and injured . - cant something be done 15 The warehouse is guarded by dogs. A thief who tried to get in was seen by a dog and chased 16 The police

were called and the man (was) arrested 17 Tom, who had only a slight injury, was helped off, but Jack, who was seriously injured, was carried off 18 This dress cant be washed, it must be dry-cleaned 19 The entire block is being demolished 20 He recommends that new tyres should be fitted 21 He suggested that council tenants should be allowed 22 These calculations used to be done by men; now they are done by a computer 23 The man was tried, found guilty and sent to prison 24 The knockers of all the flats are polished . mine hasnt been polished 25 My piano is being repaired 26 Tickets shouldnt be thrown away . they may be checked 27 Jack was invited but Tom wasnt (invited) 28 All the sandwiches were eaten . and all the beer (was) drunk. Nothing was left 29 Has my parcel been posted 30 Why wasnt I informed of 31 The book was written by Tom Smith and published by Brown and Co. 32 The car will have to be towed 33 all our copies have been sold but more have been ordered 34

Trespassers will be prosecuted 35 My car was stolen and abandoned . The radio had been removed but no other damage had been done 36 Dogs must be kept on leads Exercise 155 1 The letter hasnt been stamped 2 I wasnt paid for the work; I was expected to do 3 he was being moved 4 I wasnt introduced 5 I was awakened by a frightful crash 6 When this street has been widened the residents will be kept awake all night by the roar 7 The rubbish was thrown away 8 These TV sets are made by a Japanese firm 9 The town was destroyed by an earthquake 10 This could be done much more easily by (a) machine 11 Umbrellas and sticks must be left 12 Tenants are asked not to play 13 Your clock cant be repaired 14 Articles (which have been) bought during the sale cannot be exchanged 15 Fruit has to be picked very early otherwise it cant be got to the market 16 People shouldnt be allowed to park 17 My house is being watched 18 The passage will be read three times 19 Dictionaries may not be used 20 This letter

need not be typed 21 13 has been crossed out and 12A has been written 22 This man mustnt be moved; he is too ill/he is too ill to be moved. He will have to be left 23 His house was searched and stolen articles were found 24 This room hasnt been used 25 He was taken for 26 These books should have been taken back 27 The children were brought up 28 The For Sale notice has been taken down . the house has been sold 29 His house was broken into . a lot of his things (were) stolen 30 You have been warned 31 He was knocked down by a lorry 32 My keys were returned to me; they had been picked up 33 The books had to be given back; we were not allowed to take 34 These documents shouldnt be left . They should be locked up 35 Coffee and biscuits were handed round 36 Other peoples schemes have been tried. Why has my scheme never been tried? Exercise 156 1 troops have been called out 2 trains were held up by fog 3 this is to be left here. It will be called for 4 police were called in 5

children were not properly looked after 6 reinforcements are being flown in 7 men of 28 were called up 8 he was looked up to by everyone 9 he will be seen off at the airport by all the ministers 10 bed hasnt been slept in 11 more rooms can be built on 12 he was thrown out 13 different attitude will have to be adopted 14 he ought to be locked up 15 they werent taken in by her story 16 house was broken into 17 small plastic toys are being given away 18 notice was taken down 19 smoking is frowned on 20 after a million pounds had been spent . the scheme was given up 21 my car had been towed away. I asked why this had been done and was told that it had been parked 22 weapons must be handed in 23 he was shouted down 24 he is often taken for his brother 25 the cork hasnt been taken out 26 pool was to have been used . it is being filled in 27 students are being turned away 28 sky-scraper will have to be pulled down as the town planning regulations have not been complied with Exercise

157 1 money was added up and found to be correct 2 I am having the bathroom tiled 3 a terrible mistake seems to have been made 4 you are supposed to make tea 5 he is known to be armed 6 he was seen to pick up 7 you are known to have been 8 he is believed to have 9 this neednt have been done 10 you had better have it taken in 11 he likes to be called sir 12 this switch isnt to be/mustnt be touched 13 you will have to have/get it seen to or it will have to be seen to 14 this cant be done 15 we are being followed 16 boys used to be made to climb 17 it has to be seen to be believed 18 I am tired of being ordered about 19 he doesnt like being laughed at 20 this watch neednt be wound/doesnt need to be wound 21 he shouldnt have been told 22 they decided that the money should be divided 23 he is believed to have been killed 24 letters are to be sent 25 she is considered to have been 26 smoking is not allowed 27 the expedition is known to have reached 28 before printing was invented

everything had to be written 29 the government was urged to create/they urged that more jobs should be created 30 they suggested that the sale of alcohol should be banned 20 Indirect speech Exercise 158 (In the exercises on reported speech we often use nouns as subjects: e.g the policeman, the children, Paul etc In the answers, to save space, we have often used pronouns.) 1 he said he was going out but hed be in 2 she said she was working . and didnt much care 3 Peter said he couldnt live on his basic salary and hed have to 4 Mary said her young brother wanted to be . she couldnt think why because none of her family had ever been 5 they said they were waiting . and it was late 6 he said he had made I said he was always making . and should be used to it 7 he said they made and sent to their wives 8 he said it was lonely being away from their . but they earned in that/the factory as they would in their own 9 he said they had been there . and were going to stay 10

he said hed got . I said that would be he replied he knew it would be hard but he didnt mind . and it would be 11 he said the ice would soon be . she said she would look for her skates when she got 12 she said she was living with her parents at the moment but she hoped to have a flat of her own soon 13 she said she was leaving the following day . we said wed come and see her off 14 he said hed just bought . but it wasnt insured yet so he couldnt take me 15 she said she would like to speak . but she was bathing . and they would drown if she left she went 16 Ann says she is coming . next week She hopes we will meet her 17 She said nothing ever happened . it was like people had drifted 18 he said he had missed his train; hed be late . and his boss would be 19 they said they would wait for me if I was late/for us if we were late 20 I said they were supposed . but if the fog got the plane might be 21 she said if I lent her . shed bring in two days time

22 he grumbled he hated getting up on dark mornings; his wife agreed it was horrible but said the mornings would be lighter soon and then it wouldnt be 23 she said the sales were starting the following day and as soon as they finished work the whole . pool was going I (said I) hoped they would all get what they wanted 24 he (said he) wished he had something . said he had only just had lunch and she didnt know how he could be 25 my aunt said if I was short . she could lend me and I could take my time 26 he said he usually took his dog . when he came 27 I said I had for her brother Ann said he wasnt at home; he had left two days before 28 I said I had bought the bag . he said I shouldnt have bought . it didnt go with my coat 29 she said she must hurry as her father was always . if any of them were 30 he said if I wanted to smoke I would have to 31 he said he was building himself . I he wouldnt show it to me just yet but when the roof was on I could come 32 he

said the lake would probably freeze that night; it was much colder than the previous night. Mary said she would go and if it was frozen she would make . ducks could 33 He said - . the strikers went back the following day it would be things returned 34 She said someone was trying to murder her. She kept getting 35 she said she was taking her children . the following day 36 she said all she could hear was . she wondered if it was Exercise 159 (See the note to Exercise 158.) 1 he said there had been . road was blocked it wouldnt be clear he advised us to go/he said wed better go 2 they suggested lighting . cooking their sausages 3 he said he was thinking . aunt advised him not to go as it was a bad 4 he warned us to take . as we might have to 5 he said he had left some books on my table. He thought Id find them useful and said I could keep them as long as I needed them but that hed like . when I had finished with them. I thanked him and said Id take/promised to

take 6 he said that if the children could . were should be able he was teaching 7 he said the puppy could sleep on their bed . she said shed rather he slept . would soon be there wouldnt be all three of them 8 she said shed try by herself . and if she found that she couldnt shed ask Tom to help her 9 Mary suggested camping by the stream as, or pointing out that if they went on, it might be dark before they found 10 they wished theyd brought their . as then they could have offered and perhaps they (the restaurant) would have given them 11 Jones said hed booked . The receptionist said she (was afraid that they) hadnt got his letter . all rooms had been taken . but they could give him Jones said that wouldnt do him 12 he said hed had gypsies on his land and theyd given . Council had asked him . He didnt see why and was writing to his MP 13 he grumbled that the letter was . She admitted she had done it and said she supposed shed better 14

he said if theyd like to go on any of the tours the hotel would arrange it. They said theyd like 15 he said theyd try to find my passport but it would be . slept might have robbed me 16 she suggested going . and said they might make their Shed been given . He said he had had from her they had been 17 he said he didnt know why she wasted . the neighbours all I polished . she didnt want their Mini If he were any good hed help her 18 he apologized for not having a tie on. He said he didnt know it was going 19 he said he would have enjoyed . if the man next to him hadnt snored 20 I said I was thinking . he advised me to take someone with me. It was safer as one could slept 21 Paul says that the plans have been changed; were going tomorrow now not the next day. He wants us to meet him at Victoria tonight 22 He said that if he wanted . he had to . it wasnt hot I said that was ridiculous and that it was high time he left 23 he said he knew the umbrella

belonged to me but he I thought it would be all right if he borrowed it because I wasnt going out the following day and he was 24 he suggested putting my . and making . It would be what they were planning I said/objected that my recorder made . and theyd be sure and then theyd find and ask 25 she said whenever her father was unhappy he would go out and buy . their rooms were full . they couldnt use Tom said that he was sorry for her father; he must have been 26 he said I could leave my . in his garage if I liked he would keep . while I was away 27 he told Ann that if she wanted a job she should read . it was no use outside her door 28 he said it used to be . but that now it was impossible When summer came Id have to 29 he said I must leave a note for my . otherwise shed be when I wasnt in at my 30 she said . had just arrived and he was She wondered if she should ring . wait till he came Exercise 160 (See note to Exercise 158.) 1 she asked

who had been using her 2 he asked if I wanted 3 he asked if I minded 4 they asked if I would like to come with them/they invited me to come with them 5 she asked who I had given 6 he asked how long it took 7 he asked how much I thought it would cost 8 she asked him what he had missed most when he was/had been 9 he asked if the seat was taken 10 He asked how I got on with my 11 they asked him how he had got 12 he asked what I was/had been doing with the skeleton . and if I was/had been trying 13 she asked me if I had slept 14 they asked him if he had been there 15 she asked if I could tell her why Paul (had) left 16 he asked how many . . knew 17 she asked if there were .for her 18 he asked how long I had been 19 he asked why I wasnt 20 the customer asked if they were 21 I asked where they were going for their 22 she asked if it would be . if she came that night 23 he asked if I had ever seen 24 she asked him where she could park her 25 she asked if I would like . I asked

which way she was going 26 she asked who I wanted 27 he asked if anyone wanted 28 I asked what he was going to do with his 29 I asked if she grew her own 30 he asked what train I was going 31 she asked him if he could change . and said she was afraid she hadnt got/and apologized for not having 32 she asked how many . he had taken He said he had no idea 33 they asked if they could see the manager/they asked to see the manager. The secretary asked if they had 34 he asked if I thought I could live . on my own or if I would get 35 he asked if any of us had actually seen 36 she asked if she could see/she asked to see/she asked for Commander Smith. I said I was afraid he was in orbit and asked if she would like Exercise 161 1 he suggested having . Ann agreed and suggested going Jack was always 2 she said Jacks parents had asked her . the following night and asked what she should wear. Her mother advised her to wear as it was 3 he said he was broke. Peter offered to lend

him 4 the clerk said it would take . to look up her file Ann asked if it was worth waiting or if she should 5 he asked if he would have to do. if he failed - . The teacher said that he would 6 I asked where he would be the next day in case I had to ring him. He said that he would be in his at his flat. He wouldnt be going 7 Mary asked what she should do with the cracked cup and her mother advised her to throw 8 she wondered if she would ever see 9 he asked me to get out . and he had to change I offered to help 10 he said hed run . and asked me to give him/asked for a lift 11 he suggested going . She said she liked but that her only shoes were being . She suggested going 12 he said I had a lot and offered to carry some of them for me 13 he wondered if they would be 14 he asked what he should do with all the money. Mary advised him to take and get/Mary suggested taking . and getting 15 Peter offered jack a cigarette. Jack thanked him and said he didnt smoke

16 They asked if shed like to go/invited her to go with them, saying that there was . Ann said shed love to/Ann accepted 17 she asked Mr Jones if he could do without her that day as she had . and thought it might if she stayed Mr Jones advised her to stay . and to take the next day off too if she wasnt better 18 Mary told Paul that shed just come back to her flat . in her chair He was still there . and she asked/wanted to know what she should do Paul advised her to wake him and ask him who he was, adding that there was 19 he said he wasnt quite . and asked Jack to wait/if he could wait Jack said he couldnt wait long because the train went 20 I asked her to take off her hat/if she would mind taking . She pointed out that the theatre was and suggested my/me moving 21 he said he often saw . and asked if I thought he should 22 I asked what changes he would make if the house was his. He said hed pull The site was all right 23 he asked for my name 24 he

offered to send it round to his hotel/asked if he should send . The tourist said he wasnt staying . and hed take it with him 25 I asked (him) how long they would go on looking . He said theyd stop when it got and start . the following day 26 I said we couldnt discuss it over the phone . and suggested meeting in my flat the following day He said hed rather I came to his . and asked if I could get there 27 he asked for 40p to buy an ice-cream/as he wanted to buy an ice-cream 28 he asked (us) if we would like . of his flat, or if we would rather 29 she asked me to help her with her luggage, and said that if I took . shed take I said it was ridiculous . and asked if she couldnt manage but she said she couldnt 30 Ann said she couldnt come . (so) Peter suggested Tuesday Ann agreed (to this) Exercise 162 (The verb of command given below is not necessarily the only possible one. See also the note to Exercise 158) 1 she told him not to put . in his 2 she

begged him not to do 3 he urged me to apply . as it would just suit me 4 he advised me to say nothing 5 she asked them to wait in the lounge till their flight number was called 6 I advised her not to lend . as he never paid 7 she asked him to ring 8 he asked me to move my case/asked if Id mind moving my case as it was blocking 9 she reminded him to book 10 he told/warned me to get 11 he warned me to avoid Marble Arch as there was going 12 he told me to hold the ladder as it was . I suggested tying/advised him to tie it as it was much safer 13 he told them to read . and not to write 14 he warned me not to leave my money 15 he advised me to open 16 he invited her to lunch that day. She said she was afraid she couldnt as she couldnt leave/She refused, explaining that she couldnt leave 17 he warned me not to take more than two of them 18 I asked to speak to Albert/asked if I could speak . She said he was . I asked her to wake him as I had 19 he advised me to buy 20 they

said I was being exploited and that I ought to leave my job/and advised me to leave 21 she told them to fasten their . as there might be 22 he warned me not to drive . or oncoming drivers might take me 23 he asked to see my licence 24 I advised him to sweep up 25 she said the bathroom was empty and asked me to put . when I had 26 he reminded me to insure my 27 she begged him not to , . and reminded him that they had to 28 I urged Tom to go . before his toothache got 29 he advised me to cut my hair, saying that I would find . if I looked 30 he asked for some more Exercise 163 (See the note to Exercise 158.) 1 the clerk asked me to fill up the form 2 he asked me to read 3 she asked for a new cheque book. He asked her to show him her 4 Tom says that we are to be ready/should be ready 5 he begged me not to tell his mother 6 he ordered/warned us not to fire 7 he advised me to take 8 she asked me to help her 9 he warned me not to drive 10 he warned/told/advised me not to smoke II

she said that when Id chosen a book I was to bring it to her and she would 12 he told me to show 13 a notice warned/ordered us to reduce speed at once 14 he asked to see my ticket 15 he warned me to keep an eye on my luggage as the place was 16 he said that when Id read it I was to pass it on or he told me to pass it on . when Id read it 17 he suggested lighting . and cooking 18 he told me to press the button whenever I saw . /he said that whenever I saw I was to press 19 he told her to sit down and tell him what was worrying her 20 he told me to walk . and just to nod if I recognized my attacker but not to say/and said that if I recognized my attacker I was just to nod but not to say 21 he said that even if I felt hungry I wasnt to eat/shouldnt eat . /he advised me not to eat even if I felt 22 he asked Ann to ring and order a taxi for him. She suggested (his) going/advised him to go by tube as it was 23 she suggested buying some yeast and making their own bread as the bread

they were getting was 24 he advised them to boil the water (first) if they had to use it, and warned them not to drink it unboiled 25 he suggested not telling anyone/that they shouldnt tell anyone till they were . report was 26 Tom says hes got the tickets and (that) were to meet him 27 he urged the strikers to show that they were . 28 A notice advised customer to count their . as mistakes could not 29 he warned me not to clap yet, as she hadnt finished. He added (that) singers loathed people who clapped 30 he reminded me to put my name Exercise 164 1 Paul wants me to get him 2 Mr White would like you to meet him 3 Ann offered to get . Mr Jones said hed rather she got Ann said there werent any and (that) the shops were 4 he told me not to worry . as he made . I asked if he learnt from his or if he kept 5 I said I was looking for . who drank in that bar The barman advised me to keep away from Albert as he didnt like strangers 6 He asked to have a look at my

paper/asked if he could have . I said I hadnt and asked him to wait He said he couldnt wait long as he was getting 7 she said we had woken or woke . the previous night and that we must try that night I promised we would 8 he complained that the soup was cold . and asked why he never had . She explained it was because the kitchen was If he insisted on . he must/would have to put up He suggested getting She said (that) she wouldnt 9 he said my licence was . I admitted that it was but said I had applied . He warned me next time to apply . before my current one had expired 10 I said Id have the money for him the following . and asked if I should post it to him. Tom asked me to keep it in my safe till he could come a lot of his mail had been going astray lately and he would hate to lose one of my 11 he asked to borrow my map/asked if he could borrow my map. I said he was always borrowing it and advised him to get/suggested his getting/asked why he didnt

get one of his own 12 he said that when we heard . we were to shut . and go or he told us to shut the windows and go downstairs when we heard . I asked what we were to do/should do if the stairs were blazing 13 she asked if I could hear the noise and what I thought it was. I (said 1) thought it was . but she (said she) thought it was and advised me to go/said Id better go 14 they told Ann it was her turn . that night She protested that it couldnt be as she (had) babysat the previous night and the night before that, and she was only supposed . They begged her to do it just that once and promised not to ask her to do any the following week 15 he said it was the best . problem was that they expected The tourists asked why he had brought them there. He told them not to get excited as he kept ties . in their predicament, and he asked what colour they would like, adding that the ties were 16 I suggested starting/offered to start/asked if I should start the next day.

Tom said hed rather I started that day 17 I advised her to go and see the film as it might help her . Ann pointed out that the film was 18 he said he saw/had seen . and one of them (had) sat up and waved to him. I asked which of them (had) waved He said he didnt know; he wasnt/hadnt been near enough 19 I asked what (had) caused . He said she must but he couldnt understand the wreck was 20 she said her car wouldnt start. The battery was flat She asked them to give her a push just to start her . Bill advised her to sell the car Peter said nobody would buy it and suggested putting 21 he said hed been given . . that hed have to I suggested (his) throwing . and saving himself or I advised him to throw . and save himself 22 he told me to press I said that last time he (had) told me to press . He said that that had been 23 Tom told me not to brake if I found myself skidding as that only made . He advised me to try .I said I knew what I should do but that when I

started . I got that I did Tom told me to stop and let him as we; were just coming . and he didnt want 24 he said hed run out and asked if Id got any. I said I hadnt but offered to go out and get some/but said Id go out . if he liked He told me not to bother as hed missed 25 he said that repairs to cars rented from them must be arranged through their office. So if anything went wrong with the car Id hired I was to ring on my card. The office was open I asked what I should do if something went 26 asked why he hadnt . He said that they had signalled but that she had come or came on in and had run or ran aground. I asked what was going . He said they were going but that if they didnt get that night she would be there till she broke up, and thered be 27 I asked why he was spending . on the accounts He said he couldnt . he seemed to be and that meant hed have to of his own money . I asked if hed like me to go through them and see if I could

He said he wouldnt, but hed like me to lend him 28 I asked (Jack) why he was looking so . He said hed just asked Ann to marry him and shed refused. I said I thought she preferred and advised him to cut his hair and shave off his beard 29 she asked how he (had) got up the tree. He said he (had) used but that someone went/had gone off he was sawing. He told her to go and not just stand 30 he asked if I was ill and I said that I wasnt. He asked if Id slept well the previous night and I said that I had. Then he asked/wanted to know why I was sitting were working, and told me to go out . and give 31 he asked/told passengers .to go Peter advised Mary to go but said that hed have to He said hed take . than she would and asked her to wait for him 32 Tom says that we arent to worry about him. He wasnt badly . and is being He says hes coming back next Wednesday . and wants us to meet the plane 33 he asked what he was to do with his . She advised him to

stuff but warned him not to put or theyd go hard 34 he suggested driving on . and trying I asked what we would do if that was . He said wed just as it would be 35 she said they had . but that he was wouldnt hear me I asked what I was to do/should do if he woke up. Ann told me to give him some of the biscuits if he started growling. I asked how she knew he liked those She assured me that all dogs liked them. It said so 36 he warned me that if I even touched . alarm bells would ring and I would be I asked if he was . He told me to try it and see Exercise 165 1 suggested going . and I agreed 2 urged his colleagues to show the nation that they were worthy of their 3 begged his mother to let him stay . that night 4 suggested eating . Tom objected that it was/would be and suggested going to her flat . and having 5 suggested leaving/that they should leave the wrecked car there . and said it might remind 6 She said the neighbours would object

and Tom said he didnt care 7 suggested going . Mary agreed reluctantly 8 said that Tom had made the mess and that he was to clear 9 said that the next day was . and suggested buying their mother 10 suggested taking . and camping out Mary suggested going and being 11 suggested giving a party but her husband was against the idea/opposed the idea 12 advised them not to jump . and suggested waiting until they heard . of the rumour or suggested that they shouldnt jump , but wait 13 warned him that . would say it was he said they could say what they liked/he expressed complete indifference 14 urged/exhorted the nations to forget . and to work 15 begged him to let her explain and asked him not to be 16 told the gardener to let the children play - . if they wanted to adding that she was sure they wouldnt do 17 suggested staying there/that we should stay there till the storm had passed 18 grumbled that it was . and said that they should do Exercise 166 1 said that

if what she said was true he would have to go/must go 2 said that he had to/would have to/must be . the following day 3 asked if he had to make 4 told us that we mustnt come 5 told my nephew that his ticket would cost . he said he would have to go the next day 6 The park notice said that dogs must be kept 7 said that Tom must/would have to work 8 said that I neednt come in the following day and told me to take 9 said he had to/must go . the following day as he had 10 The notice said that passengers must not lean 11 said that there must be . because there was smoke 12 told him that when he was . he would have to tie his 13 said that port wine must never be shaken 14 said he hadnt had . and that he must be 15 said that the passport photo wasnt like her and that she must have/would have to have 16 told the children that they must not 17 said that I neednt/wouldnt have to/didnt have to get up till nine the next day 18 The railway regulations said passengers must be 19

asked (Tom) how he had got his dog . He/Tom said that he had carried him I said that he must be 20 said that I mustnt/wasnt to tell anyone what she had just told me 21 asked (his mother) if he had to/need eat it all and she said that he must/had to 22 said that she had had to drive his pigs out of her garden 23 The notice said that sticks . must be left 24 asked her if she had to do it all that night or if she couldnt leave some for the following day 25 told me that when I went through Bayeux I must see 26 said that I must walk faster, I was far too slow 27 told me that I mustnt forget . or my friend would have to pay 28 said that he neednt tell me how grateful he was Exercise 167 1 Would he like to go to the concert? she asked, Im sure he would, I said. 2 Look where you are going, she said to me; the road is full of holes and very badly lit. 3 While we were bathing, they said, we saw someone examining our clothes. 4 Have you looked everywhere? I asked. Yes, she said 5 Lets give

her/what about giving her a bottle of wine? he said. 6 The new carpet has arrived Where am I to put/shall I put it? he asked. 7 An enormous load of firewood was dumped at my front gate two days ago. Since then I havent been able to get my car out, he said 8 Have some more wine? they said. Yes, please, I replied. 9 If you find the front door locked, go round the back, he said to me. 10 Who are you? she asked the burglars, And who let you in? Sit down and keep quiet, they replied, unless you want to get hurt. 11 What was the weather like during your holiday? he asked. It was awful, I answered 12 Lets go down to the harbour and see/What about going down . and seeing if we can hire a boat? he suggested. 13 If you dont like escalators, you can go up the emergency staircase, he told me. Thank you, Ill do that, I said 14 What about Tom and you going ahead and getting the tickets? or Suppose you and Tom go ahead and get the tickets? he said to me. 15 1 think your electric iron is unsafe

I advise you to have it seen to or 1 should have it seen to or Why dont you have it seen to? he said to me. 16 If war breaks/broke out, I shall/should have to leave the country at once, he said. 17 Did you enjoy house hunting? I asked him. No, he said 18 1 am surprised to see that the grandfather clock has stopped. Has anyone been fiddling with it? she asked 19 1 tried to ring up my mother several times yesterday, but I didnt succeed in getting through, she said. 20 Would you like to borrow this book? I asked her. 1 have read it already, thank you, and didnt like it very much 21 Are you going to the dance? Lets make up a party and go together or What about making up a party and going together? he said. 22 Stop making a fuss about nothing! You are lucky to have got a seat at all, I told her. 23 Do you want a single or a return ticket? asked the clerk in the booking office, 1s a return any cheaper? I asked. It makes no difference, he said 24 1 hope you wont be offended, my employer said,

if I tell you that in my opinion you would do better in some other kind of job. 25 If your wheels had gone a couple of inches nearer the edge, madam, said the AA man, the car would have plunged into the ravine. 26 You mustnt mind if the first one isnt any good, he said to me. 27 Do you think I am a liar? he asked the crowd Yes! they shouted. 28 Stopping a man in the street, I asked, Would/could you help me with my car? Would/will it take long? asked the man. Im on my way to catch a train 21 Time clauses Exercise 168 1 begins 2 gets 3 open 4 are 5 start 6 receive/have received 7 like 8 are 9 slows 10 stops 11 will explain, are 12 read/have read 13 have been 14 have cleaned . and painted or clean . and paint 15 have settled/settle 16 see 17 have seen 18 have finished/finish 19 have reached/reach 20 have done 21 lifts/has lifted 22 arrives 23 know, will give 24 has cooled/cools 25 have finished/finish 26 have given 27 will tell, are 28 have been, will let 29 have flown 30 has been

31 come 32 shall/will have finished, see, finish/have finished, start 33 have seen 34 have driven 35 will give, wakes 36 arrived Exercise 169 1 gets 2 come 3 stops 4 have done 5 saw 6 comes 7 go/are going 8 get; see 9 come, cross 10 arrive; gets 11 am sitting; am walking 12 has finished/finishes 13 starts 14 have paid/pay 15 arrives 16 have worked 17 do/are doing 18 have done 19 have finished 20 have had 21 have been 22 have read 23 reached 24 has saved 25 are queueing 26 shall/will be cruising 27 am 28 have seen 29 retires/has retired 30 has saved 31 stopped 32 arrived 33 had finished/finished 34 am waiting 35 was cleaning, or pretending 36 needed Exercise 170 1 As 2 As 3 When 4 As 5 When 6 As 7 As 8 When 9 When/Whenever 10 when 11 As 12 As 13 When 14 as 15 When 16 When/Whenever 17 As 18 as 19 as 20 as 21 As 22 When/Whenever 23 as 24 When 25 as 26 as 27 as 28 As 29 When 30 When 31 As 32 As 33 When 34 When 35 As 36 When 22 Phrasal verbs Exercise 171 l out, in/back 2 for 3 on with 4 out

of 5 up to 6 away with 7 up 8 out/about 9 off/away 10 up to 11 out 12 on with 13 over 14 over 15 up 16 away 17 through 18 off 19 up to 20 through 21 away 22 over 23 off 24 up to 25 in 26 over 27 out 28 for 29 off/into/on 30 on 31 up to 32 back 33 on/along 34 away with 35 back/in 36 out of Exercise 172 1 on 2 back 3 down 4 after 5 in 6 ahead 7 off/away/back 8 at/for 9 out of/away from 10 back II up 12 back 13 up with 14 round/back 15 out 16 for 17 out for 18 out 19 back 20 forward to 21 in 22 into/at 23 on 24 out on/on to 25 through/over 26 through 27 up 28 up 29 up, down 30 forward to 31 up to 32 at 33 down on 34 up 35 on 36 through Exercise 173 1 to/round 2 ahead/on 3 round 4 for Son 6 out 7 into/over 8 off 9 up 10 out II in for 12 out 13 down 14 round 15 up to/over to 16 through 17 back on 18 through with 19 up 20 into 21 down 22 back 23 over/through 24 off 25 along/on 26 off/away 27 away/off 28 in for 29 across/upon 30 up 31 without 32 down 33 round 34 on with 35 out 36 down

Exercise 174 1 in 2 away with 3 aback 4 through Sup 6 up 7 down 8 after 9 after 10 over 11 up 12 back 13 up against 14 to 15 away with 16 up 17 down 18 off 19 over/through 20 to 21 over 22 for 23 into 24 in 25 for 26 out of 27 out 28 on 29 away 30 in 31 down 32 down 33 on/over 34 into 35 in 36 over Exercise 175 1 down 2 away 3 at 4 into 5 down 6 in 7 down 8 off 9 out 10 on II down 12 on 13 for 14 off 15 out 16 in 17 down 18 at 19 for 20 off 21 up 22 out 23 down 24 off 25 in 26 up 27 out 28 off 29 back 30 up 31 out 32 into 33 over 34 up 35 out of 36 out/up Exercise 176 1 away 2 back 3 up 4 off 5 for 6 back 7 off 8 out 9 off/out 10 up II down 12 up 13 away 14 out 15 up 16 away 17 on 18 in 19 up 20 off 21 down to 22 up 23 out 24 out/off 25 up with 26 up 27 on 28 up for 29 up 30 out 31 up 32 down 33 up 34 forward/on 35 out 36 down Exercise 177 1 away 2 back 3 down 4 in 5 through 6 off 7 off 8 out of 9 off 10 in 11 away 12 up 13 down 14 out 15 out 16 on 17 in with 18 down/on 19 down 20

up/away 21 off 22 off 23 over 24 off 25 in 26 up 27 up 28 off 29 up 30 down 31 off 32 out 33 back on 34 out/on 35 round 36 out Exercise 178 1 about 2 for 3 away with 4 for 5 out/off 6 over/about 7 for 8 up 9 away 10 off/out 11 through 12 for 13 up 14 round/to 15 out 16 up 17 up 18 over 19 up 20 up 21 round 22 in 23 about/around 24 out 25 out 26 away 27 down 28 out 29 up 30 on 31 up 32 down 33 up 34 up 35 on to 36 up Exercise 179 l out 2 out of 3 up 4 about 5 back 6 in 7 out 8 back 9 up 10 up to 11 for 12 out 13 up 14 out 15 up 16 up 17 up to 18 in 19 up 20 up 21 in 22 out 23 back 24 on 25 for 26 away 27 into 28 out 29 out 30 on 31 by 32 up 33 off 34 up for 35 down 36 off Exercise 180 1 over 2 out 3 for 4 off 5 up 6 out 7 to/about 8 out 9 up 10 in/out/round 11 away 12 through 13 back 14 up 15 up 16 out 17 up 18 out 19 out of 20 out 21 away 22 after 23 up with 24 up 25 to/about 26 up with 27 in/up 28 out 29 down 30 out 31 up/in 32 back 33 off 34 away 35 up 36 out Exercise 181 1 down 2 up

3 off 4 up 5 up 6 down 7 in 8 up 9 out 10 up II in 12 at 13 up 14 up 15 up 16 with 17 out 18 on 19 off 20 up 21 out 22 out 23 on 24 up 25 down 26 for 27 out for 28 up 29 off, off 30 on 31 without 32 out 33 down 34 up 35 out 36 up to Exercise 182 1 out of 2 out for 3 up to 4 up to 5 up with 6 up against 7 up for 8 away with 9 back on 10 out of II up for 12 away with 13 in with 14 up with/in 15 on with 16 on to 17 away with 18 up to 19 back on 20 out for 21 round to 22 over to 23 up to 24 out of 25 up with 26 up with 27 up to 28 down on 29 forward to 30 out to 31 on with 32 out of 33 out on/on to 34 up with 35 up, down 36 in for Exercise 183 1 account for 2 blew it up 3 broke off 4 called off 5 carry out my orders/carry my orders out 6 catch up with them/catch them up 7 clear up a mystery/clear a mystery up 8 came across 9 come off 10 came round/to 11 cutting road deaths down/cutting down road deaths 12 enter for/go in for 13 get off/out of 14 get out of it 15 gave out the names/gave

the names out 16 give up smoking 17 go up, come down 18 went into/looked into 19 set off/out 20 take up 21 bring up children/bring children up 22 held up 23 turn up 24 picked Spanish up/picked up Spanish 25 up to you 26 jump at it 27 keep off 28 keep up with him 29 knocked him out 30 let you off 31 getting over it 32 leave/miss out or leave/miss . out 33 looking them up 34 make up for 35 mix up 36 pay me back/out Exercise 184 1 Let me in 2 looked at her 3 rang him up 4 look after 5 made it up 6 pull through 7 look out 8 put off 9 look on him 10 put on uniform 11 look into 12 looked through me 13 look up my sister/look my sister up 14 put out 15 put up 16 put you all up 17 ring up 18 runs down his own garden 19 run down 20 running into 21 run up against 22 put in for 23 call in/send for 24 settle down 25 sat/stayed up 26 stand for 27 stood by him 28 takes after him 29 took up golf 30 taking me in 31 throw/give up a good job 32 turned down her application/turned her application down 33

turned out 34 wound up 35 work out 36 took on, worn out, give it up Exercise 185 1 went 2 broken 3 set 4 turn 5 wore 6 called 7 wait 8 call/put 9 put 10 try 11 get 12 come 13 knock 14 leave Intake 16 sent 17 carrying 18 let 19 put 20 hand/pass 21 looks 22 go/keep 23 turning 24 move 25 put/switch/turn 26 put 27 puts 28 Come 29 put 30 see 31 got/jumped 32 get 33 taken 34 took 35 took 36 showing Exercise 186 1 up to 2 brought up 3 break up 4 caught up with 5 been up to 6 do up 7 drew up 8 fill in 9 got up 10 gave it up 11 gave up 12 went up to 13 grow up 14 held up 15 keep up with 16 picked up 17 make up for 18 pick up 19 lock up 20 pulled up/drew up 21 put up with 22 tied up 23 mixed up 24 locked up 25 ring him up, look up 26 turned up 27 took up 28 put up 29 settle up 30 make up 31 make up 32 wash up 33 stood up for 34 wound up 35 stay up/sit up 36 sat up Exercise 187 1 dropped out 2 carry out 3 breaks out 4 cut it out 5 find out 6 getting out 7 died out 8 cut/leave out 9 make out

10 backed out 11 throw out 12 pick out 13 keep out 14 looking out 15 Look/Watch out 16 sold out 17 ran out 18 rub it out 19 pointed out 20 see/show you out 21 turned out 22 set out 23 put out 24 moving out 25 wipe out 26 work/find out 27 find out 28 put out 29 wear them out 30 blew out 31 gone out 32 let them out 33 fall out 34 come out 35 look out/watch out 36 stands out Exercise 188 1 turned it down 2 running down 3 took it down 4 Put it down 5 settle down 6 took over 7 talk it over 8 ran away 9 let me down 10 went over/through 11 backed away 12 closing down 13 got over 14 look down 15 broke down 16 look it over 17 backed away 18 clear away 19 ran away 20 shouted down 21 was over 22 do away 23 die down 24 burnt down 25 broke down 26 turned away 27 boiled over 28 give it away 29 handed down 30 puts away 31 got/ran away 32 talk over 33 cut down 34 come/go down 35 went down/were over 36 turn over Exercise 189 1 get on 2 take over 3 jump at 4 taken aback 5 make up 6 carry on 7 think it

over 8 breaks up 9 look in 10 fix you up 11 turn it down 12 hanging about 13 turn up 14 taking on 15 closing down 16 settled down 17 picked up 18 handed over 19 take to 20 looking Bill up and down 21 care for 22 go on 23 put on 24 take off 25 pointed out 26 answer me back 27 fell out 28 stand up for 29 keep out 30 look up 31 looking for 32 puts customers off 33 fall off 34 make out 35 ordered about 36 put up with 37 broke out 38 put in 39 make up for 40 taken in Exercise 190 1 got up 2 washed up 3 set out/off 4 pick up 5 get on 6 turned out 7 care for 8 took to 9 brought up 10 pointing out 11 showing off 12 turn/switch off 13 burn down 14 ring up 15 switch/turn off 16 get in 17 locked up 18 break in 19 go up 20 rang up 21 see to 22 held on 23 got in 24 turned/switched off 25 went on 26 got out 27 handing/passing round 28 pulled/drew up 29 let you off 30 get away with 31 put out 32 put up with 33 looks up to 34 grows up 35 looking toward to 36 looking for 37 fed up 38 caught up with

39 dying away 40 keep up with 41 get to 42 put us up 43 sold out 44 talking over