Language learning | English » Gerund and Infinitives


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Source: http://www.doksinet GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES I) VERBS THAT ARE NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND acknowledge admit adore anticipate appreciate avoid celebrate confess consider contemplate delay deny describe detest discuss dislike dread endure enjoy fancy finish imagine involve keep justify mention mind miss omit postpone practise/practice quit recall recommend regret report resent resume risk suggest tolerate understand Examples: 1) I adore reading your books. 2) They anticipated winning the election. 3) I detest going to discos. 4) We postponed making any decision in the meeting. 5) I quit smoking. 6) Do you recall seeing someone like that? 7) I enjoy exercising. 8) I’ve considered joining a gym. WATCH OUT: There are many common expressions with go + gerund. These expressions usually describe activities, such as shopping, fishing, skiing, swimming, and camping. For example: We often go swimming in the lake. Yesterday I went shopping for a new pair of running shoes. II)

VERBS THAT ARE FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVE 1) Certain verbs can be followed by an infinitive (to + base form of the verb) 2) Some of these verbs are followed directly by an infinitive. agree, begin, fail, plan, refuse, seem 3) Some verbs need an object (noun or pronoun) before the infinitive. advise, encourage, order, tell, urge, warn 4) Some verbs can be followed by either: 1) an infinitive or 2) an object + infinitive. ask, expect, help, need, want, would like 5) Form a negative infinitive by placing not before the infinitive. I want to get married. I asked Annie to help me. He decided to write to Annie. I hope to get a quick reply. I invited Mary (object) to celebrate with us. I reminded her (object) to come. They urged John (object) to call her. He wants to leave. He’s tired He wants you to leave. You’re tired Lee remembered not to call after 5:00. (Lee didn’t call after 5:00) Ana told me not to go to class. (Ana: “Don’t go. The teacher is sick”) Van told me not to give

up. (Van: “Don’t give up.”) Van didn’t tell me to give up. (Van didn’t say anything.) Source: http://www.doksinet III) VERBS WHICH CAN BE FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND OR INFINITE With NO change in meaning: begin continue hate like love neglect prefer start try Example: 1) He began to learn English when he was eight. / He began learning English when he was eight. 2) I hate to leave early. / I hate leaving early With a change in meaning: forget remember stop Example 1: I forgot to feed the cat. (The cat is hungry He has not been fed) I forgot feeding the cat. (The cat is ok I fed him and then forgot about it) Example 2: Marta forgot to meet Richard. (Marta has plans to meet Richard, but she didn’t meet him because she forgot about the plans.) Marta forgot meeting Richard. (Marta met Richard, but afterwards she didn’t remember the event.) Example 3: Richard remembered to mail the invitation. (First he remembered Then he mailed the invitation. He didn’t forget) Richard

remembered mailing the invitation. (First he mailed the invitation Then he remembered that he did it.) Example 4: Marta stopped to eat ice cream. (She stopped another activity in order to eat some ice cream) Marta stopped eating ice cream. (She doesn’t eat ice cream anymore) IV) VERBS AFTER PREPOSTIONS against at after by on instead of about Examples: 1) I am against smoking in public places. 2) She is good at speaking English. 3) I went home after leaving the party. 4) You can improve your English by using the Internet. 5) We need to keep on going. 6) You should tell the truth instead of lying all the time. 7) We can talk about going home. 8) I’m tired of hearing excuses. 9) You can’t learn English without making mistakes. 10) Do you have ideas for improving life on campus? 11) She believes in (not) compromising. of without for in Source: http://www.doksinet EXERCISE. Infinitive or Gerund ? After a main verb, you may need to use an infinitive or a gerund. 1) Do

you want the new exhibition? in visiting to visit visiting visit 2) I adore coffee cake. in eating to eat eating eat 3) I was too tired anything. to doing to do doing do 4) I am looking forward University in September. to start start starting to starting 5) Would you rather in the country or in the city? in living to live living live 6) I started German when I was 40. in learning to learn learn on learning 7) You are not allowed in pubs and restaurants in Ireland. smoking to smoke smoke at smoking 8) I dont mind until you have finished. to wait wait to waiting waiting 9) We managed the report finished in time for the meeting. get to get getting with getting Source: http://www.doksinet 10) I am afraid . of flying at flying in flying with flying 11) The rowing team expects at least a silver medal. win to win of winning winning 12) He has never been able to get used

in England after spending all that time abroad. to living living to live with living 13) I used in Nottingham. to live living live at living 14) Would you like to the cinema with me? going went to go in going 15) The company decided its production plant to China. on moving with moving move to move 16) She arranged them at the airport. meeting to meet meet in meeting 17) We ought an answer to the customer asap. to get get getting in getting 18) You should give up . with smoking smoking on smoking at smoking Source: http://www.doksinet 19) He never hesitates anyone who needs it. helping help to help in helping 20) We are tired her complain all the time. of hearing to hear hear with hearing 21) I regret my exams. fail to fail failing in failing 22) She risked herself. hurting to hurt hurt for hurting 23) He told me myself. to help helping to helping help 24)

I wish a phone call. for making to make make making 25) I intend a new assistant. hire to hiring on hiring to hire Sources: FUCHS, Marjorie. & BONNER, Margaret Grammar Express For self-study and classroom use. Person Education Company: Longman, 2002 http://www.quiacom/jq/88783html