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r ^ ENERGY COAST UTC mPOWffiSSG FUrUBE QENEW.TIONS Edexcel English Literature Macbeth I I ^ Revision Booklet Name: REMINDER 1 ll I In the exam you will have to answer two questions on Macbeth. The first question will present you with an extract from the play and ask you to write about either how a theme or character is presented. The second question will ask you about how a character, theme or setting is presented in the play as a whole. You must answer both questions! I 2 r 1 c% >.,» v ii DONT PANIC! I Macbeth is a long play, and there seems to be so much to learn. However, once you have finished this revision guide, you will have reduced everything you need down into the following: 5 revision cards about key themes (big ideas that Shakespeare was writing about) I A list of 10 key quotations 5 revision cards about context (the time that the play was written) A poster about how to get your grade in the exam And thats it; you/ll be ready. By the way,

dont worry - were not expecting you to have done all of the above before the mock! You have until the real exam so you have plenty of I time. So: /screw your courage to the sticking-place" as Lady Macbeth says, and lets get started. Below are some things to help you along the way: STUCK? These sections help you get un-stuck STRETCH! These sections aim for top marks 3 I M CONTENTS 1) 2) 3) Plot revision Character revision Key vocabulary 4) Themes 5) Top Ten Quotations 6) Context 7) Language Analysis 8) Techniques 9) Exam Practice 10) Extension: Detailed quotation sheets 11) Chain of Events 12) Character Analysis 13) Exam Style Questions ) ; 4 r 1) PLOT REVISION First task: Go to YouTube and search Cliffnotes Macbeth Plot. Listen to the video • Complete the boxes below, adding in what you think are the main 5 things that happen in each act. Main events in Act 1 - Example: Macbeth and Banquo meet 3 witches on the way back from battle Main events in

Act 2 Main events in Act 3 I 5 I Main events in Act 4 Main events in Act 5 - Example: Macbeth and Banquo meet 3 witches on the way back from battle STUCK? STRETCH! What are the turning points in the plot of Use what you have seen in the video to Macbeth? A turning point is a part of the play complete a comic strip version of the plot, on where a character changes; they see things in a the attached sheet. Explain what is happening different way, or something happens that has a in each panel. dramatic effect on their future. These are the parts of the play that the exam is likely to focus on. Watch a second video; go to YouTube and search for Video Sparknotes Macbeth. Then below, list what you think are the main 5 turning points in the play. These are the places that the extract in the exam is likely to come I from. Turning Points D 2) 3) 4) 5) 6 2) CHARACTER REVISION For each character, write one thing that the chosen quotations show about their character. STUCK?

STRETCH! Use the detailed quotation sheets in section 9 Use the detailed quotation sheets in section 9 to give you some ideas at the back of the booklet to try and add some related quotations (quotations that use similar words or talk about similar ideas)to each character. Try to add at least two to each character sheet. 7 §« 8 c S3® •o » 0 w •»>» w 3"c Si. 3 3 e> B8 ® co > ST 3 3 3 <Q s a> T» <Q S0 2 3 3 &z m x sr 8 0 ® 0 Q. f»k w "0 ? §•& 02 <» s 0 •3 ® 3 w ii i a "t w Wt %1 tt ^si 0 8 r MACBETH Act 1 At the start of the play he is: brave violent ambitious Sargent: brave Macbeth e.g this sfiows tliat fie is courageous on tfie ^attCefieCcC Macbeth: I dare do all that becomes a man Macbeth: So foul and fair a day I have not seen. I Act 2 Here he becomes more: unbalanced dishonest unpredictable He has a fatal vision of a dagger of the mind He could not say Amen Act 3

Here he becomes more: murderous unwell paranoid full of scorpions is my mind, dear wife He speaks of his terrible dreams and how he lacks sleep. To Lady Macbeth, who asks about his plans for Banquo and his family: be innocent of the I knowledge, dear Chuck Act 4 Here he is described in terms that are: Evil Devilish Tyrannical Wishes an eternal curse on the witches Malcolm: black Macbeth Act 5 At the end he is: Insane Accepting Punished Says he hasI have lived long enough About Lady Macbeth: she should have died hereafter. Malcolm: this dead butcher and his fiend-like queen. 9 ll Consolidation: What three songs would you associate with Macbeth, at the beginning, middle and end of the play? Write your playlist here: D 2) 3) Tracking Macbeth through the Play Climax Rising ^ Action Denouement Conflict Crisis I Exposition . Exposition-Act i Conflict Crises Act i Rising Action Act 4 "Brave Macbeth" "If it were done when tis done, then "From

this moment, The very firstlings of my heart shall be The firstlings of my hand." twere well it were done quickly". Conflict Crises Act 2 "Mine eyes are made the fools oer the other senses" Climax Act 5 "I will not yield, To kiss the ground before young Malcolms feet." Conflict Crises Act 3 "The time has been That when the brains were out,the man would die, And there an end. But now they rise again" Conflict Crises Act 2 "Me thought I heard a voice cry, sleep no more, 10 •I LADY MACBETH Act 1 At the start of the play she is: ambitious dominant manipulative Come you spirits [.] unsex me here look like thinnocent flower, but be the serpent undert When you durst do it then you were a man. Act 2 Here she becomes more: unashamed aggressive deceitful I shame to wear a heart so white Banquo says what has happened to the king is not for you to hear Shouts help me hence! and is carried out. Act 3 Here she becomes more:

practical quick-thinking insulting Whats done is done. Tells Macbeth to be bright and jovial Ask him Are you a man? I Act5 At the end she is: Insane Guilt-ridden Suicidal Hell is murky will these hands neer be clean? Malcolm: fiend-like queen Consolidation: If you were Lady Macbeth, who would you invite to your ideal dinner party? What kind of people might you get on with? Write three guests here: D 2) 3) I 11 ^ r 1 B I THE WITCHES Act 1 At the start of the play they are: mysterious repulsive supernatural Fair is foul and foul is fair Macbeth: so foul and fair a day I have not seen Lady Macbeth talks to you spirits and calls them murdering ministers Act 2 and 3 In Acts 2 and 3 there area lot of words and phrases that remind us of the witches and evil: Lady Macbeth hears the owl scream just like the raven she heard in Act 1. Macbeth talks of the bat and the crow at the end of Act 3. Macbeth tells the murderers that your spirits shine through you. Act 4 Here the

witches are: All-powerful deceitful influential I the charm is firm and good None of woman born shall harm Macbeth Macbeth shall never vanquished be until Birnham wood comes to Dunsinane castle I Act 5 Malcolm:black Macbeth Macduff: hell-hound. Consolidation: If you could summon up the witches in three objects, what would they be? List them here: D 2) 12 fc M r 1 I KING DUNCAN Duncan is only ever shown to be: Saint-like wise generous Macbeth: has an absolute trust with Duncan Macbeth: I am his kinsman and his subject Macduff: (Duncan is dead by this point in Act 4) a sainted king MINOR CHARACTERS I Write a couple of sentences about who these characters are, and how they are important to the play. If youre stuck, Google BBC Bitesize Macbeth Malcolm Macduff I I Banquo Fleance I 13 iB 3) KEY VOCABULARY In the boxes in the character section, there are many key descriptive words that can be used in the exam. Write down 5 key words for each character, which

you can remember for the exam MACBETH D 2) 3) 4) 5) LADY MACBETH D 2) 3) 4) 5) THE WITCHES I D 2) KING DUNCAN D 2) 4) THEMES I Themes are the big ideas that all books and films explore: things like love, power, and ambition. These are 5 of the main themes explored in Macbeth: Power and ambition Sin and guilt Gender (the different expectations we have of men and women) Nature and the supernatural Appearance and reality (this includes lies and deceit) For each one, make a revision card. This should include: • A title, showing the theme • A picture to represent the theme • Three key things that happen in the play, related to the theme Two key quotations from the play A sentence about what Shakespeare is saying about this them in Macbeth There is an example over the page. 14 a Theme: Power and ambition ^^% ^- / ^ r~ fe Three key things: Two key quotations: 1) The witches give Macbeth the idea of being "Vaulting ambition, which oerleaps itself shows

Macbeth is nervous about his ambition. 2) Lady Macbeth wants to kill the king when "The fatal entrance of Duncan" shows Lady he visits Dunsinane castle Macbeth wants to kill the king. 3) Macbeth murders Banquos family to What is Shakespeare saying about this: Ambition and power should not stop people from knowing right from wrong. prevent Banquos sons from being kings STUCK? I STRETCH! Write a single sentence about what each of the Once you have finished the context section (6), themes actually means, e.g Power is when you start to discover the links between theme and can tell other people what to do and you are context by adding one element of context to very important. each theme revision card that you have made. I 15 a 5) TOP TEN QUOTATIONS Okay, so this has been going on for a while now. I think that you might have an idea which 10 quotations, if you only choose 10 to remember, are the most important in the play. Have a look back through your theme

revision cards, and the character revision section of this booklet. Then choose your top 10 quotations, and write them here: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. STUCK? STRETCH! Create 3 flashcards for your top 3 groups of Stuck? Google Mr Bruff Macbeth Song which quotations. These could be eg Night and is awful but has some great Macbeth darkness or illness or madness. Think about quotations in it! That should help you to choose your top 10. what semantic fields (groups of words) keep coming up in the play. Why might this be? 16 r 6) CONTEXT Watch the first 9 minutes of Miss Coles context video (go to You Tube and search for Miss I Cole Macbeth Context). Answer the following questions to make sure that you understand what context is, and how the context of Macbeth affected the choices that Shakespeare made when he wrote this play. 1) What does context actually mean? List 3 types of context that the video mentions: 2) Who was on the throne when Shakespeares early plays were

written? I 3) What did Shakespeare do to challenge stereotypes of women at the time (most people thought that women were inferior and the possessions of men meaning it was a patriarchal society)? 4) The next person on the throne was James I. Which famous plotter tried to kill James I? How? 5) What is regicide? I 6) Why did Shakespeare decided that Macbeth had to die at the end of the play, according to this video? 7) Which elements of the play would appeal to James Is interest in the supernatural? 8) What message does the end of the play give the audience about being involved with supernatural forces such as ghosts and witches, according to this video? 17 k 9) What happens in the play that shows what Macbeth has done? When he killed the king, was it a sin against God? 10) The Great Chain of Being put Kings next to God in the natural order of the world. How does Macbeth disrupt this natural order? 11) How does Shakespeare make sure the natural order (the Great Chain of

Being) is restored by the end of the play to please King James I? TEST YOURSELF! Make a revision card, explaining what each of these things are, and what they have to do with Macbeth. If you can, find a quotation that relates to this and add it to the card 1) James I 2) Guy Fawkess 3) The supernatural 4) Religion 5) The Great Chain of Being STRETCH! STUCK? Just write one sentence, explaining what each Extension: Google Stuart Knott Prezi Macbeth of the five things on the last page has to do Tragic Hero. Add how these are relevant to with Macbeth. Macbeth. Relating Macbeth to the ancient tradition of tragic theatre will really impress the examiners! 18 1) Tragic hero 2) Tragic flaw 3) Peripeteia 4) Catharsis I 7) LANGUAGE ANALYSIS Something that makes a big difference in your grade in English Literature is how good you are at analysing language. Analysing language means talking about: I • What words make us think about the characters Things that we associate with

these words • How these words make us feel about the characters I There is a simple acronym to remember this: ICE. I nference (tell us all of the things that this word suggests about what is happening) •onnotations (tell us what we normally associate with this word, if its relevant) .ffect (tell if this changes how we think or feel, at this point in the play) Over the page are some key quotations from the play. Underneath each one, please pick out some of the key words and analyse them, using ICE to help you. 19 ll 1) Lady Macbeth: "Look like the innocent flower, but be the serpent under it." Inference - what this suggests about what is happening Lad:) McLcBetfi is suggesting tfwit Mac6et^sfiouC(€ Cie, ancC cover uy w fiat fie ispCcinnmg to do. "f Cower" suggests t fiat fie sfiouCcCCookfragik ancC fictrmkss. But "serpent suggests the ojyjosite. Serpents are sometfiing -we associate witfi eviC, ancCso this suggests tfiat s fie Sncrws •^ fiat

tfiey are doing trying to kiCCa king -is a, sin. iKis fs quite sfiocking to t fie aucCience, as /we can see cCearCy fio^v s fie isyrepCLrecCto commit eviCacts^ricCtfien cover fdem up. Connections - what we associate with key word Effects - if this changes what we think and feel about the characters Now try the following four quotations - use ICE to help you. Remember - you dont need to follow each step for each quotation (youre not a machine!) but use them if it helps. 1) The Witches "Fair is foul and foul is fair" 2) Lady Macbeth "Come you spirits . unsex me here" 20 h 3) Macbeth "Full of scorpions is my mind, dear wife" 1 4) Malcolm "This dead butcher and his fiend-like queen" I Extension: One of the key skills for higher grades is to link the quotations to the plays more sophisticated themes (which you made revision cards about in section 4) and to explore more than I one interpretation of what the quotation shows about the

theme. Here is an example of how to do this: LacCy Macbetft suggestion makes a cCirect Cink Between deceit (Be Cike tfie innocent f Cower) ancCsin (Be Cike tfie seryent uncCer it.) Terfiaps Sfiakesyeare is remincfing tfie audCience t fiat cCecettgoes against QocC. However, tfie quotation afso fias Cots of naturaC imagery in it: a fCawer ancCa seryent. Ma-y^e Sfia^espeare is a(so sfwwing zis t fiat, even tfiougfz it is a sin, it isyart offnmian nature. Now try this with the other four quotations in this section. 21 I ^ r 8) TECHNIQUES There are some technical terms (specialist words that you mostly use in English lessons) that you need to remember for this exam, and the other English Literature exams. These are listed below: • Verb Adjective Alliteration Simile Metaphor • Personification • Onomatopoeia Soliloquy Dialogue Question A doing word, usually an action A describing word Words starting with the same letter, so we link them Saying something is like or as

something else Saying something is something else Describing an object as if it can think or act A sound word like bang or boom A person speaking on their own to the audience Two people speaking to each other Often used to show uncertainty or panic Imperative (command) Often used to show dominance or confidence When an object or animal represents an idea Symbol Juxtaposition Placing opposites together so we think about the links To practice these, go back to the quotations in the previous section of the guide, and put a ring around at least one of these, and label it. There is an example below 1) "look like the innocent flower, but be the serpent under it." Symbol - The serpent is a symbol of evil Imperative - Lady Macbeth is commanding Macbeth to lie 2) The Witches "Fair is foul and foul is fair" 3) Macbeth "Full of scorpions is my mind, dear wife" 4) Lady Macbeth "Come you spirits . unsex me here" 5) Malcolm "This dead butcher and

his fiend-like queen" 22 » !• r 1 9) EXAM PRACTICE So - how do you pull all this together in the exam in 50 minutes? Easy. First, go to King Alfreds Academy English Channel, and watch the video there, which explains how to get your target grade in the exam, either grade 5 or grades 7-9. Then look at the example paragraphs below. These both follow the steps in the video to put their ideas into a clear paragraph. Use the key to highlight each ingredient in each paragraph This will help you to see how the paragraph was organised. Grade 5 (or perhaps a bit higher) example INGREDIENTS: •^. : -y« Writer and his big idea Evidence Audience Link Time (Theme) (Quotations) (Language analysis) (to rest of play) (Context) How does Macbeth present deception in this scene, and in the play as a whole? At the start of this scene, Shakespeare presents deception by showing how much Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are suffering. Macbeth talks about how they must eat our meal in

fear as if even the basic things like eating and sleeping have been affected by what they have done: killing Duncan and then lying to cover it up. He also speaks about how they both suffer from terrible dreams which are a I torture to the mind. The image of torture is very powerful and shows how much mental pain Macbeth is in because of what hes done.Shakespeare uses repetition of peace and sleep twice in this scene to show that these are going round and round in Macbeths head and hes becoming obsessed by sleep. The audience can really see how he is paying for his deception; hes starting to lose his mind. This links to later in the play when Lady Macbeth is sleepwalking in Act 5 and shes having visions of the blood on her hands crying "Out damned spot!". Perhaps Shakespeare is showing us the terrible mental consequences of deception and regicide. Later on,Shakespeare shows how Lady Macbeth is perhaps better at deception than her husband. She tells him to sleek oer your

rugged looks and be bright and jovial. Macbeth might look rugged because he is a soldier. We know that in Act 1 he defeated the merciless Macdonwald and that he was a hero in battle. Now he has to pretend to be a host to the banquet, and make it seem like hes done nothing wrong. Shakespeare uses imperatives like come on, gentle my Lord to show that Lady Macbeth believes she can make him lie and seem gentle when in fact he is a murderer. However, the audience at the time would probably want him to be discovered and punished. The killing of a king was a terrible sin, as they believed that kings were appointed by God to rule on earth, as part of 23 ll ll the Great Chain of Being. Lying about the killing of a king would be something theyd expect to have terrible consequences. Shakespeare also uses the symbol of the snake to show that what Macbeth does is a sin. The snake is associated with the serpent in the garden of Eden, which tricked Adam and Eve. Shakespeare uses the image of

the snake earlier in the play when Lady Macbeth told Macbeth to look like the innocent flower but be the serpent under it. This is a shocking image of evil in a time when the audience was likely to be much more religious than an audience might be today. Here Shakespeare is clearly showing that deception is extremely evil, and maybe that is why he punishes Macbeth at the end of the play, when Macduff chops off his head and puts Duncans son back on the throne. In conclusion, Shakespeare is showing all the suffering that can be caused by deception, and that people who are deceptive are not rewarded in the end. STUCK? Watch the video again, and make a poster explaining how to do the exam step-by-step. Youll need to pause the video white youre making your poster! STRETCH! Look over the page! ^ 24 Grade 7-9 (nearer 9) example: t] I a Writer and his big Idea Groups Possibility Links Time (of quotations) (different interpretations) (to rest of the play) (context) From the

opening line of this extract, Shakespeare clearly emphasizes that deception is a terrible sin. The image of the snake that he says he has scorched his associations of sin and the devil, particularly to a Jacobean audience who would most likely have been more religious than an audience today. Perhaps the thought of fire and snakes also has overtones of witchcraft, making the audience recall the witches and their casting of the charm which begins the play. Additionally, we have recently heard Lady Macbeth instruct her husband to be the serpent underneath the innocent flower/ which might be seen as another metaphorical image of the Garden of Eden. Altogether, then we can see Shakespeare is evidently condemning Macbeths killing of Duncan. At a time when the population believed in the Divine Right of Kings, the audience would have been likely to understand that deception, and particularly the killing of a king, was a sin. Later on in the extract, Shakespeare shows several of the terrible

consequences of deception, as Macbeth becomes more and more agitated. The repetition of sleep and peace shows that he is becoming physically worn down, and also psychologically affected by the terrible dreams that are a torture to the mind. Throughout the rest of the play, the Macbeths sleep less and less, as they become more paranoid about their deception of their friends the Scottish nobles, and start to believe that others are deceiving them. In Act 5, Shakespeare shows us the most shocking consequence of this, when the audience see Lady Macbeth sleepwalking, and hallucinating the spot of blood that symbolizes her guilt. The line better be with the dead could perhaps be seen to foreshadow Lady Macbeths possible suicide at the end of the play, and Macbeths statement in Act I 5 that I have lived long enough. Additionally, it is worth noting that Lady Macbeth is the character who encourages the deception most, by persuading Macbeth to pretend he is bright and jovial. When she tells

him to sleek oer your rugged looks we could possibly be reminded of the brave Macbeth of Act 1, who fought so bloodthirstily in battle and defeated the merciless Macdonwald. Alternatively, rugged looks might indicate the psychological wear that Macbeth is suffering from as he continues to lie to those around him. The mention of bright and the imagery of light is a stark contrast with the darkness that is descending on the play- perhaps symbolizing Macbeths descent into evil and madness. In conclusion, Shakespeare is clearly denouncing Macbeths deception; he shows its physical and psychological consequences clearly, and prepares the audience for the plays bloody finale. 25 ll M 10) Extension: Detailed Quotation Sheets Macbeth At the start of the play he is: But he is also: brave violent loyal ambitious dishonest afraid Act 1 The sergeant calls him brave Macbeth as he has defeated the merciless Macdonwald King Duncan calls him noble Macbeth all of which show his courage. He

talks about loyalty and duty towards his king, and later how I am his kinsman and his subject. This would be what Jacobean audiences would expect of a nobleman However, he is starting to be influenced by the witches prophesy, using their words when he says So foul and fair a day I have not seen. He starts to be overtaken by vaulting ambition and wants to hide this. He asks stars, hide your fires so that heaven wont see my black and deep desires. He tells his wife we will proceed no further with the plan to murder Duncan, because he fears deep damnation if he does. He is clearly afraid of hell at this point in the play He insists that he is still a man, saying I dare do all that becomes a man but he is clearly worried, asking If we should fail? He doesnt want his manhood to be questioned. I Lady Macbeth fears that he is too full of the milk of human kindness so she needs to persuade him; in Act two she calls him infirm of purpose. Act 2 Here he becomes more: unbalanced dishonest

unpredictable He has a fatal vision of a dagger, even though he knows its just a dagger of the mind He talks about the present horror of the murder; Lady Macbeth says he thinks brainsickly of things. He has another vision of all great Neptunes ocean turning red with blood He talks about how every noise appals me and is evidently becoming unbalanced. He could not say Amen when he heard Duncans children praying, because of guilt. He tells Queens children that their father js^dead. He lies and says that he killed the guards in a fit of rage. Banquo calls his crime gainst nature and blames it on ambition. 26 Act 3 Here he becomes more: murderous unwell paranoid Banquo says Macbeth acted most foully to murder Duncan. Hes afraid he will gain a fruitless I crown because he has no children to inherit it; Banquo has. He says full of scorpions is my mind showing how evil and disturbed his mind has become. He says he has a strange infirmity and calls the vision he has of Banquos

ghost a fit as if hes suffering from a disease. He speaks of his terrible dreams and how he lacks sleep. HeJias a vision of Banguos ghost, He decides not to tell his wife about the murder of Banquos family: be innocent of the knowledge he says. I I Knows that his behaviour will cause more death: blood will have blood this is amosi fatalistic, suggesting that the whole thing is outside of his control. Act 4 Here he is described in terms that are: Evil Devilish Tyrannical He says to the witches I conjure you to tell him what will happen next, in language that makes him seem like a witch. He wishes an eternal curse on them, again like a witch He has a vision of a never-ending line of Banquos children as kings. Malcolm calls him a tyrant and black Macbeth, which associates him with evil. Macduff calls him this fiend of Scotland which associates him with the devil. They plan to put an end to the night of Macbeths rule; again, night is associated with evil and witchcraft. I

Act5 At the end he is: Arrogant Accepting Punished Says hell fight the English army till from my bones my flesh be hacked which foreshadows the end, when Macduff enters with Macbeths head Asks the doctor if hell minister to a mind diseased? When he hears of his wifes suicide, he only says she should have died hereafter. His charmed life ends when he is killed. The final word comes from Malcolm, who describes him as this dead butcher. 27 ll I Lady Macbeth Act 1 At the start of the play she is: But she is also: ambitious dominant practical evil decisive manipulative Macbeth calls her my dearest partner of greatness hinting that he knows that shell help his ambitions. Says she fears his nature as it is too full of the milk of human kindness - she rejects the idea of milk which the audience might associate with a woman and motherhood. She later says she would have dashd the brains out of a feeding baby, if she had promised to. She asks the spirits to unsex me here as if

her role as a woman is holding her back. This behaviour, from a woman, would have shocked a Jacobean audience. She wants to pour my spirits in thine ear, using language which reminds of us of the witches. She also commands come you spirits and wishes for the smoke of hell. She tells Macbeth to be the serpent like in the Garden of Eden. This association with the Devil and hell would be very shocking for a contemporary audience. A raven crows to mark The fatal entrance of Duncan to her castle, making it seem like he is destined to die. She is confident, telling Macbeth to leave all the rest to me and asking him art thou afeard? as if she cant believe he is scared. She comes up with the plan to drug the guards and murder Duncan. She also says that if he darent do it, hes not manly, saying When you durst do it then you were a man. Act 2 Here she becomes more: fragile aggressive deceitful Says Duncan resembled my father as he slept, otherwise shed have done it. Shows that she does

have some family feeling and is not as cold as she would like to think. Hears the owl scream just like the raven she heard in Act 1, showing that she is becoming more fragile and paranoid. Says Macbeth thinks brainsickly of things - she has noticed that his mind is suffering. She comes up with the plan of framing the guards She says I shame to wear a heart so white, using the colour we associate with innocence and Christ as an insult. Banquo says to Lady Macbeth that what has happened to the king is not for you to hear because she is a woman 28 1 She pretends to faint, shouting help me hence and is carried out.She has fooled everyone Act 3 Here she becomes more: practical quick-thinking insulting She is more realistic and says whats done is done. Macbeth starts to protect her, telling her to be innocent of the knowledge of what he intends to do to Banquos family, and calling her dear chuck. Tells him to be bright and jovial in front of his guests, thinking that this kind of

deceit is easy. When Macbeth sees the ghosts, she explains it quickly as an illness that her husband has. She says the fit is temporary. Speaking privately to Macbeth, she asks him Are you a man? Using the more familiar you to be more insulting. Act5 At the end she is: Insane Guilt-ridden Suicidal She is sleepwalkinq; we see this on staqe. She has visions of blood on her hands She insists that she has light by her at all times, recalling the light of heaven. However, she announces that Hell is murky which suggests that she is actually in hell. She says out, damned spot, and asks will these hands neer be clean? This spot of blood is symbol of her guilt; the question shows that it is now her that is fragile and unsure, not Macbeth. We dont see her die; we only hear that there is A cry of women within. This foreshadows Macbeths death later, which also happens off-stage. I Macbeths dismissive reaction to her death (She should have died hereafter) suggests that there was little love

between them. The final words about her are spoken by Malcolm: she calls him Macbeths fiend-like queen which shows her status and importance, but also associates her with the Devil (who is also called a fiend.) 1 29 r The Witches Act 1 Atthestartof the play they are: mysterious repulsive supernatural The stage directions specify thunder and lightening when the witches enter. This could imply that the natural order has been disturbed by the entrance of these evil characters. One of their earliest lines, Fair is foul and foul is fair blurs the line between good (fair) and evil (foul). They appear to have supernatural powers, if they can hover through fog and filthy air. They announce thatThe charms wound up meaning that the spell is cast. A fatalistic view of the play could argue that they are therefore responsible for everything that Macbeth and Lady Macbeth do if they have put them under a spell or charm. Macbeth uses their line in reverse later on, saying so foul and fair

a day I have not seen, illustrating that he is under their influence already. Thev^tell him the first three prophesies: DHewillbeThainofCawdor 2) He will be King (thou shalt be king hereafter) 3) Banquos children will be kings (thou shalt get kings, though thou be none) Banquo asks them if they can look into the seeds of time and say which grain will grow which we see later that they can; all their prophecies come true. Macbeth admits he has been supernatural soliciting (asking for with witches) and this shows that he is responsible too; he wanted to ask for their help. Lady Macbeth later asks come you spirits and later calls these spirits you murdering ministers. I This could be seen as a kind of evil spirit, reminding the audience of the witches Act 2 In acts 2 and 3 there are a lot of words and phrases that remind us of the witches and evil: Lady Macbeth hears the owl scream just tike the raven she heard in Act 1; these haunting noises create an atmosphere of night-time and

evil. Act 3 Macbeth tells the murderers that your spirits shine through you recalling the evil spirits in Act 1, and the spirits and murdering ministers that Lady Macbeth calls on in Act 2. Macbeth talks of the batand the crow at the end of Act 3, at the onset of night, recalling again the owl that Lady Macbeth heard in Act 2. Perhaps this also foreshadows the scream we hear in Act 5 when Lady Macbeth kills herself. 30 ll ll r Act 4 Here the witches are: All-powerful deceitful influential They announce that the charm is firm and good meaning their spell is now working. Macbeth says I conjure you to come and answer his questions; again, he sounds like a witch here. The witches make three more prophesies: 1) Macbeth should beware Macduff 2) None of woman born shall harm Macbeth 3) Macbeth shall never vanquished be until Birnham wood comes to Dunsinane castle Macbeth a vision ola^longjme^anquos^children as kings Macbeth wishes an eternal curse on the witches; he is now

casting his own spells. I Perhaps this is why later Malcolm calls him black Macbeth and at the end of the play, Macduff calls him hell-hound. King Duncan Duncan is only ever shows to be: Saint-Iike wise generous Macbeth says he and Duncan have built up an absolute trust with each other. He is a worthiest cousin to Macbeth He promises that hell make Macbeth full of growing in Act 1 (that is, he will promote Macbeth and look after him) I Macbeth talks about loyalty and duty to the king in Act 2. Macbeth says that hes in their house in double trust because I am his kinsman and his subjecf (meaning a member of his family and also someone he rules over). Macduff remembers how Duncan (who is dead by this point) was a sainted king in A 31 1 i llfMacbeth: a chain of events .w": • Mae66tli.m@gts theWitches^ 4 e" » vy » s ii iljLaiyllJllii! |enc!Ou^jg@s:Msic&eth |M:ae&ethiia§ KBiiluiirted i 1 Morepir.eajctioits Mae&e^i .Kijts Duncaii

ttfflnrthtWjtch.ei sna beeomes Kjn^ i I % » i l.aaylMagBttll syffei^iuijttl w&swf.^i^s Ma&i{uff:;sw&ars Macbith^lSSij revenge:; t * 32 r 11) Character Analysis Character Analysis: Lady Macbeth Lady Macbeth is the wife of Macbeth, she shares his lust for power. Our initial impressions of Lady Macbeth are that she is, as Malcolm describes her at the close of the play, indeed "fiend-like" as, when she learns of Duncans visit to Dunsinane her thoughts turn immediately to killing the King. Without pause, she summons evil "spirits" and commands them to "make thick my blood" so that "no compunctious visitings of Nature" shake her wicked intention to murder the King. Interestingly, in this soliloquy Lady Macbeth imagines committing the murder herself as she asks to be wrapped in the blackest smoke of Hell "so that my keen knife sees not the wound it makes." Later, she privately admits in an aside: "Had he

not looked like my father as he slept, I had donet," suggesting that Lady Macbeth is not as "fiend-like" as is sometimes argued. Certainly, she is not naturally "fiend-like" or she would not have sought assistance from the "murdering ministers" she conjures when the audience first meet her, even though she willingly submits to their wicked influence. I It is arguable that Lady Macbeth is subconsciously repelled by the thought of killing the King because when she is pressuring her husband to commit the deed she avoids using the word "murder"; instead she employs a variety of euphemisms, including: "this enterprise", Duncan being "provided for" or merely "it". However, others argue that Shakespeares employment of euphemisms here is quite deliberate and serves subtly to convey Lady Macbeths wily, artful manipulation of her husband and which, therefore, strengthens the audience impression of her as being truly

"fiend- like". However, once the murder is committed and Lady Macbeth becomes Queen, the dynamics of her relationship with Macbeth undergoes a dramatic transformation. Despite having fulfilled her ambition to become Queen, in an aside to the audience Lady Macbeth privately admits: "Noughts had, alls spent, where our desire is got without content." Ironically, when her husband then enters her own face becomes a mask, disguising what is in her heart as she admonishes Macbeth for entertaining gloomy thoughts which ought to have been buried alongside the body of the dead King Duncan. I I As her ability to influence her husband diminishes - he simply ignores her command to halt his murderous plans for Banquo when she demands: "You must leave this" - Lady Macbeth becomes an increasingly isolated figure. After the banquet scene at which Macbeth arouses suspicions by his erratic behaviour. Lady Macbeth tells him: "You lack the season of all

natures-sleep" Ironically, the audiences final impressions of her are in Act 5 scene 1 where she is sleepwalking, burdened by guilt. The bold figure who instructed evil spirits to "pall thee in the dunnest smoke of Hell" is now a pathetic figure, afraid of the dark. Lady Macbeths gentlewoman tells the Doctor observing her sleepwalk: "She has light by her continually- tis her command." The evil she so willingly embraced betrays her-as it betrays Macbeth-and produces only anguish in place of the rewards she had envisioned. On the night of Duncans murder, their hands bathed in Duncans blood, she boldly claimed: "A little water clears us of this deed." Now, however, she seems unable to rid herself of the stench and spots of blood she imagines cover her hands still. The Doctor fears she is suicidal and claims: "more needs she the Divine than the physician." I 33 I r Character analysis: Macbeth Macbeth is the protagonist in this tragedy:

a tragic hero whose fatal flaw in his character is his ambition, a lust for power shared by his wife. He is aware of the evil his ambition gives rise to but he is unable to overcome the temptation. I Often, Lady Macbeth is wrongly accused of inviting Macbeth to contemplate killing the King. In fact, after his encounter with the witches in Act 1 scene 3, Macbeth himself considers murder when he reflects on their prophecy and admits: "If good, why do I yield to that suggestion Whose horrid image doth unfix my hair And make my seated heart knock at my ribs, Against the use of nature?" He is here acknowledging that the thing he is contemplating - usurping King Duncans crown - is "against the use of nature." Wracked by doubts, in Act 1 scene 7 as he contemplates the murder, Macbeth wavers and informs his wife: "We will proceed no further in this business." Unlike his wifes wily, artful avoidance of the word "murder" during this conversation, it is

clear that Macbeth uses a euphemism here because the very thought of murder frightens him, let alone the deed. Even when criticised and challenged by Lady Macbeth, he retains the moral sensibility to declare: "I dare do all may become a man. / Who dares do more is none." Having submitted to his wifes artful persuasion, Macbeth kills Duncan but is immediately plagued by his conscience. He tells how he "could not say Amen" and of a voice that foretold sleeplessness as punishment for such a heinous act. Though Macbeth is influenced by both the witches and his wife, Macbeth is not controlled by them. His story is one of moral choice and the consequences of that choice. Once Duncan is murdered, Macbeth withdraws from Lady Macbeth and all subsequent murders in this play are the products of Macbeths own paranoia and desperate desire to cling to power "on this bank and shoal of time" here on Earth, knowing he has been condemned to an eternity in Hell for killing

Gods anointed representative on Earth. Having murdered Banquo and Macduffs family, Macbeths paranoia gives way to a more fundamental disorder. In Act 5 we watch as he prepares to defend his kingdom - reduced to his castle at Dunsinane - and he swings violently between fits of rage and despair. Evidently, he has lost any emotional connection to his fellow men, declares that he is "sick at heart" and has "lived long enough". When informed of his wifes death, he is completely unmoved and instead reflects on the meaningless of life itself. Macbeth is a tragic hero precisely because he does not accept his evil callously; he suffers for it. In his own words: "To know my deed, twere best not know myself" 34 k Character Analysis: Banquo Banquo might best be described as a minor character in the tragedy of Macbeth. Nevertheless, he has an important function in the play and is considered by many to be an effective dramatic foil for Macbeth. It is through

Banquos interactions with Macbeth and his own motivations that the audience - through contrast - gain I insights into Macbeths nature also. I Alike in many ways, Banquo and Macbeth are equals as the play begins: both are Scottish "captains" defending Duncans realm against the marauding Norwegians. They fight honourably and are heroic warriors, risking their lives in defence of Duncans kingdom. However, after the battle when they encounter the "weird sisters" on the "blasted heath", Banquos dramatic function is to demonstrate to an audience that the temptations of the witches may be successfully resisted and that Macbeth therefore acts from free will. Banquo expresses unshakeable moral principles and warns his friend that the witches may well be "instruments of darkness" who "tell us truths" in order to "win us to our harm"and to "betray us in deepest consequence." Banquos concern contrasts strikingly with

Macbeths own susceptibility to the witches. Banquos resistance to the influence of evil serves to highlight Macbeths failure to resist and foregrounds his tendency towards evil, stimulated by ambition - the flaw that makes the tragedy possible. I Prompted by paranoid insecurity, when Macbeth decides to murder Banquo he acknowledges Banquos endearing qualities: his "royalty of nature", his "wisdom" and his "dauntless" or fearless nature. This resentment of Banquos natural superiority, together with jealousy of his destiny as a "father to a line of kings", motivates Macbeth to commit further wicked murders in the second half of the play, commencing with Banquos and the attempted murder of his son and heir, Fleance. Banquos fate is determined by his virtue, just as Macbeths is determined by his villainy. I 35 I Character Analysis: The Weird Sisters (Witches) The weird sisters are an unholy trinity, a trio of malevolent, supernatural

characters whose function in the drama is to encourage Macbeth in his evil inclinations. Though their appearances in the play are brief, they have an important function. Shakespeare establishes the supernatural theme via their association with disorder in Nature: they appear amid thunder and lightning in a grim meeting on a "blasted heath" which contributes greatly to the tone of mysterious evil which pervades the play. Likewise, the supernatural world they represent is terrifying to an audience because it is beyond human control and in the play it is symbolic of the unpredictable force of human desire, such as Macbeths ruthless ambition to become King. At their first appearance, the weird sisters state an ambiguity that Shakespeare weaves through the play: "Fair is foul, and foul is fair." Indeed, the witches relationship with Macbeth is so entwined that the first line he speaks in the play is an echo of this riddle. He says: "So fair and foul a day I have

not seen" The deceptive pictures of the future - in their initial prediction of Macbeth becoming King and later in the riddles given by the Apparitions which rise from the cauldron when Macbeth visits the witches for a second time - encourage in Macbeth and Lady Macbeth a false sense of what is desirable and possible. The magic of the witches, then, is their ability to create moral disruption which, in Macbeths case, leads to his death and subsequent damnation. I It is important to remember that while the witches may have "more in them than mortal knowledge", they do not control Macbeth. They merely put ideas into his mind on which he then decides for himself. He is the master of his own destiny and acts out of freewill. 36 a r 12) Practice Exam Questions At this point in the play, Banquo and Macbeth have just met the witches. The witches have just told Macbeth he will one day be the King of Scotland. BANQUO Good sir, why do you start; and seem to fear Things

that do sound so fair? I the name of truth, Are ye fantastical, or that indeed Which outwardly ye show? My noble partner You greet with present grace and great prediction 5 Of noble having and of royal hope, That he seems rapt withal: to me you speak not. If you can look into the seeds of time, And say which grain will grow and which will not, Speak then to me, who neither beg nor fear Your favours nor your hate. I 10 First Witch Hail! Second Witch Hail! Third Witch Hail! First Witch Lesser than Macbeth, and greater. 15 Second Witch Not so happy, yet much happier. Third Witch Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none: So all hail, Macbeth and Banquo! First Witch Banquo and Macbeth, all hail! MACBETH Stay, you imperfect speakers, tell me more: By Sinels death I know I am thane of Glamis; But how of Cawdor? The thane of Cawdor lives, A prosperous gentleman; and to be king Stands not within the prospect of belief, No more than to be Cawdor. Say from whence You owe this

strange intelligence? or why Upon this blasted heath you stop our way With such prophetic greeting? Speak, I charge you. (The Witches vanish) 20 25 Ql: Explore how Shakespeare presents Macbeth as a character who believes in the supernatural power of witches. Write about how Shakespeare presents Macbeths reaction to the witches here and how Shakespeare presents his beliefs in them elsewhere in the play [20 marks]. 37 I, Things to read/think/write about: READ the character analysis of the Witches Macbeths dramatic reaction to the predictions delivered by the "weird sisters". It is so striking that Banquo observes Macbeths facial expression and addresses him directly (see lines 1 - 2). Banquos remark to the witches about Macbeth being "rapt withal". Discuss the significance of this in the context of Macbeths belief in the supernatural. Shakespeares choice of imperative verbs when Macbeth commands the weird sisters (twice on line 20 and again on line 28). The

significance of a series of questions addressed directly to the witches and Shakespeares choice of diction in Macbeths opinion that the witches possess "strange intelligence". What does this series of questions convey to an audience about Macbeths belief in, and attitude towards, the supernatural? Consider the use of dramatic irony here, too. The audience is aware that Duncan has decreed the title Thane of Cawdor is to pass to Macbeth for his bravery in battle. Is Shakespeare trying to shape the audiences opinion of belief in the supernatural? Consider Macbeths aside shortly after the first prediction is realised when Ross brings news that Duncan has bestowed the title Thane of Cawdor on Macbeth. In an aside, Macbeth reflects on the encounter and remarks: "This supernatural solidting/Cannot be good, cannot be ill." Discuss the significance of Macbeths uncertainty about the supernatural being good or evil here. Contrast this with Banquos very different reaction to

the witches and the advice he gives to Macbeth: "And oftentimes, to win us to our harm, The instruments of darkness tell us truths, Win us with honest trifles, to betrays In deepest consequence." Macbeths ignorance of Banquos advice and later visit to the witches. Explain what motivates him to visit them and what this conveys to an audience about his belief in their abilities, given his later bold claim that he bears "a charmed life" which "must not yield / To one of woman born." // The futility and irony of Macbeths final comment in the play, to Macduff: "damned be he who first cries, Hold - enough!" in the context of having already surrendered his soul to the devil for committing the act of regicide. 38 Macbeth Read the following extract from Act 1 Scene 5 of Macbeth and then answer the question that follows. At this point in the play Lady Macbeth is speaking. She has just received the news that King Duncan will be spending the night

at her castle. The raven himself is hoarse That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan Under my battlements. Come, you spirits That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, 5 And fill me from the crown to the toe top-full Of direst cruelty! make thick my blood; Stop up the access and passage to remorse, That no compunctious visitings of nature Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace between 10 The effect and it! Come to my womans breasts, And take my milk for gall, you murdering ministers, Wherever in your sightless substances You wait on natures mischief! Come, thick night, And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell, That my keen knife see not the wound it makes, Nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark, To cryHold, hold! I 15 Ql: Starting with this speech, explain how far you think Shakespeare presents Lady Macbeth as a powerful woman. Write about: • how Shakespeare presents Lady Macbeth in this speech • how Shakespeare presents Lady Macbeth in the play as a whole. [30

marks] SPAG [4 marks] 39 1 Things vou might write about: • The connotations of the "raven" and her use of the adjective "fatal" to describe Duncans entrance to Dunsinane castle. What does it convey about her immediate thoughts and reactions to Macbeths letter? Summoning evil spirits. Explain clearly what Lady Macbeth invites the "murdering ministers" to do to her body and why she requests their assistance. The fact she imagines committing the regicide herself in this soliloquy: she refers to the weapon as "my keen knife". However, she does not later commit the crime herself. What reason does she give for not doing so, in an aside to the audience in Act 2 scene 2, lines 15 -16? Explain what impressions this private admission conveys about Lady Macbeths character to the audience. Think now about Act 3 scene 2, where we first see Lady Macbeth as Queen. In an aside to the audience at the opening of this scene, explain what feelings she

privately admits to, now that her ambition to be queen has been fulfilled. Now think about our final impressions of Lady Macbeth, in Act 5 scene 1. Write about the significance of having "light by her continually" and how this links to her desire to be wrapped in "the dunnest smoke of Hell" when first contemplating Duncans murder. Explain also the irony of her constantly rubbing her hands, given her comment to Macbeth on the night of Duncans murder: "A little water clears us of this deed." KEY WORD VOCABULARY: try to use these words in your response. Check spelling of key terms soliloquy audience impression initial fiendish determined callous ironic admission ambitious significant aside 40 At this point in the play, Macbeth has decided he will not kill King Duncan. He is just about to share this news with his wife, Lady Macbeth. MACBETH We will proceed no further in this business: He hath honourd me of late; and I have bought Golden opinions

from all sorts of people, Which would be worn now in their newest gloss, Not cast aside so soon. 5 LADY MACBETH Was the hope drunk I Wherein you dressd yourself? hath it slept since? And wakes it now, to look so green and pale At what it did so freely? From this time Such I account thy love. Art thou afeard To be the same in thine own act and valour As thou art in desire? Wouldst thou have that Which thou esteems! the ornament of life, And live a coward in thine own esteem, Letting I dare not wait upon "I would, Like the poor cat i the adage? 10 15 MACBETH Prithee, peace: I dare do all that may become a man; Who dares do more is none. I LADY MACBETH What beast wast, then, 20 That made you break this enterprise to me? When you durst do it, then you were a man; And, to be more than what you were, you would Be so much more the man. Ql: Starting with this conversation, explain how far you think Shakespeare presents Lady Macbeth as the dominant partner in this

relationship. Write about: • how Shakespeare presents Lady Macbeth in this speech • how Shakespeare presents Lady Macbeth elsewhere in the play. [30 marks] SPAG [4 marks] 41 I, Things to think and write about: FIRST- Read the character analysis of Lady Macbeth. Highlight useful points and consider where you might synthesise them into your response. Comment on Lady Macbeths violent emotional reaction to Macbeths decision. Comment on Shakespeares choice of imagery here, where Macbeths "hope" is personified by Lady Macbeth in a scathing criticism of his cowardice (see lines 6 to 9). Comment on Macbeths attempt to assert his dominance in this exchange (see lines 17 to 19). Is it successful? What is Macbeths view of murder here? How is it different from hers? • Her use of euphemisms (on lines 21 and 22) to cleverly avoid having to use the word "murder", given Macbeths announcement in this exchange that he will not commit the deed. How does this show her

dominance in their relationship? Explain how the dynamics of their relationship changes once Macbeth usurps Duncans throne. Consider their disagreement over Macbeths plans for Banquo in Act 3 scene 2. How does Lady Macbeth try to assert her dominance in that conversation (see Act 3 Scene 2, lines 25 to 40)? Is she successful? Our final impressions of her: a pitiable, tragic and troubled woman, frightened of the "dunnest smoke of Hell" she so willingly asked to be wrapped in at the beginning of the play. 42 This is from Act 3 scene 1 of the play. At this point in the play, Macbeth is now king of Scotland. His friend Banquo expresses his private fears that Macbeth was involved in the murder of King Duncan. BANQUO I Thou hast it now: king, Cawdor, Glamis, all, As the weird women promised, and, I fear, Thou playdst most foully fort: yet it was said It should not stand in thy posterity, But that myself should be the root and father Of many kings. If there come truth from

themAs upon thee, Macbeth, their speeches shineWhy, by the verities on thee made good, May they not be my oracles as well, And set me up in hope? But hush! no more. 5 10 Enter MACBETH, as king, LADYMACBETH, as queen, LENNOX, ROSS, Lords, Ladies, and Attendants MACBETH Heres our chief guest. LADY MACBETH If he had been forgotten, It had been as a gap in our great feast, And all-thing unbecoming. MACBETH I To-night we hold a solemn supper sir, And Ill request your presence. 15 BANQUO Let your highness Command upon me; to the which my duties Are with a most indissoluble tie Forever knit. 20 Ql: Starting with this conversation, explain how Shakespeare presents the relationship between Banquo and Macbeth. Write about: • how Shakespeare presents their relationship in this conversation how Shakespeare presents the relationship elsewhere in the play. • 43 I, Things to think and write about: FIRST- Read the character analysis of Banquo. Highlight any useful points Think

about where and how you might synthesise these points in your response. The relationship presented in this extract is one of mutual - but unspoken - mistrust. Look closely at Banquos aside, where he reflects on Macbeths recent gains. Explain what emotion Banquo privately expresses here and what this conveys to the audience about the reality of their relationship as friends at this point in the play. Macbeths reference to Banquo as the "chief guest" at the "solemn supper" to be held later the same evening - an ironic comment given Macbeths soliloquy immediately after this conversation when he admits that his "fears in Banquo stick deep", followed by a plot to murder him. Explain Banquos function in the play. Discuss the qualities that Banquo and Macbeth have in common. (Look at the first five lines ofMacbeths soliloquy Act 3 scene 1 lines 50 to 55, where Macbeth explains what those qualities are!) Explain why Shakespeare presents these two characters as

being so similar in many ways. Now, explain the major difference between them and in what wav Banquos virtue shapes the audiences opinion of Macbeths vice. You might refer to the way the two men react differently to the witches and their predictions in Act 1 scene 3 to illustrate how they are dissimilar in one very significant way. You might discuss the significance and the irony of Banquos ghost honouring Macbeths request, delivered in this extract: "To-night we hold a solemn supper sir,/ And Ill request your presence." Plagued by a guilty conscience, the betrayer is tormented by the ghost of his innocent victim. None of the guests yet know Banquo is dead. Ironically, the guests assume that Macbeth is being haunted by the ghost of someone else, perhaps Duncan. Macbeths seemingly bizarre conversation with "a stool" incriminate him in a murder and so Banquos initial suspicion in this extract, that Macbeth "pla/dst most foully" for Duncans crown is a

suspicion now entertained by all the guests at this supposedly "solemn supper." 44