ALIENATION AS THE IMPACT OF RACISM TOWARD THE WHITE CHARACTER IN THE NOVEL “TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD” BY HARPER LEE RESEARCH PROPOSAL Susilawati 63708013 ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS INDONESIA UNIVERSITY OF COMPUTER BANDUNG 2012 RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1. Background of the Study To kill a Mockingbird is the one and first work of the well-know author, Harper Lee. The novel tells about the life of Finch family in the small town of Maycomb, Alabama during the racism era. Racism become common in America since the white makes the doctrine of White Supremacy, “all members of the white race are superior to or better than all members of the nonwhite races” (Scaefer, 2000:83). The White claims that their race as “higher” superiorities in [A1] megjegyzést írt: Redudancy, superior itu sudah berarti high the society and do not want to blend with others, whereas the nonwhite as the inferior race that being the victims of racism by the White. The writer interested to
analyze the novel To Kill a Mockingbird since the writer found that not only the nonwhite but also the White as the superior race is being the victim of racism. The main characters of the novel, Scout and Jem are being alienated by the society in Maycomb since Atticus defend a nonwhite race, Tom Robinson who accused of raping a white, Mayella Ewell. This research entitled “Alienation as the Impact of Racism toward the White Characters in the Novel To Kill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee”, focuses on the white characters, Scout and Kem who are alienated by the society in Maycomb, Alabama both white and nonwhite society. [A2] megjegyzést írt: Perhatikan antara independent clause dan dependent clause 2. Research Questions Problems of the present study are formulated in the following questions: 1. How does alienation as the impact of racism toward the white characters described in the novel To Kill A Mockingbird? 2. What does the motive of the main characters being alienated in the
society of Maycomb both white and nonwhite society? 3. [A3] megjegyzést írt: Perbaiki research question sesuai dengan yan suda didiskusikan. Objectives Solutions of the present study are formulated in the following: 1. To explain the alienation as the impact of racism toward the white characters in the novel To Kill A Mockingbird? 2. To explain the motive of the main characters being alienated in the society of Maycomb both white and nonwhite society? 3. Significant to Knowledge The writer expects that this research will give significant benefit in the form of information, especially for English Department students who manage themselves to increase their knowledge in racism studies. [A4] megjegyzést írt: Samakan objective dengan research questions 4. The Framework of The Theory In this research, the writer uses sociological approach to analyze the alienated characters. Sociological approach is a kind of literary approach that focuses on human problems and as a
reflection of social life, the relationship between the networks and systems of values in society occurring in the social environment. The concept of racism is derived from the word race: a population that differs from other populations in the incidence of various heredity traits. Race could be divided to different ethnic, physical appearance, language and culture. Most frequent racial issue in debate is the racism of different skin color, between white and nonwhite race: Negro, Nigger, African-American or Black people. The doctrine of White supremacy made by the white says that “all members of the white race are superior to or better than all members of the nonwhite races” (Scaefer, 2000:83). From the quotation, The White claims that their race as “higher” superior in the society and do not want to blend with others, beside the nonwhite race as the inferior that are being the impacted race by racism, i.e (1) they become slavery and low-paid workers, (2) racial discrimination
(3) prejudice, (4) school segregation, etc. In the real life, racism is not only impact toward nonwhite but also the white itself as the superior race. Racism can cause the Alienation Alienation refers to estrangement, division, or distancing of people from each other or of people from what is important or meaningful to them, or of a person from their own sense of self. To Kill a Mockingbird Harper Lee The Impact of Racism The Nonwhite: African American, Black or The White Negro Slavery Racial discrimination Alienation Prejudice School segregation etc 5. Research Method a. Data Collection The writer uses the analytic descriptive method in this research. According to Whitney (1960), “Analytic descriptive method is fact-finding with the proper interpretation. In that method, the writer could compare the data and the case Determining and analyzing are also used in this method”. The data taken from To kill a Mockingbird novel by Harper lee. The writer collect the data
that was found related closely with the materials. Then analyze the data by using the sociological approach related to racism issue. b. Data Analysis Data 1 “When they saw Jem and me with Calpurnia, the men stepped back and took of their hats; the women crossed their waists, weekly gestures of respectful attention. They parted and made a small pathway to the church door for us. Calpurnia walked between Jem and me, responding to the greetings of her brightly clad neighbor.” (Lee, 1982:157) Data 2 “Jem said, “Let’s go home, Cal, they don’t want us here” I agree: they did not want us here. I sensed, rather than saw, that we were being advanced upon.” (Lee, 1982:159) [A5] megjegyzést írt: Baiknya dijabarkan dulu saja The two data above show that the main characters in the novel, Scout and Jem are being alienated by the nonwhite. Jem and Scout are invited to a special nonwhite church by Calpurnia. The nonwhite in the church assumes Jem and Scout as their enemies while
they are two children who do not have any power but the part of white race. The main cause of that is racism Racism is very harmful thing for nonwhite in various aspects of life, such as a school segregation, church segregation, public transportation segregation, etc. Therefore, the nonwhite turned back alienated white. [A6] megjegyzést írt: Alineation itu nonwhite ke white or white ke white? Data 3 “Francis rose and sprinted down the catwalk to the old kitchen. At a safe distance he called, “he’s nothing’ but a nigger-lover!”(Lee, 1982:110) The data shows that Scout is being alienated by her family. Francis is the cousin of Scout and Jem. On holidays Scout and Jem visited Francis’s home The new that Atticus (Scout and Jems father) defended a nonwhite has been spread in Alabama. Not only Atticus’s family but also almost the people in Maycomb did not agree with the decision of Atticus because white think that it is useless to defend a black man, his deep they are
just garbage, savage, servant, primitive, simpleminded and yet the most worldly and accomplished wildlife, etc. Atticus nevertheless remains on the decision and makes Scout and Jem alienated by his family. Data 4 Atticus signed. “I’m simply defending a negro – his name’s Tom Robinson He lives in that little settlement beyond the town dump. He’s a member of Calpurnia’s church, and Cal knows his family well.” (Lee, 1982:100) The data above shows the Atticus’s motive to depend a nonwhite, Tom Robinson who accused of raping a white, Mayella Ewell. Even though, all the people in Maycomb resist Atticus’s decision, Atticus still defend because he is a liberal person that think all human being are created equal. But his decision has [A7] megjegyzést írt: Datanya membicarakan apa, dalam kontkes apa. Harus jelas impacted to himself, Scout and Jem. They are being alienated by society at maycomb, both nonwhite and white society.